Cryna is a locality in the Scenic Rim Region of South East Queensland, Australia. Part of the western border is marked by the Mount Lindesay Highway. Part of the northern boundary follow Spring Creek; the main land use in the area is agriculture. Parts of the central area are elevated along a ridge marking the northern extent of Jinbroken Range; the Beaudesert Shire Tramway did not have a station. The closest station was at the terminus in Beaudesert. Media related to Cryna, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons
Queensland State Archives
The Queensland State Archives is the lead agency for public recordkeeping in Queensland, Australia. It is the custodian of the largest and most significant documentary heritage collection about Queensland. Established in 1959, Queensland State Archives promotes the implementation of appropriate recordkeeping principles and practices across public authorities and regulates the retention and disposal of public records. Queensland State Archives develops recordkeeping policy and provides advice to public authorities on the management of public records and facilitates access to information about government for the people of Queensland. Under sections 24 and 25 of the Public Records Act 2002, Queensland State Archives has a range of functions and powers including the ability to: Issue standards regulating the creation, disposal and preservation of government records Conduct research and provide advice to public authorities about the making and preserving of public records Issue policies and guidelines to achieve compliance with the legislative policy frameworks for best practice records management Ensure the archival collection is accessible to government and the people of Queensland Identify and preserve public records of permanent value as the State’s archives Provide climate-controlled storage facilities for permanent archival records.
Recordkeeping in Queensland is not just a modern or new activity. As early as November 1861, an extract from the Brisbane Courier refers to provision of storage for valuable historical documents relating to the early history of the settlement. In 1917 the Royal Historical Society of Queensland called for a "proper system of dealing with the archives of Queensland". In 1932 the Governor of Queensland, Sir Leslie Wilson wrote to the Premier of Queensland, William Forgan Smith regarding a Central Record Office expressing his concern at the inadequate storage and subsequent destruction of many valuable public records. In 1939, Sir Raphael Cilento commented; when the Queensland Government passed the Libraries Act of 1943, Part IV of the Act dealt with public records. However, there was a provision in Part IV to postpone its implementation and archival legislation was not implemented for another 15 years. In 1953 the Government claimed that "it has not been possible to implement this portion of the Act owing to difficulties which have arisen, chief of, a lack of suitable space in which to store and display these documents."While some records were transferred to the State Library of Queensland for preservation, it was not until 31 July 1958 that Part IV of The Libraries Act 1943–1949 was proclaimed and became effective.
In 1959, Robert Sharman was appointed as the first Archivist within the State Library, Queensland State Archives commenced its activities. The Act placed archival authority in the hands of the State Librarian and made the Library Board of Queensland responsible for the destruction of records; the official position of State Archivist was not created until more than 20 years in September 1981. By the late 1970s and early 1980s a surge in genealogical and family history research created a heavy demand for reference services and access to records; the Queensland State Archives Public Search Room was expanded to accommodate more clients and a modern storage warehouse in Acacia Ridge was acquired in 1983. The State Archivist of the day, Paul Wilson focused on Queensland State Archives' role in the management of semi-current records, including the preparation of a wide range of retention and disposal schedules. In 1986 Queensland State Archives was accorded the status of a Division of the State Library of Queensland and developed a proposal for a new purpose-built facility.
The Libraries and Archives Act 1988 defined the role and functions of Queensland State Archives and gave additional protection to public records through an increase in the powers of the State Archivist. It expanded the definition of public records to include computerised records; the Queensland Government introduced the Public Records Act 2002 in July 2002. It replaced Part 7 of the Libraries and Archives Act 1988 and the Libraries and Archives Regulations 1990 with a new statute devoted to the management of public records; the Act provided a contemporary framework for the management of public records and marked a changing role for Queensland State Archives. Queensland State Archives is established under section 21 of the Public Records Act 2002 as the State's archives and records management authority. With the introduction of the Act, Queensland State Archives became the lead agency for State and local government recordkeeping in Queensland; the Act and its accompanying Recordkeeping Information Standards enable Queensland State Archives to develop and implement a comprehensive recordkeeping policy framework to ensure a consistent approach to the creation, disposal, storage and retrieval of government information.
Public authorities are required to make'complete and accurate records' in accordance with the Public Records Act 2002. To help public authorities to achieve this Queensland State Archives developed in 2002, Information Standard 40: Recordkeeping (IS40; this Information Standard aims to foster recordkeeping best practice across the Queensland public sector. The objective of recordkeeping best practice is to establish it as a systematic part of the essential business activities of all public authorities so that records are identified and retained in accessible and usable formats that preserve the evidential integrity of those records for as long as they are required. With the a
Lutheranism is a major branch of western Christianity that identifies with the teaching of Martin Luther, a 16th century German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation; the reaction of the government and church authorities to the international spread of his writings, beginning with the 95 Theses, divided Western Christianity. The split between the Lutherans and the Catholics was made public and clear with the 1521 Edict of Worms: the edicts of the Diet condemned Luther and banned citizens of the Holy Roman Empire from defending or propagating his ideas, subjecting advocates of Lutheranism to forfeiture of all property, half of the seized property to be forfeit to the imperial government and the remaining half forfeit to the party who brought the accusation; the divide centered on two points: the proper source of authority in the church called the formal principle of the Reformation, the doctrine of justification called the material principle of Lutheran theology.
