click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Dugong

The dugong is a medium-sized marine mammal. It is one of four living species of the order Sirenia, which includes three species of manatees, it is the only living representative of the once-diverse family Dugongidae. The dugong is the only herbivorous marine mammal; the dugong is the only sirenian in its range, which spans the waters of some 40 countries and territories throughout the Indo-West Pacific. The dugong is dependent on seagrass communities for subsistence and is thus restricted to the coastal habitats which support seagrass meadows, with the largest dugong concentrations occurring in wide, protected areas such as bays, mangrove channels, the waters of large inshore islands and inter-reefal waters; the northern waters of Australia between Shark Bay and Moreton Bay are believed to be the dugong's contemporary stronghold. Like all modern sirenians, the dugong has a fusiform body with hind limbs; the forelimbs or flippers are paddle-like. The dugong is distinguished from the manatees by its fluked, dolphin-like tail, but possesses a unique skull and teeth.

Its snout is downturned, an adaptation for feeding in benthic seagrass communities. The molar teeth are peg-like unlike the more elaborate molar dentition of manatees; the dugong has been hunted for thousands of years for its oil. Traditional hunting still has great cultural significance in several countries in its modern range northern Australia and the Pacific Islands; the dugong's current distribution is fragmented, many populations are believed to be close to extinction. The IUCN lists the dugong as a species vulnerable to extinction, while the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species limits or bans the trade of derived products. Despite being protected in many countries, the main causes of population decline remain anthropogenic and include fishing-related fatalities, habitat degradation and hunting. With its long lifespan of 70 years or more, slow rate of reproduction, the dugong is vulnerable to extinction; the word "dugong" derives from the Visayan dugung. The name was first adopted and popularized by the French naturalist Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, as "dugon" in Histoire Naturelle, after descriptions of the animal from the island of Leyte in the Philippines.

Other common local names include "sea cow", "sea pig" and "sea camel". Dugong dugon is the only extant species of the family Dugongidae, one of only four extant species of the Sirenia order, the others forming the manatee family, it was first classified by Müller in 1776 as Trichechus dugon, a member of the manatee genus defined by Linnaeus. It was assigned as the type species of Dugong by Lacépède and further classified within its own family by Gray and subfamily by Simpson. Dugongs and other sirenians are not related to other marine mammals, being more related to elephants. Dugongs and elephants share a monophyletic group with hyraxes and the aardvark, one of the earliest offshoots of eutherians; the fossil record shows sirenians appearing in the Eocene, where they most lived in the Tethys Ocean. The two extant families of sirenians are thought to have diverged in the mid-Eocene, after which the dugongs and their closest relative, the Steller's sea cow, split off from a common ancestor in the Miocene.

The Steller's sea cow became extinct in the 18th century. No fossils exist of other members of the Dugongidae. Molecular studies have been made on dugong populations using mitochondrial DNA; the results have suggested. Australia has two distinct maternal lineages, one of which contains the dugongs from Africa and Arabia. Limited genetic mixing has taken place between those in Southeast Asia and those in Australia around Timor. One of the lineages stretches all the way from Moreton Bay to Western Australia, while the other only stretches from Moreton Bay to the Northern Territory. There is not yet sufficient; the dugong's body is large with a cylindrical shape. It has thick, smooth skin, a pale cream colour at birth, but darkens dorsally and laterally to brownish-to-dark-grey with age; the colour of a dugong can change due to the growth of algae on the skin. The body is sparsely covered in short hair, a common feature among sirenians which may allow for tactile interpretation of their environment.

