Brookwood Cemetery known as the London Necropolis, is a burial ground in Brookwood, England. It is one of the largest in Europe; the cemetery is listed a Grade I site in the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Brookwood Cemetery was conceived by the London Necropolis Company in 1849 to house London's deceased, at a time when the capital was finding it difficult to accommodate its increasing population, of living and dead; the cemetery is said to have been landscaped by architect William Tite. In 1854, Brookwood was the largest cemetery in the world, its initial owner incorporated by Act of Parliament in 1852, Brookwood Cemetery was consecrated by Charles Sumner, Bishop of Winchester, on 7 November 1854 and opened to the public on 13 November 1854 when its first burials took place. Brookwood was accessible by rail from a special station – the London Necropolis railway station – next to Waterloo station in Central London. Trains had passenger carriages reserved for different classes and other carriages for coffins, ran into the cemetery on a dedicated branch from the adjoining South Western Main Line – there was a junction just to the west of Brookwood station.
From there and coffins were transported by horse-drawn vehicles. The original London Necropolis station was relocated in 1902 but its successor was demolished after suffering bomb damage during World War II. There were South for Anglicans, their platforms still exist along the path called Railway Avenue. For visitors wishing to use the South Western Main Line, Brookwood station has provided direct access since June 1864. A short piece of commemorative track, with signpost and plaque, purposefully gives way to a grass field and recollects the old final stage of the journey of the deceased; the LNC offered three classes of funerals: A first class funeral allowed buyers to select the grave site of their choice anywhere in the cemetery. The LNC charged extra for burials in some designated special sites. At the time of opening prices began at £2 10s for a basic 9-by-4-foot with no special coffin specifications, it was expected by the LNC that those using first class graves would erect a permanent memorial of some kind in due course following the funeral.
Second class funerals allowed some control over the burial location. The right to erect a permanent memorial cost an additional 10 shillings. Third class funerals were reserved for pauper funerals. Although the LNC was forbidden from using mass graves and thus the lowest class of funeral provided a separate grave for the deceased, third class funerals were not granted the right to erect a permanent memorial on the site. Despite this, Brookwood's pauper graves granted more dignity to the deceased than did other graveyards and cemeteries of the period, all of which other than Brookwood continued the practice of mass graves for the poor. Brookwood was one of the few cemeteries to permit burials on Sundays, which made it a popular choice with the poor as it allowed people to attend funerals without the need to take a day off work; as theatrical performances were banned on Sundays at this time, it made Brookwood a popular choice for the burial of actors for the same reason, to the extent that actors were provided with a dedicated section of the cemetery near the station entrance.
While the majority of burials conducted by the LNC were pauper funerals on behalf of London parishes, the LNC reached agreement with a number of societies, religious bodies and similar organisations. The LNC provided dedicated sections of the cemetery for these groups, on the basis that those who had lived or worked together in life could remain together after death. Although the LNC was never able to gain the domination of London's funeral industry for which its founders had hoped, it was successful at targeting specialist groups of artisans and trades, to the extent that it became nicknamed "the Westminster Abbey of the middle classes". A large number of these dedicated plots were established, ranging from Chelsea Pensioners and the Ancient Order of Foresters to the Corps of Commissionaires and the LSWR; the Nonconformist cemetery includes a Parsee burial ground established in 1862, which as of 2011 remained the only Zoroastrian burial ground in Europe. Dedicated sections in the Anglican cemetery were reserved for burials from those parishes which had made burial arrangements with the LNC.