Lutheranism advocates a doctrine of justification "by grace alone through faith alone on the basis of Scripture alone", the doctrine that scripture is the final authority on all matters of faith. This is in contrast to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church, defined at the Council of Trent, concerning authority coming from both the Scriptures and Tradition. Unlike Calvinism, Lutherans retain many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper. Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, divine grace, the purpose of God's Law, the concept of perseverance of the saints, predestination; the name Lutheran originated as a derogatory term used against Luther by German Scholastic theologian Dr. Johann Maier von Eck during the Leipzig Debate in July 1519. Eck and other Roman Catholics followed the traditional practice of naming a heresy after its leader, thus labeling all who identified with the theology of Martin Luther as Lutherans.
Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, derived from εὐαγγέλιον euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "Gospel". The followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition used that term. To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed; as time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped. Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Anabaptists and Calvinists. In 1597, theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church. Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark–Norway and the monarch of Sweden adopted Lutheranism.
Through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism spread into Estonia and Latvia. Since 1520, regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen. Under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark–Norway remained Catholic. Although Frederick pledged to persecute Lutherans, he soon adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers, the most significant being Hans Tausen. During Frederick's reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark. At an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in 1536, the people shouted. Frederick's son Christian was Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his father's death. However, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in 1537 he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark–Norway; the constitution upon which the Danish Norwegian Church, according to the Church Ordinance, should rest was "The pure word of God, the Law and the Gospel". It does not mention the Augsburg Confession; the priests had to understand the Holy Scripture well enough to preach and explain the Gospel and the Epistles for their congregations.
The youths were taught from Luther's Small Catechism, available in Danish since 1532. They were taught to expect at the end of life: "forgiving of their sins", "to be counted as just", "the eternal life". Instruction is still similar; the first complete Bible in Danish was based on Martin Luther's translation into German. It was published with 3,000 copies printed in the first edition. Unlike Catholicism, the Lutheran Church does not believe that tradition is a carrier of the "Word of God", or that only the communion of the Bishop of Rome has been entrusted to interpret the "Word of God"; the Reformation in Sweden began with Olaus and Laurentius Petri, brothers who took the Reformation to Sweden after studying in Germany. They led elected king in 1523, to Lutheranism; the pope's refusal to allow the replacement of an archbishop who had supported the invading forces opposing Gustav Vasa during the Stockholm Bloodbath led to the severing of any official connection between Sweden and the papacy in 1523.
Four years at the Diet of Västerås, the king succeeded in forcing the diet to accept his dominion over the national church. The king was given possession of all church properties, as well as the church appointments and approval of the clergy. While this granted official sanction to Lutheran ideas, Lutheranism did not become official until 1593. At that time the Uppsa
Coulson is a locality in the Scenic Rim Region of south-east Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 census and the surrounding area had a population of 254. Coulson is positioned on the main road linking Queensland with both Beaudesert and Ipswich. Coulson is crossed by Teviot Brook, a tributary of the Logan River at the southern end of the Teviot Range. Part of the southern boundary includes the elevated slopes of Groans Hill. Much of the land is used for agricultural purposes. Coulson State School operated from 1881 to 1993
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Barney View, Queensland
Barney View is a rural locality in the Scenic Rim Region, Australia. Mount Maroon rises to 966 m above sea level in the west of Barney View; this western section is protected within Mount Barney National Park. The upper Logan River passes through the west of the locality and marks a portion of the western border. In the south the terrain rises to more than 500 m along the northern slopes of Mount Giles; the operated Flanagan Reserve Bush Camping allows visitors to camp at a 12 ha site along the river. A Methodist church was opened in 1908. Barney View was known as Thulimbah, confused with another Queensland district of the same name, Thulimbah near Stanthorpe; the problem was resolved in 1916 by changing the name to Barney View. Barney View State School closed in 1961. Heritage-listed sites at Barney View include: 101 Mount Barney Road: Barney View Church and Cemetery Headstone photos, Barney View Uniting Church cemetery
Bromelton is a rural locality in the local government area of Scenic Rim Region in southern Queensland, Australia. At the 2011 census and the surrounding area had a population of 307. Bromelton Post Office opened on 1 July 1927 and closed in 1938; the town has a crossing loop on the Sydney to Brisbane standard gauge line. Bromelton station was served by a northbound XPT service to Roma Street and a southbound service to Sydney until it closed in 1994. In 2016 SCT Logistics commenced building a transport hub, it will open in January 2017. The Australian Rail Track Corporation has purchased land in Bromleton. Thomas de Montmorency Murray-Prior, born in Bromelton, Member of the Queensland Legislative Assembly Rosa Campbell Praed, born in Bromelton, Australian novelist List of rail yards Media related to Bromelton, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons