Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll
Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll, 1st Earl of Ilay was a Scottish nobleman, lawyer and soldier. He was known as Lord Archibald Campbell from 1703 to 1706, as the Earl of Ilay from 1706 until 1743, when he succeeded to the dukedom, he was the dominant political leader in Scotland in his day, was involved in many civic projects. Born at Ham House, Surrey, he was the second son of Archibald Campbell, 10th Earl and 1st Duke of Argyll and his wife Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Lionel Talmash of Helmingham, Suffolk, he was the first cousin once removed of Lord William Campbell. He was educated at Eton College and at the University of Glasgow and Utrecht University, where he studied civil law, he was appointed Lord High Treasurer of Scotland by Queen Anne in 1705. He supported his brother, John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll, earning him the title of Earl of Ilay in 1706. Following the treaty of union he was elected as one of the sixteen Scottish peers to sit in the House of Lords, his military career, less successful than his brother's, was somewhat distinguished.
He obtained the Colonelcy of the newly formed 36th Regiment of Foot in 1701 and assisted his brother at the 1715 Battle of Sheriffmuir. In 1711 he was appointed to the Privy Council. Many called him the "most powerful man in Scotland", at least until the era of Henry Dundas. Prime Minister Robert Walpole gave Campbell control over the royal patronage in Scotland; that became his base of power. Lord Ilay played a critical role in establishing The Faculty of Medicine at the University of Edinburgh in 1726, he was one of the founders of the Royal Bank of Scotland in 1727, acted as the bank's first governor. His portrait has appeared on the front of all Royal Bank of Scotland banknotes, as a watermark on the notes, since they were redesigned in 1987; the portrait is based on a painting in the Scottish National Portrait Gallery. He succeeded his brother to the title of Duke of Argyll in October 1743, he worked on Inveraray Castle, his brother's estate, finished in the 1750s. He is buried at Kilmun Parish Church.
He had no legitimate male issue at his death. In his will, he left his English property to his mistress Ann Williams, his titles passed to the son of his father's brother John Campbell of Mamore. The Duke established an estate at Whitton Park, Whitton in Middlesex in 1722 on land, enclosed some years earlier from Hounslow Heath; the Duke was an enthusiastic gardener and he imported large numbers of exotic species of plants and trees for his estate. He was nicknamed the'Treemonger' by Horace Walpole. On his death, many of these, including mature trees, were moved by his nephew, the third Earl of Bute, to the Princess of Wales' new garden at Kew; this became Kew Gardens and some of the Duke's trees are still to be seen there to this day. The Duke of Argyll's Tea Tree is an imported shrub named after him which has become established in hedgerows in some parts of England. People on Scottish banknotes Emerson, Roger. An Enlightened Duke: The Life of Archibald Campbell, Earl of Ilay, 3rd Duke of Argyll, Perspectives: Scottish Studies of The Long Eighteenth Century Series.
Kilkerran: Humming Earth, 2013. ISBN 978 1 84622 039 5. Murdoch, Alexander. "Campbell, third duke of Argyll". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/4477. Matsuzono, Shin. "'Attaque and Break Through a Phalanx of Corruption... the Court Party!' The Scottish Representative Peers' Election and the Opposition, 1733-5: Three New Division Lists of the House of Lords of 1735," Parliamentary History 31#3 pp 332–353. Shaw, John Stuart; the Management of Scottish Society 1707–1764: Power, Lawyers, Edinburgh Agents and English Influences Sunter, Ronald. Patronage and Politics in Scotland, 1707–1832. Munro, Neil; the history of The Royal Bank of Scotland, 1727–1927 Henderson, Thomas Finlayson. "Campbell, Archibald". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 8. London: Smith, Elder & Co. Royal Bank of Scotland banknotes. Retrieved 30 August 2006. "Archival material relating to Archibald Campbell, 3rd Duke of Argyll". UK National Archives
The Anatidae are the biological family of water birds that includes ducks and swans. The family has a cosmopolitan distribution, occurring on all the world's continents; these birds are adapted for swimming, floating on the water surface, in some cases diving in at least shallow water. The family contains around 146 species in 43 genera, they are herbivorous, are monogamous breeders. A number of species undertake annual migrations. A few species have been domesticated for agriculture, many others are hunted for food and recreation. Five species have become extinct since 1600, many more are threatened with extinction; the ducks and swans are small- to large-sized birds with a broad and elongated general body plan. Diving species vary from this in being rounder. Extant species range in size from the cotton pygmy goose, at as little as 26.5 cm and 164 g, to the trumpeter swan, at as much as 183 cm and 17.2 kg. The wings are short and pointed, supported by strong wing muscles that generate rapid beats in flight.