The first burial was of the stillborn twins of a Mrs Hore of Ewer Street, Southwark Borough. The Hore twins, along with the other burials on the first day, were pauper funerals and buried in unmarked graves; the first burial at Brookwood with a permanent memorial was that of Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Goldfinch, buried on 25 November 1854, the 26th person to be buried in the cemetery. The first permanent memorial erected in the Nonconformist section of the cemetery was that of Charles Milligan Hogg, son of botanist Robert Hogg, buried on 12 December 1854. Goldfinch and Hogg's graves are not the oldest monuments in the cemetery, as on occasion gravestones were relocat
Cowlairs railway works
Cowlairs Locomotive and Wagon Works, at Cowlairs in Springburn, an area in the north-east of Glasgow, was built in 1841 for the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway and was taken over by the North British Railway in 1865. It was named with both locomotive and carriage & wagon works, it was the first works in Britain to build locomotives and wagons in the same place. It was located on the western side of the Glasgow-Edinburgh mainline at Carlisle Street. In September 1904, the Eastfield Running Sheds were built on the other side of the Glasgow-Edinburgh mainline, just to the north of the Cowlairs complex, to maintain locomotives and to free-up more engineering space at Cowlairs Works, they were closed in 1994 but the depot site was redeveloped in 2005 and is once again in use as a maintenance facility for Class 170 trains by First ScotRail. The first few locomotives were bought in, but in 1844, William Paton produced the 0-6-0 Hercules numbered 21 and Samson numbered 22; the two locomotives were used for trials as banking engines on the 1 in 42 Cowlairs incline that started as soon as the trains left Queen Street station.
The two 0-6-0s were two of the world's most powerful locomotives at the time. The trials that began in 1844 went on until 1847 when they were stopped and the two bankers where sold off. Banking began again in 1909 and continued until the withdrawal of type 2 diesels around 1980 After the NBR amalgamated with the London and North Eastern Railway at the 1923 grouping Grouping, new production finished, except for boilers and castings, such as brake blocks. During World War II, like the North British Locomotive Company, both Cowlairs and St. Rollox joined in the war effort producing, among other things, Airspeed Horsa gliders for the D Day airborne assault. Cowlairs produced 200,000 bearing shells for Rolls-Royce Merlin engines. At nationalisation, into British Railways in 1948, most of the work was transferred to Horwich railway works. Cowlairs closed in 1968, the work transferring to the other British Rail Engineering Limited site at St. Rollox railway works; the former site of the Eastfield Running Sheds was redeveloped in 2005 and is once again in use as a maintenance depot for Class 170 trains run by First ScotRail.
A new £200 million state-of-the-art Network Rail signalling centre and maintenance depot was opened in December 2008 on the former site of Cowlairs carriage sidings, which were located opposite the works on the other side of the main railway line. A total of 450 staff relocated to the new facilities; the new signalling centre replaced the previous 45-year-old system. The maintenance depot replaced existing bases, including Cathcart and Shields Road; the former site of the main Cowlairs works itself was converted into the Carlisle Street Business Park and Cowlairs Industrial Estate, occupied by a Bowmore Whisky bottling plant, Howarth Switchgear and some other light industrial units. Larkin, E. J. Larkin, J. G.. The Railway Workshops of Great Britain 1823-1986. Macmillan Press
Sir Thomas Bouch was a British railway engineer. He was born in Thursby, near Carlisle and lived in Edinburgh; as manager of the Edinburgh and Northern Railway he introduced the first roll-on/roll-off train ferry service in the world. Subsequently as a consulting engineer, he helped develop the caisson and popularised the use of lattice girders in railway bridges, he was knighted after the successful completion of the first Tay Railway Bridge, but his reputation was destroyed by the subsequent Tay Bridge Disaster, in which 75 people are believed to have died as a result of defects in design and maintenance, for all of which Bouch was held responsible. He died within 18 months of being knighted. Bouch's father kept the Ship Inn at Thursby and Thomas was educated locally before at the age of 17 beginning his civil engineering career as assistant to one of the engineers constructing the Lancaster and Carlisle Railway. After a short spell working in Leeds he was for four years one of the Resident Engineers on the Stockton and Darlington Railway, leaving in 1849 to become manager and engineer of the Edinburgh and Northern Railway, one of the precursors of the North British Railway.
