click links in text for more info

Due process

Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person. Due process protects the individual person from it; when a government harms a person without following the exact course of the law, this constitutes a due process violation, which offends the rule of law. Due process has been interpreted as limiting laws and legal proceedings so that judges, instead of legislators, may define and guarantee fundamental fairness and liberty; that interpretation has proven controversial. Analogous to the concepts of natural justice, procedural justice used in various other jurisdictions, the interpretation of due process is sometimes expressed as a command that the government must not be unfair to the people or abuse them physically; the term is not used in contemporary English law, but two similar concepts are natural justice, which applies only to decisions of administrative agencies and some types of private bodies like trade unions, the British constitutional concept of the rule of law as articulated by A. V. Dicey and others.

However, neither concept lines up with the American theory of due process, which, as explained below, presently contains many implied rights not found in either ancient or modern concepts of due process in England. Due process developed from clause 39 of Magna Carta in England. Reference to due process first appeared in a statutory rendition of clause 39 in 1354 thus: "No man of what state or condition he be, shall be put out of his lands or tenements nor taken, nor disinherited, nor put to death, without he be brought to answer by due process of law." When English and American law diverged, due process was not upheld in England but became incorporated in the US Constitution. In clause 39 of Magna Carta, issued in 1215, John of England promised: "No free man shall be seized or imprisoned, or stripped of his rights or possessions, or outlawed or exiled, or deprived of his standing in any other way, nor will we proceed with force against him, or send others to do so, except by the lawful judgment of his equals or by the law of the land."

Magna Carta itself became part of the "law of the land", Clause 61 of that charter authorized an elected body of 25 barons to determine by majority vote what redress the King must provide when the King offends "in any respect against any man". Thus, Magna Carta established the rule of law in England by not only requiring the monarchy to obey the law of the land but limiting how the monarchy could change the law of the land. However, in the 13th century, the provisions may have been referring only to the rights of landowners, not to ordinary peasantry or villagers. Shorter versions of Magna Carta were subsequently issued by British monarchs, Clause 39 of Magna Carta was renumbered "29"; the phrase due process of law first appeared in a statutory rendition of Magna Carta in 1354 during the reign of Edward III of England, as follows: "No man of what state or condition he be, shall be put out of his lands or tenements nor taken, nor disinherited, nor put to death, without he be brought to answer by due process of law."In 1608, the English jurist Edward Coke wrote a treatise in which he discussed the meaning of Magna Carta.

Coke explained that no man shall be deprived but by legem terrae, the law of the land, "that is, by the common law, statute law, or custom of England.... by the due course, process of law.."Both the clause in Magna Carta and the statute of 1354 were again explained in 1704 by the Queen's Bench, in the case of Regina v. Paty. In that case, the British House of Commons had deprived John Paty and certain other citizens of the right to vote in an election and committed them to Newgate Prison for the offense of pursuing a legal action in the courts; the Queen's Bench, in an opinion by Justice Powys, explained the meaning of "due process of law" as follows: t is objected, that by Mag. Chart. C. 29, no man ought to be by the law of the land. But to this I answer, that lex terrae is not confined to the common law, but takes in all the other laws, which are in force in this realm. By the 28 Ed. 3, c. 3, there the words lex terrae. Char. are explained by the words, due process of law. Chief Justice Holt dissented in this case because he believed that the commitment had not in fact been by a legal authority.

The House of Commons had purported to legislate unilaterally, without approval of the British House of Lords, ostensibly to regulate the election of its members. Although the Queen's Bench held that the House of Commons had not infringed or overturned due process, John Paty was freed by Queen Anne when she prorogued Parliament. Throughout centuries of British history, many laws and treatises asserted various requirements as being part of "due process" or included in the "law of the land"; that view held in regards to what was required by existing law, rather than what was intrinsically required by due process itself. As the United States Supreme Court has explained, a due process requirement in Britain was not "essential to the idea of due process of law in the prosecution and punishment of crimes, but was only mentioned as an example and illustration of due process of law as it existed in cases in which it was customarily used"; the scattered references to "due process of law" in English law did not limit the power of the gov


Hexazinone is an organic compound, used as a broad spectrum herbicide. It is a colorless solid, it exhibits some solubility in water but is soluble in most organic solvents except alkanes. A member of the triazine class herbicides, it is manufactured by DuPont and sold under the trade name Velpar, it functions by inhibiting photosynthesis and thus. It is used to control grasses and woody plants. 33% is used on alfalfa, 31% in forestry, 29% in industrial areas, 4% on rangeland and pastures, < 2% on sugarcane. Hexazinone is a pervasive groundwater contaminant, due to its high water solubility Hexazinone is used as a herbicide, it is a non-selective herbicide from the triazine family. It is used among a broad range of places, it is used to control weeds within all sort of applications. From sugarcane plantations, forestry field nurseries, pineapple plantations to high- and railway grasses and industrial plant sites. Hexazinone was first registered in 1975 for the overall control of weeds and for uses in crops.