They have long necks, although this varies in degree between species. The legs are short and set far to the back of the body, have a leathery feel with a scaly texture. Combined with their body shape, this can make some species awkward on land, but they are stronger walkers than other marine and water birds such as grebes or petrels, they have webbed feet, though a few species such as the Nene have secondarily lost their webbing. The bills are made of soft keratin with a sensitive layer of skin on top. For most species, the shape of the bill tends to be more flattened to a lesser extent; these contain serrated lamellae which are well defined in the filter-feeding species. Their feathers are excellent at shedding water due to special oils. Many of the ducks display sexual dimorphism, with the males being more brightly coloured than the females; the swans and whistling-ducks lack sexually dimorphic plumage. Anatids are vocal birds, producing a range of quacks, honks and trumpeting sounds, depending on species.
Anatids are herbivorous as adults, feeding on various water-plants, although some species eat fish, molluscs, or aquatic arthropods. One group, the mergansers, are piscivorous, have serrated bills to help them catch fish. In a number of species, the young include a high proportion of invertebrates in their diets, but become purely herbivorous as adults; the anatids are seasonal and monogamous breeders. The level of monogamy varies within the family. However, forced extrapair copulation among anatids are common, ocucurring in 55 species in 17 genera. Anatidae is a large proportion of the 3% of bird species to possess a penis, though they vary in size and surface elaboration. Most species are adapted for copulation on the water only, they construct simple nests from whatever material is close at hand lining them with a layer of down plucked from the mother's breast. In most species, only the female incubates the eggs; the young are precocial, are able to feed themselves from birth. One aberrant species, the black-headed duck, is an obligate brood parasite, laying its eggs in the nests of gulls and coots.
While this species never raises its own young, a number of other ducks lay eggs in the nests of conspecifics in addition to raising their own broods. Duck and goose feathers and down have long been popular for bedspreads, sleeping bags, coats; the members of this family have long been used for food. Humans have had a long relationship with ducks and swans. However, some anatids are damaging agricultural pests, have acted as vectors for zoonoses such as avian influenza. Since 1600, five species of ducks have become extinct due to the activities of humans, subfossil remains have shown that humans caused numerous extinctions in prehistory. Today, many more are considered threatened. Most of the historic and prehistoric extinctions were insular species, vulnerable due to small populations, island tameness. Evolving on islands that lacked predators, these species lost antipredator behaviours, as well as the ability to fly, were vulnerable to human hunting pressure and introduced species. Other extinctions and declines are attributable to overhunting, habitat loss and modification, hybridisation with introduced ducks.
Numerous governments and conservation and hunting organisations have made considerable progress in protecting ducks and duck populations through habitat protection and creation and protection, captive-breeding programmes. The family Anatidae was introduced by the English zoologist William Elford Leach in a guide to the contents of the British Museum published in 1820. While the status of the Anatidae as a family is straightforward, which species properly belong to it is little debated, the relationships of the di
Malcolm IV of Scotland
Malcolm IV, nicknamed Virgo, "the Maiden" was King of Scotland from 1153 until his death. He was Earl of Huntingdon and Northumbria and Ada de Warenne; the original Malcolm Canmore, a name now associated with his great-grandfather Malcolm III, he succeeded his grandfather David I, shared David's Anglo-Norman tastes. Called Malcolm the Maiden by chroniclers, a name which may incorrectly suggest weakness or effeminacy to modern readers, he was noted for his religious zeal and interest in knighthood and warfare. For much of his reign he died unmarried at the age of twenty-four. Earl Henry and heir of King David I of Scotland, had been in poor health throughout the 1140s, he died on 12 June 1152. His death occurred in either Newcastle or Roxburgh, both located in those areas of Northumbria which he and his father had attached to the Scots crown in the period of English weakness after the death of Henry I of England. Unlike in the case of the English king, left without male heirs after the death of his only son in the Wreck of the White Ship, the King of Scots, David I, did not lack for immediate heirs upon the death of Earl Henry.
