Robert Downey Jr.
Robert John Downey Jr. is an American actor. His career has included critical and popular success in his youth, followed by a period of abuse and legal troubles. For three consecutive years from 2012 to 2015, Downey has topped the Forbes list of Hollywoods highest-paid actors, making an estimated $80 million in earnings between June 2014 and June 2015. He starred as the character in the 1992 film Chaplin. This earned him a Golden Globe Award and his character was written out when Downey was fired after two drug arrests in late 2000 and early 2001. After his last stay in a drug treatment program, Downey achieved sobriety. Each of these films has grossed over $500 million at the box office worldwide, four of these—The Avengers, Avengers, Age of Ultron, Iron Man 3 and Captain America, Downey Jr. has also played the title character in Guy Ritchies Sherlock Holmes and its sequel. Downey was born in Manhattan, New York, the younger of two children and his father, Robert Downey Sr. is an actor and filmmaker, while his mother, Elsie Ann, was an actress who appeared in Downey Sr. s films. Downeys father is of half Lithuanian Jewish, one-quarter Hungarian Jewish, and one-quarter Irish descent, while Downeys mother had Scottish, German, Downey and his older sister Allyson grew up in Greenwich Village. As a child, Downey was surrounded by drugs and his father, a drug addict, allowed Downey to use marijuana at age six, an incident which his father has said he now regrets. Eventually, Downey began spending every night abusing alcohol and making a phone calls in pursuit of drugs. During his childhood Downey had minor roles in his fathers films and he made his acting debut at the age of five, playing a sick puppy in the absurdist comedy Pound, and then at seven appeared in the surrealist Greasers Palace. At the age of ten, he was living in England and he attended the Stagedoor Manor Performing Arts Training Center in upstate New York as a teenager. When his parents divorced in 1978, Downey moved to California with his father, Downey and Kiefer Sutherland, who shared the screen in the 1988 drama 1969, were roommates for three years when he first moved to Hollywood to pursue his career in acting. Downey began building upon theater roles, including in the short-lived off-Broadway musical American Passion at the Joyce Theater in 1983, rolling Stone magazine named Downey the worst SNL cast member in its entire run, stating that the Downey Fail sums up everything that makes SNL great. That same year, Downey had a dramatic acting breakthrough when he played James Spaders sidekick in Tuff Turf and he was considered for the role of Duckie in John Hughes film Pretty in Pink, but his first lead role was with Molly Ringwald in The Pick-up Artist. Because of these and other coming-of-age films Downey did during the 1980s, in 1987, Downey played Julian Wells, a drug-addicted rich boy whose life rapidly spirals out of his control, in the film version of the Bret Easton Ellis novel Less Than Zero. In 1992, he starred as Charlie Chaplin in Chaplin, a role for which he prepared extensively, learning how to play the violin and he had a personal coach in order to help him imitate Chaplins posture and way of carrying himself
Eric Marlon Bishop, known professionally by his stage name Jamie Foxx, is an American actor, singer, songwriter, record producer and comedian. The same year, he was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in the crime film Collateral, eric Marlon Bishop was born in Terrell, Texas on December 13,1967. He is the son of Darrell Bishop, who worked as a stockbroker. Shortly after his birth, Foxx was adopted and raised by his mothers parents, Esther Marie, a domestic worker and nursery operator, and Mark Talley. He has had contact with his birth parents, who were not part of his upbringing. Foxx was raised in the quarter of Terrell, which at the time was a racially segregated community. He has often acknowledged his grandmothers influence in his life as one of the greatest reasons for his success, Foxx began playing the piano when he was five years old. He had a strict Baptist upbringing, and as a teenager he was a part-time pianist and choir leader in Terrells New Hope Baptist Church. His natural talent for telling jokes was already in evidence as a third grader, Foxx attended Terrell High School, where he received top grades and played basketball and football. His ambition was to play for the Dallas Cowboys, and he was the first player in the history to pass for more than 1,000 yards. He also sang in a band called Leather and Lace, after completing high school, Foxx received a scholarship to United States International University, where he studied classical music and composition. Foxx first told jokes at a comedy clubs open mic night in 1989, when he found that female comedians were often called first to perform, he changed his name to Jamie Foxx, feeling that it was a name ambiguous enough to disallow any biases. He chose his surname as a tribute to the black comedian Redd Foxx, Foxx joined the cast of In Living Color in 1991, where his recurrent character Wanda also shared a name with Redds friend and co-worker, LaWanda Page. Following a recurring role in the comedy-drama sitcom Roc, Foxx went on to star in his own sitcom The Jamie Foxx Show, Foxx made his film debut in the 1992 comedy Toys. His first dramatic role came in Oliver Stones 1999 film Any Given Sunday, in 1994, Foxx released an album entitled Peep This, which was not successful due to low album sales. In 2003, Foxx made a cameo in Benzinos music video for Would You, which features LisaRaye McCoy and Mario Winans. In 2003, Foxx featured on the rapper Twistas song, Slow Jamz, together with Kanye West, in 2005, Foxx featured on the single Georgia by Atlanta rappers Ludacris and Field Mob, which sampled Ray Charles hit Georgia on My Mind. Foxx would also portray Ray Charles in the biographical film Ray, for which he won the Academy Award for Best Actor, Foxx is the second male in history to receive two acting Oscar nominations in the same year for two different movies, Collateral and Ray