He introduced the first roll-on roll-off train ferries in the world, across the Firth of Forth from Granton to Burntisland in Fife Others had had similar ideas, but Bouch put them into effect, did so with an attention to detail which led a subsequent President of the Institution of Civil Engineers to settle any dispute over priority of invention with the observation that "there was little merit in a simple conception of this kind, compared with a work carried out in all its details, brought to perfection." Bouch set up on his own as a railway engineer, working chiefly in Scotland and Northern England. Lines he designed include four connecting lines all built by separate companies, which together allowed a direct connection between the West Cumbrian haematite mines and the area served by the Stockton and Darlington: the Darlington and Barnard Castle Railway the South Durham and Lancashire Union Railway the Eden Valley Railway the Cockermouth and Penrith Railway His response to a toast at a dinner after the cutting of the first sod on the Eden Railway gave his philosophy on the engineering of those lines:The works were all of a light and inexpensive character, if he gave them a first-class railway, - one upon which any speed attainable by a locomotive engine could be run with perfect safety and ease - if he gave it without any extravagance he should only have done his duty, but if he failed he should deserve all the obloquy and discredit attaching to the failure of light works.
… Mr Whitwell had spoken of his character as a maker of cheap railways, but in giving a cheap Eden Valley railway he had relied upon the easy district, not on inferiority of the works. The line would be carried out in the most substantial manner possible, he made considerable use of lattice girder bridges, both with conventional masonry piers and with iron lattice piers. A contemporary treatise on iron bridges praised the detailed engineering of the Belah viaduct piers Elsewhere, Bouch's forte was cheapness, an ability to construct branch lines at a capital cost that might allow them to pay their way if operated frugally Examples included branches to St Andrews, to Leven, to Peebles, the Peebles line being described in his obituary as "long the pattern for cheap construction"; this could leave over-optimistic clients with a railway designed and built to a price and not making enough money to support proper maintenance. Bouch did the initial survey for the Edinburgh Suburban and Southside Junction Railway, laid out tramway systems in Edinburgh, Glasgow and London, designed the Redheugh viaduct a road bridge across the Tyne at the same height as and not far upstream of Stephenson's High Level Bridge.
He designed Hownes Gill Viaduct in Consett, County Durham, which at 700 feet long and using a 12-arch design constructed in brick, carried the Stanhope and Tyne Railway 175 feet above Hownsgill. Today it forms part of the Sea to Sea Cycle Route. Bouch returned to the problem of bridging the two great East Coast firths. Authorisation was given to bridge both the Tay and the Forth. Bouch designed the first Tay Rail Bridge while working for the North British Railway, the official opening took place in May 1878. Queen Victoria travelled over it in late June 1879, she awarded him a knighthood in recognition of his achievement; the bridge collapsed on 28 December 1879. A train was
William Stroudley was an English railway engineer, was one of the most famous steam locomotive engineers of the nineteenth century, working principally for the London and South Coast Railway. He designed some of the most famous and longest-lived steam locomotives of his era, several of which have been preserved. Born at Sandford-on-Thames, William Stroudley began work in 1847 at the local paper mill and in the same year he was apprenticed to John Inshaw's engineering firm in Birmingham. Over the next seven years he gained a variety of engineering experience on stationary engines and steam barges. From 1854 he trained as a locomotive engineer at Swindon Works under Daniel Gooch of the Great Western Railway, but soon moved to the Great Northern Railway under Charles Sacré at their Peterborough workshops becoming running foreman at the motive power depot there. In 1861 he was appointed manager of Glasgow Railway Cowlairs Works. On 19 June 1865 he was appointed locomotive and carriage superintendent of the Highland Railway at Inverness.