These hairs are most developed around the mouth, which has a large horseshoe-shaped upper lip forming a mobile muzzle. This muscular upper lip aids the dugong in foraging; the dugong's tail flukes and flippers are similar to those of dolphins. These flukes are raised up and down in long strokes to move the animal forward, can be twisted to turn; the forelimbs are paddle-like flippers which aid in slowing. The dugong lacks nails on its flippers; the tail has deep notches. A dugong's brain weighs a maximum of about 0.1 % of the animal's body weight. With small eyes, dugongs have limited vision, but acute hearing within narrow sound thresholds, their ears, which lack pinnae, are located on the sides of their head. The nostrils can be closed using valves. Dugongs have two teats, one located behind each flipper. There are few differences between sexes. A male's testes are not externally located, the main difference between males and females is the location of the genital aperture in relation t

It's Alive! (1969 film)

'It's Alive!' is a 1969 American monster movie directed by Larry Buchanan and distributed by American International Pictures, about a mad farmer who tries to feed a stranded couple to a dinosaur he keeps in a cave. The tagline was "Trapped in a Cave of Terror!". Norman Sterns and Leela Sterns are newlyweds who are driving from their home in New York City to Los Angeles, they become run out of gas, stranding them in the rural Ozark countryside. They meet a friendly paleontologist named Wayne Thomas. Wayne suggests; the farm is run by a strange man named Greely, who tells them that the gasoline truck was supposed to arrive the previous day, but since it didn't, he expects it there any minute. Greely suggests. On the way up to the house, he asks if they know anybody out here, in case they may be waiting for them, they say no, when they get inside, Greely goes off to tell his "housekeeper", Bella to make some iced tea. She argues with him on what he will "do with them", but Greely smacks her, threatens that she will "take their place" if she doesn't serve them some tea.

Thomas Greely goes outside. He tells them. Wayne tells Greely to go back to his truck and get a tool. Greely instead drags his body off. Meanwhile, Leela appears to be worried about Greely, because he is acting strange and his eyes don't look right, she compares his eyes to a stuffed lizard across the room. Greely tells them that he had to do a chore. Leela wants to go back outside, but Greely tells them that they could check out his "collection" while waiting for the truck, he takes them out to the yard and shows them his "zoo", which includes ordinary animals like turtles, coyotes and a bobcat. Greely tells them that they should have a look at his "prize", located deep in a mountain cave system behind his home, he puts them in a small room which he claims he had set up for tourists while he goes to turn on the rest of the power. However, it was a trap, as Greely drops some bars down, blocking their way out. Greely leaves the cave, laughing as Leela discovers that Thomas is inside the cell as well, badly wounded but alive.

He tells them that Greely threw him into another cavern below them, left him there, but he found a way out and crawled in the cell, right as they arrived. Norman suggests that there may be a way out down there, begins a descent into the cavern. A reluctant Wayne and Leela follow and discover a prehistoric, aquatic dinosaur coming out of a spring, which Greely feeds live victims to. Greely catches them in the enclosure and points a pistol at them, attempting to force them down in there to be eaten. Greely shoots Wayne in the abdomen, but Wayne throws an object at Greely and hits his gun hand, causing the pistol to fall into the enclosure. Norman urges Leela to go for the gun, but Greely tells him that it won't do him any good, leaves. Norman rushes down and gets the pistol, but the monster appears out of the water as Leela and Wayne warn him. Norman fires the gun at the creature, but it has no effect, it kills him before he gets the chance to escape. Bella reveals that she is not Greely's housekeeper.

Wayne convinces Bella to help them. Wayne remembers that he has some dynamite in his car, he asks Bella to sneak upstairs and bring back some of it. Greely becomes suspicious of Bella, he drugs the coffee that she brings to the prisoners. Leela and Wayne are overcome by the drug, but not before Wayne hides the dynamite; when Wayne comes to, he retrieves it, but Greely intervenes and threatens to feed Leela to the creature if she will not willingly become his new servant. Bella, having heard, goes down there. Greely recovers his pistol. Bella ignites the dynamite and explains to Greely that she plans to blow up the cave to kill both the dinosaur and Greely. Greely grabs his pistol and kills her, right as the monster is about to kill Greely; the dynamite explodes, burying the dinosaur and Greely. Wayne and Leela escape in Wayne's car to an unknown future. Tommy Kirk as Wayne Thomas Shirley Bonne as Leela Sterns Bill Thurman as Greely Annabelle Weenick as Bella Corveth Ousterhouse as Norman Sterns In 1963, John Tomerlin was adapting the Richard Matheson story "Being" for American International Pictures under the title It's Alive.