Triazines like hexazinone can bind to the D-1 quinone protein of the electron transport chain in photosystem II to inhibit the photosynthesis. These diverted electrons can thereby destroy cells. Hexazinone can be synthesized in two different reaction processes. One process starts with a reaction of methyl chloroformate with cyanamide, forming hexazinone after a five-step pathway: A second synthesis starts with methylthiourea.: The degradation of hexazinone has long been studied. It degrades 10% in five weeks, when exposed to artificial sunlight in distilled water. However, degradation in natural waters can be three to seven times greater; the pH and the temperature of the water do not affect the photodegradation significantly. It is degraded by aerobic microorganisms in soils. Hexazinone is a broad-spectrum residual and contact herbicide absorbed by the leaves and roots, it is tolerated by conifers, therefore it is a effective herbicide for the control for annual and perennial broadleaf weeds, some grasses, some woody species.

Hexazinone works as rain or snowmelt makes it possible for the herbicide to move downward into the soil. There the hexazinone is absorbed from the soil by the roots, it moves through the conductive tissues to the leaves, where it blocks the photosynthesis of the plant within the chloroplasts. Hexazinone binds to a protein of the photosystem II complex; the result are multiple following reactions. First triplet-state chlorophyll reacts with oxygen to form singlet oxygen. Both chlorophyll and singlet oxygen remove hydrogen ions from the unsaturated lipids present in de cells and the organelle membranes, forming lipid radicals; these radicals will oxidize other lipids and proteins resulting in loss of the membrane integrity of the cells and organelles. This will result in a loss of chlorophyll, leakage of cellular contents, cell death, death of the plant. Woody plants first show yellowing of the leaves before they start to defoliate they will die. Sometimes plants are able to defoliate again during the growing season.

DuPont webpage on Velpar Hexazinone in the Pesticide Properties DataBase

Koreans in Venezuela

Koreans in Venezuela form one of the smallest Korean communities in Latin America, according to the statistics of South Korea's Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. The South Korean community in Venezuela began when Chiong Hoe-Nyun, who studied the Spanish language at the Hankuk University of Foreign Studies in Seoul, migrated to Maracaibo in the early 1960s. Immigration from South Korea increased with Venezuela's economic prosperity in the 1970s, a South Korean embassy opened in Caracas in 1973. There were 300 South Koreans living in Venezuela as of 2011. Since 2010, Korean culture has acquired some interest from the young Venezuelan community, helped by support from the local South Korean community; the South Korean embassy in Caracas and several cultural organizations such as Asociación Venezolana de la Cultura Coreana and Unión de Amantes de Corea have promoted numerous events in honor to promote K-pop/K-rock music and Korean cinema, drama and art in Venezuela. The Festival Hallyu, which promotes Korean culture, has sent Venezuelans to compete in the K-Pop World Festival.

Taekwondo was brought to Venezuela between 1968 and 1970 by three South Korean teachers: Howo Kan in the Capital District, Cho Kon in Carabobo, Hong Kin Kim in Anzoategui. Since the sport has gained popularity in Venezuela and the country has accumulated major singles titles, making itself one of the world leaders in Taekwondo during the 1980s and 1990s. Fred ARMISEN Embajada de la República de Corea en Venezuela Union de Amantes de Corea, Union Lovers of Korea Korean Music Entertainment - Venezuela K-pop World Venezuela Asociación Venezolana de la Cultura Coreana, Venezuelan Association of Korean Culture

Nikolai Rysakov

Nikolai Ivanovich Rysakov was a Russian revolutionary and a member of Narodnaya Volya. He took part in the assassination of Tsar Alexander II of Russia, he threw a bomb. A second bomb by an accomplice, Ignacy Hryniewiecki, killed the Tsar. In his post-arrest confession, Rysakov revealed all that he knew of the organization, its personnel and its agenda; this resulted in numerous arrests, compromised the party's strength. Despite his repentance, he was hanged along with other accomplices. Nikolai Rysakov was born most in 1861 to Orthodox Christian parents Ivan Sergeevich Rysakov and Matrena Nikolaeva Rysakova at a sawmill plant in Belozersky district of Novgorod province, he had a brother Fedor and three sisters, Alexandra and Catherine. His family was from Tikhvin, his father was the manager of the sawmill plant. Rysakov received his elementary education at Vytegorsk. Having studied at his own expense, in 1878, he graduated from the Cherepovets secondary school. From September 1879, he was a student at the Institute of Mining Engineering in St. Petersburg until December 1880.