Entertainment Inc. – colloquially known as Warner Bros. or Warner Bros. It is one of the Big Six major American film studios, Warner Bros. is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America. The companys name originated from the four founding Warner brothers, Harry, Albert, Sam, Jack, the youngest, was born in London, Ontario. The three elder brothers began in the theater business, having acquired a movie projector with which they showed films in the mining towns of Pennsylvania. In the beginning, Sam and Albert Warner invested $150 to present Life of an American Fireman and they opened their first theater, the Cascade, in New Castle, Pennsylvania, in 1903. When the original building was in danger of being demolished, the modern Warner Bros. called the current building owners, the owners noted people across the country had asked them to protect it for its historical significance. In 1904, the Warners founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company, in 1912, Harry Warner hired an auditor named Paul Ashley Chase. By the time of World War I they had begun producing films, in 1918 they opened the first Warner Bros. studio on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood. Sam and Jack produced the pictures, while Harry and Albert, along with their auditor and now controller Chase, handled finance and distribution in New York City. During World War I their first nationally syndicated film, My Four Years in Germany, on April 4,1923, with help from money loaned to Harry by his banker Motley Flint, they formally incorporated as Warner Brothers Pictures, Incorporated. The first important deal was the acquisition of the rights to Avery Hopwoods 1919 Broadway play, The Gold Diggers, however, Rin Tin Tin, a dog brought from France after World War I by an American soldier, established their reputation. Rin Tin Tin debuted in the feature Where the North Begins, the movie was so successful that Jack signed the dog to star in more films for $1,000 per week. Rin Tin Tin became the top star. Jack nicknamed him The Mortgage Lifter and the success boosted Darryl F. Zanucks career, Zanuck eventually became a top producer and between 1928 and 1933 served as Jacks right-hand man and executive producer, with responsibilities including day-to-day film production. More success came after Ernst Lubitsch was hired as head director, lubitschs film The Marriage Circle was the studios most successful film of 1924, and was on The New York Times best list for that year. Despite the success of Rin Tin Tin and Lubitsch, Warners remained a lesser studio, Sam and Jack decided to offer Broadway actor John Barrymore the lead role in Beau Brummel. The film was so successful that Harry signed Barrymore to a contract, like The Marriage Circle. By the end of 1924, Warner Bros. was arguably Hollywoods most successful independent studio, as the studio prospered, it gained backing from Wall Street, and in 1924 Goldman Sachs arranged a major loan
Los Angeles, officially the City of Los Angeles and often known by its initials L. A. is the cultural, financial, and commercial center of Southern California. With a census-estimated 2015 population of 3,971,883, it is the second-most populous city in the United States, Los Angeles is also the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the United States. The citys inhabitants are referred to as Angelenos, historically home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California. The city was founded on September 4,1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence, in 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, thereby becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4,1850, the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California, nicknamed the City of Angels, Los Angeles is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity, and sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles also has an economy in culture, media, fashion, science, sports, technology, education, medicine. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index, the city is home to renowned institutions covering a broad range of professional and cultural fields, and is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States. The Los Angeles combined statistical area has a gross metropolitan product of $831 billion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Greater Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. The city has hosted the Summer Olympic Games in 1932 and 1984 and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics and thus become the second city after London to have hosted the Games three times. The Los Angeles area also hosted the 1994 FIFA mens World Cup final match as well as the 1999 FIFA womens World Cup final match, the mens event was watched on television by over 700 million people worldwide. The Los Angeles coastal area was first settled by the Tongva, a Gabrielino settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning poison oak place. Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2,1769, in 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. The Queen of the Angels is an honorific of the Virgin Mary, two-thirds of the settlers were mestizo or mulatto with a mixture of African, indigenous and European ancestry. The settlement remained a small town for decades, but by 1820. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, during Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta Californias regional capital
Las Cruces, New Mexico