Buchanan stated that the film was shot in a cave in Arkansas in six days."One day we did 57 set-ups!" he said. "We didn't see one foot of film. Nine days we had cut and printed the film and delivered it to AlP, who made a five o'clock deadline for a package to one of their stations, it was frantic. It was a different way of doing movies."Kirk had made Mars Needs Women for Buchanan. The actor called the film "a monster movie so cheap that the monster wore a scuba suit and had ping-pong balls for eyes"; the cave scenes were filmed in Onyx Cave in Arkansas. The monster suit for the dinosaur was reused from one of Buchanan's older films, Creature of Destruction. Buchanan said "Tommy was a fine actor, but he just disappeared into the woodwork, he had a lot of emotional problems, needed to talk things out. And the problem of being the director and an Aquarius, I didn't get much sleep having to listen to those stories. After putting in a 10-hour day

Dominiko Waqaniburotu

Dominiko Maiwiriwiri Waqaniburotu is a Fijian rugby union footballer. He plays as a loose forward and lock for Section Paloise in France's Top 14, the highest division of domestic rugby union, he played for CA Brive in France in both Top 14 and ProD2, Waikato in New Zealand's ITM Cup. Waqaniburotu debuted for Waikato in 2009 after representing Waikato at Under 20 and Development level. Waqaniburotu made his International Debut for Fiji in 2010 against Australia. Waqaniburotu was made captain of Fiji for the Pacific Nations Cup in 2010 replacing previous captain Deacon Manu who returned to his club side. Waqaniburotu was a member of 2015 Fijian Rugby world cup team. In 2019 he was the squads captain. Waqaniburotu played for Top 14 French rugby club Brive CAB from 2012 until 2019, he is contracted to Top 14 team Section Paloise. WAQANIBUROTU captained Fiji to their first win over France on November 24 2018 at Stade de France in Paris. In Fiji's next match following their historic win over France, Waqaniburotu captained the Flying Fijians to their first win in over 62 years against the Maori Allblacks on July 13 2019.

2009 Air New Zealand Cup Waikato Rugby profile

Carry You

"Carry You" is a song by English boy band Union J. It was released in Ireland and the United Kingdom on 2 June 2013 both as their debut single and as the lead single from their debut studio album, Union J. During a performance in Cardiff on 15 December 2012, Union J announced that they had signed a recording contract with Sony Music, it was revealed, in January 2013, that the record label was that of sub-division, RCA Records. On 14 January, it was announced that Union J were in London recording their debut single that day, on 8 April 2013, the group confirmed the title and release of their debut single, "Carry You"; this was followed by the unveiling of the accompanying artwork, which debuted the band's logo. The track was given its radio premiere on 22 April, followed by the upload of an audio version of the single on the official Vevo account for Union J. Whilst explaining the meaning behind the single, band member Jaymi Hensley said, "The message of the song is we've been on a massive rollercoaster the last year with each other, it's about being there for each other."

He revealed, "It's there for the fans, we wouldn't be here without them." On 30 March 2013, Union J announced via their official Twitter account that the music video for the single had been filmed. On 16 April, the Daily Mail published photos of the group recording their first music video. An official teaser for the video was uploaded to the group's Vevo account on 26 April 2013; the full video first premiered through Capital TV on 29 April. The video was filmed in Nottingham and includes the band shopping and performing a gig. George Shelley had to learn how to skateboard, while JJ Hamblett said he disliked having to ride a pink flowery bicycle, admitting he would "rather be on a horse."In July 2013, a second video for the track was released, featuring scenes from Kick-Ass 2, which features the track. Clips of the music video were featured in a scene of the film. Robert Copsey of Digital Spy gave the song a mixed review, while mentioning how Union J's constant comparisons to One Direction could hinder future success.