This was. Malcolm, the eldest of Earl Henry's sons, was only eleven years old, he was however sent by his grandfather on a circuit of the kingdom, accompanied by Donnchad, Mormaer of Fife, a large army. Donnchad had been styled rector indicating that he was to hold the regency for Malcolm on David's death; these preparations were timely, because King David survived his son less than one year, dying on 24 May 1153 at Carlisle. Malcolm was inaugurated as king on 27 May 1153 at Scone at age twelve. Donnchad, who duly became regent for the young Malcolm, ensured that the inauguration took place before the old king was buried; this might appear unseemly. Malcolm was not without rivals for the kingship. Donnchad himself died a year in 1154; the Orkneyinga Saga claims "William the Noble", son of William fitz Duncan, was the man whom "every Scotsman wanted for his king". As William fitz Duncan married Alice de Rumilly c.1137, young William could only have been a youth a child, by 1153. There is no evidence to suggest that William made any claims to the throne, he died young, in the early 1160s, leaving his sizable estates to his three sisters.
Of William Fitz Duncan's other sons, Bishop Wimund had been blinded and imprisoned at Byland Abbey before King David's death, but Domnall mac Uilleim, first of the Meic Uilleim, had considerable support in the former mormaerdom of Moray. Another contender, imprisoned at Roxburgh since about 1130, was Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair, an illegitimate son of Alexander I. Máel Coluim's sons were free men in 1153, they could be expected to contest the succession, did so. As a new and young king, Malcolm faced threats to his rule from his neighbours. Foremost among them were King of Argyll. Only Rognvald Kali Kolsson, Earl of Orkney, was otherwise occupied, his death in 1158 brought the young and ambitious Harald Maddadsson to power in Orkney, who proved yet another threat to the young Malcolm; the first open opposition to Malcolm came in November 1153, from family rivals, the sons of Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair. They mounted their challenge with the aid of Somerled of Argyll; this threat soon dissipated, because Somerled was beset with more pressing concerns: his war with Guðrøðr Óláfsson, King of the Isles lasted until 1156 and a possible conflict with Gille Críst, Mormaer of Menteith, over Cowal, loomed large.
Support for the sons of Máel Coluim mac Alaxandair may have come from areas closer to the core of the kingdom. In 1157, it is reported, King Malcolm was reconciled with Máel Coluim MacHeth, appointed to the Mormaerdom of Ross, held by his father. Malcolm was not only King of Scots, but inherited the Earldom of Northumbria, which his father and grandfather had gained during the wars between Stephen and Empress Matilda. Malcolm granted Northumbria to his brother William, keeping Cumbria for himself. Cumbria was, like the earldoms of Northumbria and Huntingdon, Chester, a fief of the English crown. While Malcolm delayed doing homage to Henry II of England for his possessions in Henry's kingdom, he did so in 1157 at Peveril Castle in Derbyshire and at Chester. Henry II refused to allow Malcolm to keep Cumbria, or William to keep Northumbria, but instead granted the Earldom of Huntingdon to Malcolm, for which Malcolm did homage. After a second meeting between Malcolm and Henry, at Carlisle in 1158, "they returned without having become good friends, so that the king of Scots was not yet knighted."
In 1159 Malcolm accompanied Henry to France, serving at the siege of Toulouse where he was, at last, knighted. "Whether this was the act of a king of Scots or of an earl of Huntingdon we are not told. At Perth, Roger of Hoveden reports, he faced a rebellion by six earls, led by Ferchar, Mormaer of Strathearn, who besieged the king. Given that Earl Ferchar heads the list of those named, it is presumed that Donnchad II, Mormaer of Fife, was not among the rebels. John of Fordun's version
Berwick-upon-Tweed is a town in the county of Northumberland. It is the northernmost town in England, at the mouth of the River Tweed on the east coast, 2 1⁄2 miles south of the Scottish border. Berwick is 56 miles east-south east of Edinburgh, 65 miles north of Newcastle upon Tyne and 345 miles north of London; the United Kingdom census, 2011 recorded Berwick's population as 12,043. A civil parish and town council were created in 2008 comprising the communities of Berwick and Tweedmouth. Berwick was founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement during the time of the Kingdom of Northumbria, annexed by England in the 10th century; the area was for more than 400 years central to historic border wars between the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, several times possession of Berwick changed hands between the two kingdoms. The last time it changed hands was when Richard of Gloucester retook it for England in 1482. To this day many Berwickers feel a close affinity to Scotland. Berwick remains a traditional market town and has some notable architectural features, in particular its medieval town walls, its Georgian Town Hall, its Elizabethan ramparts, Britain's earliest barracks buildings, which Nicholas Hawksmoor built for the Board of Ordnance.
