Duesenberg Motors Company was an American manufacturer of race cars and high-end luxury automobiles. It was founded by brothers August and Frederick Duesenberg in 1913 in Saint Paul, where they built engines and race cars; the brothers moved their operations to Elizabeth, New Jersey, in 1916 to manufacture engines for World War I. In 1919, when their government contracts were cancelled, they moved to Indianapolis, home of the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, established the Duesenberg Automobile and Motors Company, Inc.. In late 1926, E. L. Cord added Duesenberg to his Auburn Automobile Company. With the market for expensive luxury cars undercut by the Great Depression, Duesenberg folded in 1937. In 1913, German-American brothers Fred and Augie Duesenberg founded Duesenberg Motors Company, Inc. on University Avenue in St. Paul, Minnesota, to build engines and race cars; the brothers built many experimental cars. Duesenberg cars were considered some of the best cars of the time, were built by hand. In 1914, Eddie Rickenbacker drove a "Duesy" to finish in 10th place at the Indianapolis 500, Duesenberg won the race in 1922, 1924, 1925, 1927.

The fledgling company sidestepped into aviation engine manufacturing when Colonel R. C. Bolling and his commission acquired a license to produce the Bugatti U-16 for the U. S. Army Air Service; the end of World War I stopped this project before it could mature. In 1921, Duesenberg provided the pace car for the Indy 500, driven by Fred Duesenberg. In 1921, Jimmy Murphy became the first American to win the French Grand Prix when he drove a Duesenberg to victory at Le Mans. According to archives of The Des Moines Register, the first Duesenbergs were built at 915 Grand Ave in Des Moines, Iowa. In the 1970s, Virgil Exner tried to revive Duesenberg, but due to his early death, only concept cars were made. At the end of World War I, they ceased building aviation and marine engines in Elizabeth, New Jersey, at the corner of Newark Avenue and North Avenue. In 1919 the Duesenberg brothers sold their Minnesota and New Jersey factories to John Willys and moved to a new headquarters and factory in Indianapolis, where the "Duesenberg Automobile and Motors Company, Inc." was established in 1920 to begin production of passenger cars.

The plant was located on a 17-acre site on West Washington street at Harding street until 1937, adjacent to the Overland Automobile factory. Although the Duesenberg brothers were world-class engineers, they were neither good businessmen nor administrators; this had the Duesenberg Straight-8 engine, the first "mass-produced" straight eight engine in the U. S, it was an advanced and expensive automobile, offering features such as single overhead camshafts, four-valve cylinder heads, the first four-wheel hydraulic brakes offered on a passenger car anywhere. The Model A was a smaller vehicle than the competition, it was among the the fastest cars of its time. Among the celebrities who purchased this model were Rudolph Valentino; the model experienced various delays going from prototype to production. Deliveries to dealers did not start until December 1921. Sales lagged and the goal of building 100 Duesenbergs each month proved far too high, as the Indianapolis plant struggled to roll out one a day. In 1922 no more than 150 cars were manufactured, only 650 Model As were sold over a period of six years.

1922 Model A specifications Winning races did not translate into financial success either, although that winning reputation would attract new investors, who supplied the cash flow to prop up the production facility. The brothers continued to create excellent engines for cars, a few planes but only as employees of various capitalist investors who bought the rights to their famous family name; the firm had acquired a considerable aura of prestige when in October 1919, Fred signed over the rights to his name and drawings for a passenger car to a pair of promoters, Newton E. Van Zandt and Luther M. Rankin. On March 8, 1920, these men became president and vice president of the "Duesenberg Automobile and Motors Corporation of Indianapolis". Fred was chief engineer and Augie his assistant, both were salaried as employees. Van Zandt quit after a year, business went from bad to worse in 1923. In 1924 the company went into receivership. In 1925, the firm's name was changed to "Duesenberg Motors Corporation" and Fred assumed the title of president.

Fred and August struggled to keep the company, but to no avail, as they weren't able to raise enough capital. Model X Duesenbergs are rare, it was a sportier version of the model A with a heavier and longer chassis and 100 hp engine that enabled it to reach 100 mph. The most notable differences between the A and X were that the latter had hypoid differentials and all its valves were on one side; this braking system could have earned him a fortune. According to Randy Ema, the top Duesenberg authority in the United States, only 13 were built, they fit in between the Duesenberg Model A and the famous J. E. L. Cord bought the company on October 26, 1925, for the brothers' engineering skills and the