Las Cruces, also known as The City of the Crosses, is the seat of Doña Ana County, New Mexico, United States. As of the 2010 census the population was 97,618, Las Cruces is the largest city in both Doña Ana County and southern New Mexico. The Las Cruces metropolitan area had an population of 213,676 in 2014. It is the city of a metropolitan statistical area which encompasses all of Doña Ana County and is part of the larger El Paso–Las Cruces combined statistical area. Las Cruces is the economic and geographic center of the Mesilla Valley, Las Cruces is the home of New Mexico State University, New Mexicos only land-grant university. The citys major employer is the government on nearby White Sands Test Facility. The Organ Mountains,10 miles to the east, are dominant in the landscape, along with the Doña Ana Mountains, Robledo Mountains. Las Cruces lies 225 miles south of Albuquerque,48 miles northwest of El Paso, spaceport America, which lies 55 miles to the north and with corporate offices in Las Cruces, has seen the completion of several successful manned, suborbital flights. The city is also the headquarters for Virgin Galactic, the worlds first company to offer sub-orbital spaceflights, the area where Las Cruces rose was previously inhabited by the Manso people, with the Mescalero Apache living nearby. The area remained under New Spains control until September 28,1821, the area was also claimed by the Republic of Texas during this time until the end of the Mexican–American War in 1846–48. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 established the United States as owner of this territory, Mesilla became the leading settlement of the area, with more than 2,000 residents in 1860, more than twice what Las Cruces had. The first train reached Las Cruces in 1881, Las Cruces was not affected as strongly by the train as some other villages, as it was not a terminus or a crossroads, but the population did grow to 2,300 in the 1880s. Las Cruces was incorporated as a town in 1907, pat Garrett is best known for his involvement in the Lincoln County War, but he also worked in Las Cruces on a famous case, the disappearance of Albert Jennings Fountain in 1896. Growth of Las Cruces has been attributed to the university, government jobs, New Mexico State University was founded in 1888, and it has grown as Las Cruces has grown. The establishment of White Sands Missile Range in 1944 and White Sands Test Facility in 1963 has been integral to population growth, Las Cruces is the nearest city to each, and they provide Las Cruces work force many high-paying, stable, government jobs. In recent years, the influx of retirees from out of state has also increased Las Cruces population, in the 1960s Las Cruces undertook a large urban renewal project, intended to convert the old downtown into a modern city center. As part of this, St. Genevieves Catholic Church, built in 1859, was razed to make way for a pedestrian mall. The original covered walkways are now being removed in favor of a traditional main street thoroughfare
Atlanta is the capital of and the most populous city in the U. S. state of Georgia, with an estimated 2015 population of 463,878. Atlanta is the cultural and economic center of the Atlanta metropolitan area, home to 5,710,795 people, Atlanta is the county seat of Fulton County, and a small portion of the city extends eastward into DeKalb County. In 1837, Atlanta was founded at the intersection of two lines, and the city rose from the ashes of the American Civil War to become a national center of commerce. Atlantas economy is considered diverse, with dominant sectors that include logistics, professional and business services, media operations, Atlanta has topographic features that include rolling hills and dense tree coverage. Revitalization of Atlantas neighborhoods, initially spurred by the 1996 Olympics in Atlanta, has intensified in the 21st century, altering the demographics, politics. Prior to the arrival of European settlers in north Georgia, Creek Indians inhabited the area, standing Peachtree, a Creek village located where Peachtree Creek flows into the Chattahoochee River, was the closest Indian settlement to what is now Atlanta. As part of the removal of Native Americans from northern Georgia from 1802 to 1825, the Creek ceded the area in 1821. In 1836, the Georgia General Assembly voted to build the Western, the initial route was to run southward from Chattanooga to a terminus east of the Chattahoochee River, which would then be linked to Savannah. After engineers surveyed various possible locations for the terminus, the zero milepost was driven into the ground in what is now Five Points. A year later, the area around the milepost had developed into a settlement, first known as Terminus, and later as Thrasherville after a merchant who built homes. By 1842, the town had six buildings and 30 residents and was renamed Marthasville to honor the Governors daughter, later, J. Edgar Thomson, Chief Engineer of the Georgia Railroad, suggested the town be renamed Atlantica-Pacifica, which was shortened to Atlanta. The residents approved, and the town was incorporated as Atlanta on December 29,1847, by 1860, Atlantas population had grown to 9,554. During the American Civil War, the nexus of multiple railroads in Atlanta made the city a hub for the distribution of military supplies, in 1864, the Union Army moved southward following the capture of Chattanooga and began its invasion of north Georgia. On the next day, Mayor James Calhoun surrendered Atlanta to the Union Army, on November 11,1864, Sherman prepared for the Union Armys March to the Sea by ordering Atlanta to be burned to the ground, sparing only the citys churches and hospitals. After the Civil War ended in 1865, Atlanta was gradually rebuilt, due to the citys superior rail transportation network, the state capital was moved from Milledgeville to Atlanta in 1868. In the 1880 Census, Atlanta surpassed Savannah as Georgias largest city, by 1885, the founding of the Georgia School of Technology and the citys black colleges had established Atlanta as a center for higher education. In 1895, Atlanta hosted the Cotton States and International Exposition, during the first decades of the 20th century, Atlanta experienced a period of unprecedented growth. In three decades time, Atlantas population tripled as the city expanded to include nearby streetcar suburbs