The name "Berwick" is of Old English origin, is derived from the term bere-wīc, combining bere, meaning "barley", wīc, referring to a farm or settlement. "Berwick" thus means "barley village" or "barley farm". Alternative etymologies, including ones connecting the name with the Anglo-Saxon kingdom Bernicia, the Brythonic element aber, meaning'estuary, confluence', have been suggested. In the post-Roman period, the area was inhabited by the Brythons of Bryneich; the region became part of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia. Bernicia united with the kingdom of Deira to form Northumbria, which in the mid-10th century entered the Kingdom of England under Eadred. Berwick remained part of the Earldom of Northumbria until control passed to the Scots following the Battle of Carham of 1018; the town itself was founded as an Anglo-Saxon settlement during the time of the Kingdom of Northumbria. Between the late 10th and early 11th centuries, the land between the rivers Forth and Tweed came under Scottish control, either through conquest by Scotland or through cession by England.
Berwick was made a royal burgh in the reign of David I. A mint was present in the town by 1153. In 1276 William de Baddeby was Constable of Berwick, it is unclear if this relates to the castle. While under Scottish control, Berwick was referred to as "South Berwick" in order to differentiate it from the town of North Berwick, East Lothian, near Edinburgh. Berwick had a mediaeval hospital for the sick and poor, administered by the Church. A charter under the Great Seal of Scotland, confirmed by King James I of Scotland, grants the king's chaplain "Thomas Lauder of the House of God or Hospital lying in the burgh of Berwick-upon-Tweed, to be held to him for the whole time of his life with all lands, teinds and profits, etc. belonging to the said hospital, as as is granted to any other hospital in the Kingdom of Scotland. Dated at Edinburgh June 8, in the 20th year of his reign." Berwick's strategic position on the Anglo-Scottish border during centuries of war between the two nations and its great wealth led to a succession of raids and takeovers.
William I of Scotland invaded and attempted to capture northern England in 1173–74. After his defeat, Berwick was ceded to Henry II of England, it was sold back to William by Richard I of England in order to raise funds for his Crusade. Berwick had become a prosperous town by the middle of the 13th century. According to William Edington, a bishop and chancellor of England, Berwick was "so populous and of such commercial importance that it might rightly be called another Alexandria, whose riches were the sea and the water its walls". In 1291–92 Berwick was the site of Edward I of England's arbitration in the contest for the Scottish crown between John Balliol and Robert Bruce, 5th Lord of Annandale; the decision in favour of Balliol was pronounced in the Great Hall of Berwick Castle on 17 November 1292. In 1296 England went to war with which Scotland was in alliance. Balliol invaded England in response. Edward in turn invaded Scotland and captured Berwick, destroying much of the town and massacring some 20,000 of the inhabitants.