He was unable to do any substantial work as the railway had little money at the time, only producing one locomotive. He was however able to re-organise and modernise the company's Lochgorm Works and reduced the operating costs for the railway's existing fleet. In 1870 he was appointed locomotive superintendent of the London and South Coast Railway at Brighton works following the enforced resignation of J. C. Craven; when he took office there were seventy-two different classes of locomotive in use and so there was an urgent need for standardisation to reduce operating costs. Stroudley was hampered at first by the difficult financial state of his new company, which had faced bankruptcy in 1866. However, during the 1870s and 1880s increased revenues from the growth of suburban traffic, enabled him to improve the performance and reliability of the locomotive stock by introducing a number of successful standard classes. Stroudley's first passenger locomotive design at Brighton was the two locomotives of the "Belgravia class", 2-4-0 in 1872.
They were similar to two 2-4-0 locomotives constructed at Cowlairs for the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in the early 1860s when he was the works manager. They contained many features of his designs. In the same year he introduced the first of three important tank engine classes, which were produced in large numbers; the diminutive LB&SCR A1 Class 0-6-0 tanks were introduced in 1872 and a number were still in active use in the 1960s. The D1 class 0-4-2T were used for London suburban services of the LBSCR from 1873 until electrification and some survivors lasted until the late 1940s; the last survivor of the E1 class freight 0-6-0T introduced in 1874 was withdrawn in 1962. In 1874 Stroudley designed the G class of powerful 2-2-2'singles', the last of which survived until 1914. Less successful were his 0-6-0 freight locomotives of the C and C1 classes of 1871 and 1882 both of which were underpowered. Stroudley is best remembered for his 0-4-2 passenger classes; the first of these was a tender engine version of the D1 class, the D2 or "Lyons" class, introduced in 1876 and which proved to be successful.
A larger version for express passenger work, the "Richmond class", was introduced in 1877. However it is the enlarged B1 class express engines of 1882 for which he is best remembered, the last of which survived until 1933; the first member of this class is preserved at the National Railway Museum in York. Stroudley was responsible for the re-organisation and modernisation of Brighton railway works and the repair facilities at New Cross, he designed railway carriages and the steam engines for the LB&SCR cross-channel ferries which operated between Newhaven and Dieppe. He is remembered for inventing the re-railing ramps that are still known as "Stroudley's Patent Ramps" or "Rampes de Stroudley" in some parts of the world, he died of acute bronchitis on 20 December 1889 during his visit to the Paris Exhibition where he was exhibiting one of his locomotives. Stroudley was buried in the Extra Mural Cemetery, Brighton on 24 December 1889, he was succeeded at Brighton by R. J. Billinton. Ellis, C. Hamilton.
"William Stroudley". Twenty Locomotive Men. Shepperton, England: Ian Allan. Pp. 114–127. Cornwell, H. G. Campbell William Stroudley: craftsman of steam, Newton Abbot: David & Charles, ISBN 0-7153-4256-8 Biography
North British Railway
The North British Railway was a British railway company, based in Edinburgh, Scotland. It was established with the intention of linking with English railways at Berwick; the line opened in 1846, from the outset the Company followed a policy of expanding its geographical area, competing with the Caledonian Railway in particular. In doing so it committed huge sums of money, in doing so incurred shareholder disapproval that resulted in two chairmen leaving the company. Nonetheless the Company reached Carlisle, where it made a partnership with the Midland Railway, it linked from Edinburgh to Perth and Dundee, but for many years the journey involved a ferry crossing of the Forth and the Tay. The North British built the Tay Bridge, but the structure collapsed as a train was crossing in high wind; the company survived the setback and opened a second Tay Bridge, followed soon by the Forth Bridge, which together transformed the railway network north of Edinburgh. Early on, mineral traffic became dominant and brought in much more revenue than the passenger services.
At the grouping of the railways in 1923, the North British Railway was the largest railway company in Scotland, the fifth largest in the United Kingdom. In that year it was a constituent of the new North Eastern Railway. Early railways in Scotland had been involved with conveyance of minerals—chiefly coal and limestone in the earliest times—a short distance to a river or coastal harbour for onward transport; the opening of the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway in 1842 showed that a longer distance general purpose railway could be commercially successful. During the construction of the E&GR, the money market had eased somewhat and a rapid development of long distance railways took place in England. Scottish promoters began to consider how central Scotland could be connected to the growing English network, a Government commission was established to determine the approved route, it was assumed for some time. The Commission, the Smith-Barlow Commission, deliberated for some time and presented an ambiguous report, public opinion had moved on: numerous schemes for railways were proposed, not all of them practicable.