Rysakov was described by contemporary accounts as a thick-set youth with long reddish hair. In early January of 1881, having fallen under the influence of Andrei Zhelyabov, whom he knew under the pseudonym Zakhar, he joined Narodnaya Volya. Rysakov started living under the name Makar Egorov Glazov, was known in the revolutionary circle by the pseudonym Belomor, he assisted the propaganda group whose staff included Zhelyabov. In particular, he distributed 100 copies of the first issue of Rabochaya Gazeta to workers in various inns and taverns, as well as to cab drivers and to peasants living on the outskirts of town, he distributed the second issue of the newspaper, all of which he passed out by the third day. Rysakov held. However, the meetings were attended by as few as six workers; the invitation to take part in the attempt was made two weeks prior to the incident by Zhelyabov. Rysakov and Timofei Mikhailov volunteered; the day before the assassination, under the guidance of Nikolai Kibalchich, the three volunteers tested their missiles out of town in a deserted place.

Two missiles were pitched and one of them exploded. On the morning of 13 March, at about 9 AM, Rysakov and other bomb-throwers gathered at the group's safe house to collect their bombs and review the plan of the attack. Rysakov wore a dagger and a revolver for self-defense, was carrying a bomb wrapped in a hand kerchief or a newspaper, he was wearing a fur cap, a silk scarf, a drape coat, underneath a linen shirt having traditional Russian patterns at the ends of the sleeves and on the chest. On 13 March 1881, at about 2:15 PM, the Imperial procession had gone about a hundred and fifty yards down the embankment of the Catherine Canal before it approached Rysakov, he moved closer to the roadway and threw his bomb which landed between the horse's legs or under the rear wheels of the carriage. The ensuing explosion damaged the vehicle, killed one of the Cossack escorts, wounded a butcher's boy, on his way to deliver an order. Alexander II emerged unharmed. Rysakov started fleeing from the scene of the crime and was chased by gendarmes.

Witnessing this, a worker threw his crowbar at his feet, causing him to fall. Rysakov resisted capture but was pinned against the iron railing along the edge of the quay, about thirty steps from the site of the explosion; the Tsar inquired about his identity. Rysakov introduced himself as the Vyatka tradesman Glazov; the Tsar, according to one eye-witness, wagged a threatening finger at Rysakov. The Tsar stopped to survey the devastation wrought by Rysakov; the Tsar said: "Thank God, I escaped injury", according to one witness, Rysakov loudly pronounced something to the effect: "We will see if you will still thank God." The delay amounted to 5–6 minutes. The Tsar was ready to leave when Hryniewiecki approached him and detonated a second bomb at his feet. After the second bomb went off, Rysakov was roughed up by one of the soldiers holding him; as soon as the Tsar was rushed by sleigh to the Winter Palace, the police decided that Rysakov should be taken directly to the mayor. As he was being led to a cab, Rysakov was attacked by the mob, but with the intervention of the police, he was turned over to the authorities unharmed.

Tsar Alexander II died 45 minutes later. While in custody, in an attempt to save his own life, Rysakov cooperated with the investigators by giving them valuable information about his accomplices. In particular, his post-arrest confession enabled the police to raid the group's safe house on Telezhnaya street, where Gesya Helfman was arrested and Nikolai Sablin committed suicide after firing several shots at the police. Mikhailov, Sophia Perovskaya, Kibalchich were subsequently captured. Rysakov established the identity of all prisoners. Although he knew many of them only by their party pseudonyms, he was able to describe the role they each had played. Rysakov was put on trial, together with Zhelyabov, Kibalchich and Mikhailov, his counsel sought to palliate his crime on account of his extreme youth. On 29 March, all the defendants were sentenced to death by hanging. In a last desperate effort, Rysakov offered his services to the police, composed a letter addressed to Alexander III alleging sincere repentance.

Vladimir Sol

Roy Glover

Roy Glover is a fictional character from the British television soap opera Emmerdale, played by Nicky Evans. He made his first appearance during the episode broadcast on 4 August 1994 and departed six years on 22 August 2000; the five-strong Glover family, consisting of parents Ned Glover and Jan Glover, their three children Dave Glover, Linda Glover and Roy were introduced in August 1994. In their fictional backstory, the Glovers came from the South, like the McAllisters and Windsors who were introduced in 1993, but they were a hardworking Yorkshire family; the Glovers live in a caravan on the Sugden's land, after being forced out of their old plot by developers. Roy is the youngest member of the family, an Inside Soap columnist predicted he would make friends with fellow teen Scott Windsor and get up to "plenty of pranks". In a notable storyline for the character, Roy loses two fingers in an accident with a wood-chopping machine. Roy cuts his fingers off as his hand slips. Evans described it as "quite a graphic scene when the camera moves in and you see my hand without them."