Edward I went again to Berwick in August 1296 to receive formal homage from some 2,000 Scottish nobles, after defeating the Scots at the Battle of Dunbar in April and forcing John Balliol to abdicate at Kincardine Castle the following July. It was at this time. An arm of William Wallace was displayed at Berwick after his execution and quartering on 23 August 1305. In 1314 Edward II of England mustered 25,000 men at Berwick, who fought in the Battle of Bannockburn. Between 1315 and 1318 Scottish armies, sometimes with the help of Flemish and German privateers and blockaded the town invading and capturing it in April 1318. England retook Berwick the day after the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333. In October 1357 a treaty was signed at Berwick by which the Scottish estates undertook to pay 100,000 marks as a ransom for David II of Scotland, w
James VI and I
James VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625. The kingdoms of Scotland and England were individual sovereign states, with their own parliaments and laws, though both were ruled by James in personal union. James was the son of Mary, Queen of Scots, a great-great-grandson of Henry VII, King of England and Lord of Ireland, positioning him to accede to all three thrones. James succeeded to the Scottish throne at the age of thirteen months, after his mother was compelled to abdicate in his favour. Four different regents governed during his minority, which ended in 1578, though he did not gain full control of his government until 1583. In 1603, he succeeded the last Tudor monarch of England and Ireland, Elizabeth I, who died childless, he continued to reign in all three kingdoms for 22 years, a period known after him as the Jacobean era, until his death in 1625 at the age of 58.
After the Union of the Crowns, he based himself in England from 1603, only returning to Scotland once in 1617, styled himself "King of Great Britain and Ireland". He was a major advocate of a single parliament for Scotland. In his reign, the Plantation of Ulster and British colonisation of the Americas began. At 57 years and 246 days, James's reign in Scotland was longer than those of any of his predecessors, he achieved most of his aims in Scotland but faced great difficulties in England, including the Gunpowder Plot in 1605 and repeated conflicts with the English Parliament. Under James, the "Golden Age" of Elizabethan literature and drama continued, with writers such as William Shakespeare, John Donne, Ben Jonson, Sir Francis Bacon contributing to a flourishing literary culture. James himself was a talented scholar, the author of works such as Daemonologie, The True Law of Free Monarchies, Basilikon Doron, he sponsored the translation of the Bible into English that would be named after him: the Authorised King James Version.
Sir Anthony Weldon claimed that James had been termed "the wisest fool in Christendom", an epithet associated with his character since. Since the latter half of the 20th century, historians have tended to revise James's reputation and treat him as a serious and thoughtful monarch, he was committed to a peace policy, tried to avoid involvement in religious wars the Thirty Years' War that devastated much of Central Europe. He tried but failed to prevent the rise of hawkish elements in the English Parliament who wanted war with Spain. James was the only son of Mary, Queen of Scots, her second husband, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley. Both Mary and Darnley were great-grandchildren of Henry VII of England through Margaret Tudor, the older sister of Henry VIII. Mary's rule over Scotland was insecure, she and her husband, being Roman Catholics, faced a rebellion by Protestant noblemen. During Mary's and Darnley's difficult marriage, Darnley secretly allied himself with the rebels and conspired in the murder of the Queen's private secretary, David Rizzio, just three months before James's birth.
James was born on 19 June 1566 at Edinburgh Castle, as the eldest son and heir apparent of the monarch automatically became Duke of Rothesay and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland. He was baptised "Charles James" or "James Charles" on 17 December 1566 in a Catholic ceremony held at Stirling Castle, his godparents were Charles IX of France, Elizabeth I of England, Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy. Mary refused to let the Archbishop of St Andrews, whom she referred to as "a pocky priest", spit in the child's mouth, as was the custom; the subsequent entertainment, devised by Frenchman Bastian Pagez, featured men dressed as satyrs and sporting tails, to which the English guests took offence, thinking the satyrs "done against them". James's father, was murdered on 10 February 1567 at Kirk o' Field, Edinburgh in revenge for the killing of Rizzio. James inherited his father's titles of Duke of Earl of Ross. Mary was unpopular, her marriage on 15 May 1567 to James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, suspected of murdering Darnley, heightened widespread bad feeling towards her.
In June 1567, Protestant rebels imprisoned her in Loch Leven Castle. She was forced to abdicate on 24 July 1567 in favour of the infant James and to appoint her illegitimate half-brother, James Stewart, Earl of Moray, as regent; the care of James was entrusted to the Earl and Countess of Mar, "to be conserved and upbrought" in the security of Stirling Castle. James was anointed King of Scots at the age of thirteen months at the Church of the Holy Rude, Stirling, by Adam Bothwell, Bishop of Orkney, on 29 July 1567; the sermon at the coronation was preached by John Knox. In accordance with the religious beliefs of most of the Scottish ruling class, James was brought up as a member of the Protestant Church of Scotland, the Kirk; the Privy Council selected George Buchanan, Peter Young, Adam Erskine, David Erskine as James's preceptors or tutors. As the young king's senior tutor, Buchanan subjected James to regular beatings but instilled in him a lifelong passion for literature and learning. Buchanan sought to turn James into a God-fearing, Protestant king who accepted the limitations of monarchy, as outlined in his treatise De Jure Regni apud Scotos.