During this frenzy, a group of businesspeople formed the North British Railway Company to build a line from Edinburgh to Berwick (later named Berwick-on-Tweed with a branch to Haddington. They got their authorising Act of Parliament in 1844; the Newcastle and Berwick Railway was building its line, in time they would form part of a through chain of railways between Edinburgh and London. This had been a race against competing railways: the main competitor was the Caledonian Railway, which planned to build from both Edinburgh and Glasgow to Carlisle, there linking with English railways that were building northwards; however the Caledonian was unable to secure enough subscriptions to present a Parliamentary Bill in 1844 and held over to the following year. The Chairman of the North British Railway, John Learmonth, saw that capturing as much territory as possible for the North British was essential in the competitive struggle, he prepared plans to build a second main line from Edinburgh to Carlisle through Hawick, attempted to gain control of the Edinburgh and Perth Railway company, itself preparing plans for its line.
In the 1845 session of Parliament Learmonth secured authorising Acts for numerous branch lines to forestall incursion by competitors. In addition, the first part of the line to Carlisle, the Edinburgh and Hawick Railway, was authorised: it was nominally independent, but in fact the shares were all owned by Learmonth and other NBR directors. In the 1845 session, the Caledonian Railway was authorised; the Caledonian was to prove a bitter rival. The Edinburgh and Perth Railway failed to get Parliamentary authorisation; the line to Hawick was to use the route of the obsolescent Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway, a horse-operated line with a non-standard gauge of sleeper-block track, a large sum had to be allocated to converting that line to main line standards. All these plans for expansion were committing huge sums of money before the main line was ready. At last on 22 June 1846 the line to Berwick and Haddington was open to the public. There were five trains daily, with an additional ten short journeys between Edinburgh and Musselburgh.
A Sunday service was operated, in the face of considerable opposition from those of a religious point of view. At first the Newcastle and Berwick Railway was not ready, passengers and goods to London had to be conveyed by road from Berwick to Newcastle. From 1 July 1847 it was open between Newcastle upon Tyne; the North British Railway was able to advertise a train service from Edinburgh to London, although passengers and goods needed to be conveyed by road across the Tweed at Berwick, across the River Tyne at Newcastle: the two river bridges were still under construction. It was not until 1850 that the permanent bridges were inaugurated, by Queen Victoria, although some working over temporary structures had taken place; the station at Edinburgh was located in a depression between the New Towns. The North British Railway obtained a cramped site close to the North Bridge, the Edinburgh and Glasgow Railway extended their line from their terminus at Haymarket to meet the NBR; the new station was operated jointly, was called "the Edinburgh station" or "the North Bridge station".
It came to be referred to as "the General station", much it
Ardrossan is a town on the North Ayrshire coast in southwestern Scotland. Although there are high levels of deprivation around the town centre of Ardrossan, the town is gentrifying but with some suburban developments around the outskirts of the town; the town has a population of 11,000 and forms part of a conurbation with Saltcoats and Stevenston. Ardrossan is located on the east shore of the Firth of Clyde. Ardrossan's roots can be traced to the construction of its castle'Cannon Hill', thought to be in around 1140, by Simon de Morville; the castle and estate passed to the Barclay family and through successive heirs until the 14th century when it passed to the Eglinton family on the death of Godfrey Barclay de Ardrossan, who died without an heir. Sir Fergus Barclay, Baron of Ardrossan was said to be in league with the Devil and in one of his dealings, set the task for the Devil to make ropes from sand; the castle stood until 1648, when Oliver Cromwell's troops had it destroyed, taking much of the stonework to Ayr to build the citadel at Montgomerieston.
