Duchy of Warsaw

The Duchy of Warsaw was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit. The duchy was held in personal union by one of Napoleon's allies, King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony. Following Napoleon's failed invasion of Russia, the duchy was occupied by Prussian and Russian troops until 1815, when it was formally partitioned between the two countries at the Congress of Vienna, it covered the central and eastern part of present Poland and minor parts of present Lithuania and Belarus. The area of the duchy had been liberated by a popular uprising that had escalated from anti-conscription rioting in 1806. One of the first tasks for the new government included providing food to the French army fighting the Russians in East Prussia; the Duchy of Warsaw was created by French Emperor Napoleon I, as part of the Treaty of Tilsit with Prussia. Its creation met the support of both local republicans in partitioned Poland, the large Polish diaspora in France, who supported Napoleon as the only man capable of restoring Polish sovereignty after the Partitions of Poland of late 18th century.

However it was created as a satellite state. The newly recreated state was formally an independent duchy, allied to France, in a personal union with the Kingdom of Saxony. King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony was compelled by Napoleon to make his new realm a constitutional monarchy, with a parliament. However, the duchy was never allowed to develop as a independent state; the most important person in the duchy was, in fact, the French ambassador, based in the duchy's capital, Warsaw. The duchy lacked its own diplomatic representation abroad. In 1809, a short war with Austria started. Although the Duchy of Warsaw won the Battle of Raszyn, Austrian troops entered Warsaw, but Duchy and French forces outflanked their enemy and captured Kraków, Lwów and some of the areas annexed by Austria in the Partitions of Poland. During the war the German colonists settled by Prussia during Partitions rose up against Polish government. After the Battle of Wagram, the ensuing Treaty of Schönbrunn allowed for a significant expansion of the Duchy's territory southwards with the regaining of once-Polish and Lithuanian lands.

As a result of Napoleon's campaign in 1812 against Russia, the Poles expected that the Duchy would be upgraded to the status of a Kingdom and that during Napoleon's invasion of Russia, they would be joined by the liberated territories of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Poland's historic partner in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. However, Napoleon did not want to make a permanent decision that would tie his hands before his anticipated peace settlement with Russia, he proclaimed the attack on Russia as a second Polish war. That peace settlement was not to be, however. Napoleon's Grande Armée, including a substantial contingent of Polish troops, set out with the purpose of bringing the Russian Empire to its knees, but his military ambitions were frustrated by his failure to supply the army in Russia and Russia's refusal to surrender after the capture of Moscow; the failed campaign against Russia proved to be a major turning point in Napoleon's fortunes. After Napoleon's defeat in the east, most of the territory of the Duchy of Warsaw was retaken by Russia in January 1813 during their advance on France and its allies.

The rest of the Duchy was restored to Prussia. Although several isolated fortresses held out for more than a year, the existence of the state in anything but name came to an end. Alexander I of Russia created a Provisional Highest Council of the Duchy of Warsaw to govern the area through his generals. Although many European states and ex-rulers were represented at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the decision-making was in the hands of the major powers, it was inevitable, that both Prussia and Russia would partition Poland between them. Russia demanded to gain all territories of Duchy of Warsaw, it kept all its gains from the three previous partitions, together with Białystok and the surrounding territory that it had obtained in 1807. Its demands for the whole Duchy of Warsaw were denied by other European powers. Prussia regained territory it had first gained in the First Partition but had had to give up to the Duchy of Warsaw in 1807, it regained as the "Grand Duchy of Posen" some of the territory it had conquered in the Second Partition and had again had to give up in 1807.

This territory formed an area 29,000 km² in size. The city of Kraków and some surrounding territory part of the Duchy of Warsaw, were established as a semi-independent Free City of Kraków, under the "protection" of its three powerful neighbors; the city's territory measured some 1164 km², had a population of about 88,000 people. The city was annexed by Austria in 1846; the bulk of the former Duchy of Warsaw, measuring some 128,000 km in area, was re-established as what is referred to as the "Congress Kingdom" of Poland, in personal union with the Russian Empire. De facto a Russian puppet state it maintained its separate status only until 1831 when it was annexed to the Russian Empire; the Constitution of the Duchy of Warsaw could be considered liberal for its time. It provided for a bicameral Sejm consisting of a Senate


Tentaculata is a class of comb jellies. The common feature of this class is a pair of long, contractile tentacles, which can be retracted into specialised ciliated sheaths. In some species, the primary tentacles are reduced and they have smaller, secondary tentacles; the tentacles have colloblasts, which are sticky-tipped cells. Body size and shape varies widely; the group includes the oval sea gooseberries found on both Atlantic and Pacific coasts. The more flattened species of the genus Mnemiopsis, about 4 inches long, are common on the upper Atlantic coast; this species is brilliantly luminescent. The similar, but larger, genus Leucothea is abundant on the Pacific coast. Venus girdle is a flattened, ribbon-like form reaching over 3 feet in length, found in tropical waters. Barnes, R. S. K. Et al.. The Invertebrates: A Synthesis. Oxford: Blackwell Science. ISBN 0-632-04761-5

Suining County, Hunan

Suining County is a county in the Province of Hunan, China, it is under the administration of Shaoyang City. Located in the southwest of the province, the county is bordered to the north by Dongkou County, to the west by Huitong and Jingzhou Counties, to the southwest by Tongdao County, to the southeast by Chengbu County, to the east by Wugang City. Suining County covers 2,917 km2, as of 2015, it had a registered population of 387,800 and a permanent resident population of 356,800; the county has nine towns and eight townships under its jurisdiction, the county seat is the town of Changpu. In Suining County, ethnic Yao live in Lianmin 联民乡, Shuikou 水口乡, Jinwutang 金屋塘乡 townships; the dialect of Xiaohuang, Tianluoxuan Village, Lianmin Township is included in the Suining County Almanac. Chinese dialects are spoken by the ethnic Miao of Guanxia 关峡苗族乡 and Matang 麻塘苗族乡 ethnic Miao townships.