In 1568, Mary escaped from her i
William Chambers (architect)
Sir William Chambers was a Scottish-Swedish architect, based in London. Among his best-known works are Somerset House and the pagoda at Kew. Chambers was a founder member of the Royal Academy. William Chambers was born on 23 February 1723 in Sweden, to a Scottish merchant father. Between 1740 and 1749 he was employed by the Swedish East India Company making three voyages to China where he studied Chinese architecture and decoration. Returning to Europe, he spent five years in Italy. In 1755, he moved to London, where he established an architectural practice. Through a recommendation of the John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute in 1757 he was appointed architectural tutor to the Prince of Wales George III, in 1766 along with Robert Adam, Architect to the King, he worked for Augusta, Dowager Princess of Wales making fanciful garden buildings at Kew, in 1757 he published a book of Chinese designs which had a significant influence on contemporary taste. He developed his Chinese interests further with his Dissertation on Oriental Gardening, a fanciful elaboration of contemporary English ideas about the naturalistic style of gardening in China.
His more serious and academic Treatise on Civil Architecture published in 1759 proved influential on builders. It dealt with the use of the classical orders, gave suggestions for decorative elements, rather than dealing with construction and planning, it included ideas from the works of many 16th- and 17th-century Italian architects still little known in Britain. His influence was transmitted through a host of younger architects trained as pupils in his office, including Thomas Hardwick, who helped him build Somerset House and who wrote his biography, he was the major rival of Adam in British Neoclassicism. Chambers was more international in outlook and was influenced by continental neoclassicism when designing for British clients. A second visit to Paris in 1774 confirmed the French cast to his sober and conservative refined blend of Neoclassicism and Palladian conventions. From around 1758 to the mid-1770s, Chambers concentrated on building houses for the nobility, beginning with one for Lord Bessborough at Roehampton.
In 1766 Chambers was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. From 1761 he held the unofficial post of Joint Architect to the King, he was promoted to his first official post in the Office of Works and was from 1769–82 Comptroller of the King's Works, his final promotion put him in charge, from 1782 being Surveyor-General and Comptroller a post he kept until his death; when a scheme to unite a number of government offices on the site of Somerset House in the Strand was projected, his position did not give him automatic authority over the construction. His initial plans for a great oval courtyard, connected to three smaller, narrow rectangular courts, were soon modified into a simpler rectalinear scheme. On 10 December 1768 the Royal Academy was founded. Chambers played an important role in the events that led to the Academy's foundation, the Minutes of the General Assembly of the Royal Academy of 14 December 1768 record'That some time towards the latter end of November 1768, Mr Chambers waited upon the King and informed him that many artists of reputation together with himself are desirous of establishing a Society that should more promote the Arts of Design'.
He was appointed the Academy's first Treasurer. Chambers died in London in 1796, he is buried in Poets' Corner in Westminster Abbey. It says on his stone Sir William Chambers, Knight of the Polar Star, Surveyor General of His Majesty's Works, F. R. S. F. A. S. R. S. Died March 8th, 1796. Aged 74. One of Chambers friends, James Maule, wrote in his journal in August 1771: I visited the Stock Exchange and met John Wilson. I met several Swedes at sir William Chambers. I spent the Sunday with sir William Chambers at Hampton Court; the orientalist JaKob Jonas Björnståhl wrote after a visit at Chambers house in London in 1775: He counts himself a Swede and speaks the language just like a Swede. He honours our Nation. Designs of Chinese buildings, dresses and utensils: to, annexed a description of their temples, gardens, &c 1757 Desseins des edifices, habits, machines, et ustenciles des Chinois. 1772 Roehampton Villa, now called Parkstead House, for 2nd Earl of Bessborough. Designed two garden temples, similar to those at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Within Kew Gardens, some of his buildings are lost, those remaining being the ten-s
Palladian architecture is a European style of architecture derived from and inspired by the designs of the Venetian architect Andrea Palladio. What is recognised as Palladian architecture today is an evolution of Palladio's original concepts. Palladio's work was based on the symmetry and values of the formal classical temple architecture of the Ancient Greeks and Romans. From the 17th century Palladio's interpretation of this classical architecture was adapted as the style known as Palladianism, it continued to develop until the end of the 18th century. Palladianism became popular in Britain during the mid-17th century, but its flowering was cut short by the onset of the English Civil War and the imposition of austerity which followed. In the early 18th century it returned to fashion, not only in England but directly influenced from Britain, in Prussia. Count Francesco Algarotti may have written to Lord Burlington from Berlin that he was recommending to Frederick the Great the adoption in Prussia of the architectural style Burlington had introduced in England but Knobelsdorff's opera house on the Unter den Linden, based on Campbell's Wanstead House, had been constructed from 1741.