The ruins of Cromwell's Fort still are overgrown and in a dangerous condition. In 1759 the Earl of Eglinton formed a herd of the ancient breed of White or Chillingham cattle at Ardrossan using stock from the Cadzow herd; the numbers dropped and in 1820 the remaining animals were dispersed. All the animals in the herd were hornless. Ardrossan developed during the 19th centuries thanks to its position on the coast. Exports of coal and pig iron to Europe and North America were the main trade from the town's port, which became a centre for shipbuilding. Fishing vessels and small cargo boats were the mainstay of the shipyard until the 1950s, when the yard ceased to exist as a result of foreign competition. A smaller yard, McCrindle's, operated until the 1980s before it ceased trading. Passenger services from Ardrossan harbour to Brodick on the Isle of Arran started in 1834, services to Belfast in Ireland and the Isle of Man followed in 1863 and 1892 respectively. Clyde sailings were operated by the Glasgow and South Western Railway Company from Winton Pier and the Caledonian Railway from Montgomerie Pier.
The Earl of Eglinton's ambitious plan for a canal link to Glasgow was never realised. Between 1841 and 1848 Ardrossan was a part of the "West Coast Main Line" equivalent of its time; the fastest route from London to Glasgow was by train to Fleetwood, by packet boat to Ardrossan. After 1848 the entire journey could be made by rail; the link to the Isle of Man no longer operates, having first been moved to Stranraer until all Scottish services terminated. Shell-Mex operated an on behalf of the Air Ministry, from a World War II aviation-fuel canning factory, the harbour was expanded for the company's tanker ships to berth. Residents blocked plans for further expansion of the refinery, limiting the operations that could be carried out there in the 1960s. Operations at Shell-Mex ceased in 1986; the harbour has been redeveloped as a marina, the passenger and vehicle ferry to Brodick is operated by Caledonian MacBrayne. Ardrossan became a burgh, in 1846, with a provost and commissioners, its burgh status was lost in 1974 on the formation of Strathclyde Regional Council, when it came under Cunninghame District.
It is now part of North Ayrshire, created as a unitary authority in 1996. In 1921 Ardossan was the European site for the first successful reception of radio signals from North America. Using a frequency near 1.3 Megahertz an amateur radio group in Connecticut sent Morse code signals to a station set up in a tent. Since 2006 Ardrossan has been part of a regeneration area, overseen by the Irvine Bay Regeneration Company, its vision for Ardrossan is as a gateway to Arran and good place to live and relax next to the sea in a regenerated town centre serving the existing and incoming community. It has started to be achieved through renewal of the town centre, which includes a derelict office in Princes Street, turned into two modern shops; the former Jack Miller's Hotel building at 78 Princes Street an, was refurbished in autumn 2010 and has been home to several businesses and including an art gallery and artists studio space called Phoenix, a graphic design studio. The old pumphouse has been transformed into an Italian restaurant.
In 2014 work started on new office accommodation beside the marina, with works due to be completed in summer 2015. The North Shore project includes the redevelopment of the oil refinery site and the extension of the marina; the town has three railway stations: Ardrossan South Beach, close to the boundary with Saltcoats. Ardrossan South Beach station is at the junction on the Ayrshire Coast Line, where the lines to Ardrossan Harbour and Largs diverge. There are two trains per hour that head eastbound from Ardrossan South Beach to Glasgow Central, of which one comes from Ardrossan Harbour, calling at Ardrossan Town, the other comes from Largs. All rail services from Ardrossan are operated by Abellio ScotRail. There are two closed railway stations: Ardrossan North was adjacent to Montgomerie Street, the platform remains can still be seen, although the redevelopment of the former Shell Bitumen Plant site edges closer to the remains. Ardrossan Montgomerie Pier was further down the line from Ardrossan North, but the building of the harbourside apartments removed the last remains of the platforms and no