He said it was "a difficult scene" as they had to film multiple takes to get "the horror over without being too sickening." Roy's sister saves his fingers and he undergoes surgery to reattach them. Evans was delighted when he received the script for the scenes, before realising how long the storyline would span, as Roy goes through months of recovery. Evans had to wear a splint for six months and he had difficulty filming with it on, he added, "It is one of the most dramatic moments I've been involved in on Emmerdale and I was pleased with the way the scene looks."Evans chose to leave Emmerdale in 2000. Roy moves to the village with his parents Ned and Jan, his older siblings Dave and Linda. Roy befriends his step-sister Kelly Windsor at school. Roy and Kelly have a brief romantic relationship. Roy is a troublesome teenager; when Linda and her boyfriend Biff Fowler clean Alan Turner's Landrover for him, Roy throws mud and dirt all over it, so he can clean it again and get paid. Both of Roy's older siblings die, Dave in a fire at Home Farm and Linda in a car crash, leaving him the last surviving Glover child.

Roy and Kelly get back together, marry. Scott reveals that he and Kelly have been having an affair, but Kelly denies everything and Roy believes her. Once married and Kelly suffer financial difficulties and take cleaning jobs. Kelly holds a dinner party at their home; when the police are called, Roy protects Kelly and takes the blame, leading to his arrest and imprisonment. When he is released, Kelly admits that she has been having an affair with Scott, plans to move to London. Roy forgives her and he and Kelly reconcile, they decide to start a new life in Ibiza, but Roy breaks up with Kelly in the airport and leaves her there, as he departs alone. Lamenting the character's departure, Robert Beaumont of The Press wrote: "Poor Roy is an icon to losers in the land, a living reminder that life can be worse. How he has survived with this spoiled bitch of a wife Kelly is a mystery to all of us. So, too, is his hair." The Guardian's Gareth McLean branded Roy "saintly but simple". Molly Blake from Birmingham Evening Mail was pleased that Roy broke up with Kelly, saying "Oh, yes!

At long last Roy Glover has discovered he'll be happier snuggling up with his sideburns than with sourpuss and promiscuous Kelly, ditching her at the airport en route to Ibiza where's he's to live with dad, the Neanderthally slow-thinking Ned."

Sophia Ripley

Sophia Willard Dana Ripley, wife of George Ripley, was a 19th-century feminist associated with Transcendentalism and the Brook Farm community. She was born Sophia Willard Dana in 1803, her father traveled abroad and left his daughters to fend for themselves. In 1823, during one of his trips, the Dana sisters decided to earn their own living by teaching. In Cambridge, they established a girls' school, she first met George Ripley during his final year as a student at the Harvard Divinity School in 1825. In 1826, they became engaged, he asked his sister Marianne to inform them, assuring them that their relationship was not based on "any romantic or sudden passion" but on "intellectual power, moral worth and true Christian piety, refinement and dignity of character". They were married on August 22, 1827, in a ceremony presided over by Abiel Holmes. Mrs. Ripley became a friend of Margaret Fuller and was one of the women to attend Fuller's first series of "conversations". Fuller explained to Ripley her goals: "It is to pass in review the departments of thought and knowledge, endeavor to place them in due relation to one another in our mind.

To systemize thought and give precision and clearness in which our sex are so deficient, chiefly, I think, because they have so few inducements to test and classify what they receive. To ascertain what pursuits are best suited to us". Ripley was among the few regular women guests of the male-dominated Transcendental Club in the 1830s, she published an essay on women in The Dial. In July 1841,The Dial published a letter from Ripley called "Letter from Zoar", an account of her experience visiting a communistic society of "Separatists" in Zoar, Ohio in 1837. In the 1840s, she co-founded an experimental Utopian community called Brook Farm along with her husband and was one of the experiment's major supporters in its early years. Along with her sister-in-law Marianne Ripley, she oversaw Brook Farm's primary school using a progressive child-centered pedagogy, compared to the reforms of John Dewey; when Brook Farm adapted itself into a Charles Fourier-inspired phalanstère, she did not share her husband's enthusiasm.

Influenced in part by Orestes Brownson, she converted to Catholicism in 1846 and became a dedicated member of the church, leading her to become a well-known nun. Their relationship became strained by the 1850s, she died in 1861. Her home on Baker Street is a site on the Boston Women's Heritage Trail