Monastery of Carracedo

The Monastery of Saint Mary of Carracedo or the Monasterio de Santa María de Carracedo is an inactive abbey and palace complex, now in semi-restored state near the town of Carracedelo, province of León, Castile and León, Spain. Founded in the tenth century by the Benedictine order, it lies near the Way of Santiago in Northern Spain; the first cenobitic community, the Monastery of San Salvador, was founded here around the year 990 by Bermudo II, King of León and Galicia, with the principal aim of sheltering monks seeking refuge from the campaigns of the Moorish general Almanzor. This, did not spare the monastery from being destroyed by Almanzor in his campaign of 997. In 1138, the Infanta Sancha, sister of Alfonso VII of León, helped rebuild a monastery on the site, calling on monks from the neighboring Monastery of Santa María de Valverde near Corullón, to help her; the burgeoning monastery gained eminence, control of lands, housed a royal palace. In 1203, the monastic order switched to the Cistercian order, affiliated with the Cîteaux calling itself the Monasterio de Santa María de Carracedo.

Undergoing further depredations during the Napoleonic wars, the abbey was closed in 1835. The monastery is listed on the Spanish heritage register as a Bien de Interés Cultural, having been declared a National Historic-Artistic Monument in 1929; the now uninhabited rooms and cloister of the semi-restored ruins exemplify a variety of styles from the centuries between the foundation and abandonment, contain a variety of styles including Romanesque and neoclassical. The sparingly-decorated stony buildings have a haunting emptiness. Translated from Spanish Wikipedia entry Iglesias Arias, José Antonio. El Monasterio de Carracedo. León: Editorial Lancia. ISBN 84-86205-62-X. Description in Arte-romá Description by Julia Llamas Pérez


Greccio is an old hilltown and comune of the province of Rieti in the Italian region of Lazio, overhanging the Rieti valley on a spur of the Monti Sabini, a sub-range of the Apennines, about 16 kilometres by road northwest of Rieti, the nearest large town. The actual town of Greccio has been depopulating, the administrative functions of the comune are now in the frazione of Limiti di Greccio. Greccio was founded, as a Greek colony, they were exiled from their homeland as a result of war. They settled here for the natural protection. Hence the name Greece, Grece and Greccio; the earliest records date back to the Eleventh centuries. The Benedictine Monk, Gregory of Catino refers to the town of Greccio in his work "Summary Farfense". From the remains of the ancient buildings, it shows that Greccio became a fortified medieval castle surrounded by walls and protected by a six towers fortress. During the struggle with neighboring cities, the castle was destroyed in 1242 by the troops of Frederick II.

They had a difficult history until 1799 when the town was destroyed and looted by the Napoleonic army. Greccio was the place; the idea was to discourage would-be pilgrims from going to Bethlehem, as it was a risky venture, the Holy Land being under the control of the Turks. The tradition continues there to this day, a memorial of St. Francis, the Santuario di S. Francesco, may be visited; the village is surrounded by an oak forests. Trails lead through the forest to the summit of 1,204 metres above sea level. Here St. Francis of Assisi, would retire in prayer and meditation in a hut protected by two hornbeam plants. In this same place, in 1792, by popular demand, it was built a memorial chapel dedicated to him, "the chapel"; the medieval village that preserves part of the pavement of the old castle and three of the six towers. The parish church of San Michele Archangel is located next to the bell tower on top of a flight of steps and dates back to the fourteenth century; the church was built over a part of the castle.

The church was rebuilt several times. The church as a Nave and side chapels. Two of the side chapels, dedicated to St. Anthony of Padua and Our Lady Immaculate have paintings and frescoes of the Fifteenth and Sixteenth century. In the square, there is the Church of Santa Maria del Giglio from 1400; this church is a single aisle or Nave. It has stucco Roman school with influences of Carlo Fontana; the high altar preserves, a fresco, which represents the Child with Angels. The town contains the ruined church of Santa Maria, now restored as the International Museum of the Crib, the remains of the ancient towers, one of the entrance doors, the chapel dedicated to St. Francis, with the stone on which he used up to preach, the place where, according to tradition, was launched firebrand who made public the place designated for the construction of the Sanctuary. Francis, recalling a visit he had made years before to Bethlehem, resolved to create the manger he had seen there; the ideal spot was a cave in nearby Greccio.

He would find a baby, hay upon which to lay him, an ox, an ass to stand beside the manger. Word went out to the people of the town. At the appointed time, they arrived carrying candles. One of the friars began celebrating Mass while Francis, his biographer, Thomas of Celano, recalls that Francis stood before the manger, overwhelmed with love and filled with a wonderful happiness. For Francis, the simple celebration was meant to recall the hardships Jesus suffered as an infant, a savior who chose to become poor for our sake, a human Jesus. Greccio has a station on the Terni -- Sulmona railway, with trains to Rieti and L'Aquila. Greccio is twinned with: Bethlehem, Palestine Notes The Pro Loco of Greccio Prof. Francesco Benedetti. Marcello Mari.