In the century, when the style was falling from favour in Europe, it had a surge in popularity throughout the British colonies in North America, highlighted by examples such as Drayton Hall in South Carolina, the Redwood Library in Newport, Rhode Island, the Morris-Jumel Mansion in New York City, the Hammond-Harwood House in Annapolis and Thomas Jefferson's Monticello and Poplar Forest in Virginia. The style continued to be popular in Europe throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries, where it was employed in the design of public and municipal buildings. From the latter half of the 19th century it was rivalled by the Gothic revival in the English-speaking world, whose champions, such as Augustus Pugin, remembering the origins of Palladianism in ancient temples, deemed it too pagan for Anglican and Anglo-Catholic worship. However, as an architectural style it has continued to evolve. Buildings designed by Palladio are all in Venice and the Veneto, with an rich grouping of palazzi in Vicenza.
They include villas, churches such as Redentore in Venice. In Palladio's architectural treatises he followed the principles defined by the Roman architect Vitruvius and his 15th-century disciple Leon Battista Alberti, who adhered to principles of classical Roman architecture based on mathematical proportions rather than the rich ornamental style characteristic of the Renaissance. Palladio always designed his villas with reference to their setting. If on a hill, such as Villa Capra, facades were designed to be of equal value so that occupants could have fine views in all directions. In such cases, porticos were built on all sides so that occupants could appreciate the countryside while being protected from the sun, similar to many American-style porches of today. Palladio sometimes used a loggia as an alternative to the portico; this can most be described as a recessed portico, or an internal single storey room, with pierced walls that are open to the elements. A loggia would be placed at second floor level over the top of a loggia below, creating what was known as a double loggia.
Loggias were sometimes given significance in a facade by being surmounted by a pediment. Villa Godi has as its focal point a loggia rather than a portico, plus loggias terminating each end of the main building. Palladio would model his villa elevations on Roman temple facades; the temple influence in a cruciform design became a trademark of his work. Palladian villas are built with three floors: a rusticated basement or ground floor, containing the service and minor rooms. Above this, the piano nobile accessed through a portico reached by a flight of external steps, containing the principal reception and bedrooms, above it is a low mezzanine floor with secondary bedrooms and accommodation; the proportions of each room within the villa were calculated on simple mathematical ratios like 3:4 and 4:5, the different rooms within the house were interrelated by these ratios. Earlier architects had used these formulas for balancing a single symmetrical facade. Palladio considered the dual purpose of his villas as both farmhouses and palatial weekend retreats for wealthy merchant owners.
These symmetrical temple-like houses have symmetrical, but low, wings sweeping away from them to accommodate horses, farm animals, agricultural stores. The wings, sometimes detached and connected to the villa by colonnades, were designed not only to be functional but to complement and accentuate the villa, they were, however, in no way intended to be part of the main house, it is the design and use of these wings that Palladio's followers in the 18th century adapted to become an integral part of the building. Palladio's Four Books of Architecture was first published in 1570, This architectural treatise contains descriptions and illustrations of his own architecture along with the Roman building that inspired him to create the style. Palladio reinterpreted Rome's ancient architecture and applied it to all kinds of buildings from grand villas and public buildings to humble houses and farm sheds; the Palladian, Serlian, or Venetian window features in Palladio's work and is a trademark of his early career.
There are two different versions of the motif.