Union J's post-X Factor debut is a calculated exercise in muscling their way in without ruffling too many feathers. "Don't say you're lonely/ Just lay your problems on me" George Shelley insists over defiant piano and spacious synths, ahead of a cutesy chorus with a suitably niggling hook. The result achieves its objective, but in doing so, lacks the impact needed for survival; the track was performed live for the first time at Futurehits Live 2013. Union J performed the song on Britain's Got More Talent on 30 May 2013, they sang it at Capital FM's Summertime Ball at Wembley Stadium on 9 June 2013 and at Chester Rocks 2013 on 15 June. Digital downloadCarry You - 3:06 Carry You - 3:06 Carry You - 2:55 Carry You - 3:02

EcoCute

The EcoCute is an energy efficient electric heat pump, water heating and supply system that uses heat extracted from the air to heat water for domestic and commercial use. Instead of the more conventional ammonia or haloalkane gases, EcoCute uses supercritical carbon dioxide as a refrigerant; the technology reduces the emission of greenhouse gas. The name of the EcoCute comes from the Japanese phrase Shizen Reibai Hīto Ponpu Kyūtō-ki, which means "natural refrigerant heat pump water heater". Eco is a contraction of either ecology or economical and Cute is a near homonym to kyūtō. Modern chemical refrigeration techniques developed after the proposal of the Carnot cycle in 1824. Jacob Perkins invented an ice-making machine that used ether in 1843, Edmond Carré built a refrigerator that used water and sulfuric acid in 1850. In Japan, Fusanosuke Kuhara, founder of Hitachi, Ltd. made an air conditioner for his own home use using compressed CO2 as a refrigerant. In 1930 Thomas Midgley, Jr. discovered dichlorodifluoromethane, a chlorinated fluorocarbon known as freon.

CFCs replaced traditional refrigerant substances, including CO2, for use in heat pumps and refrigerators. But from the 1980s CFCs began to lose favor as refrigerant when their damaging effects on the ozone layer were discovered. Two alternative types of refrigerant, hydrofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons lost favour when they were identified as greenhouse gases; the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, the Montreal Protocol and the Kyoto Protocol call for the complete abandonment of such refrigerants by 2030. In 1989, amid international concern about the effects of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons on the ozone layer, scientist Gustav Lorentzen and SINTEF patented a method for using CO2 as a refrigerant in heating and cooling. Further research into CO2 refrigeration was conducted at Shecco in Brussels, leading to increasing use of CO2 refrigerant technology in Europe. In 1993 the Japanese company Denso, in collaboration with Gustav Lorentzen, developed an automobile air conditioner using CO2 as a refrigerant.

They demonstrated the invention at the June 1998 International Institute of Refrigeration/Gustav Lorentzen Conference. After the conference, CRIEPI and TEPCO approached Denso about developing a prototype air conditioner using natural refrigerant materials instead of freon. Together they produced 30 prototype EcoCute units for a year-long experimental installation at locations throughout Japan, from the cold climate of Hokkaidō to hotter Okinawa. After this successful feasibility study, Denso obtained a patent to compress CO2 refrigerant for use in a heat pump from SINTEF in September 2000; the first commercial domestic EcoCute was marketed in Japan by Corona Corporation in May 2001, several manufacturers sold 1.5 million units there by October, 2008. FEPC reported 2 million EcoCute units had been delivered by end of October 2009, with the equivalent CO2 absorption of 9400 km² of forest. In Japan in 1998, water heating accounted for 33.8% of typical domestic energy consumption, with air conditioner and kerosene heater heating accounting for another 26.9% and cooling by air conditioner another 2.3%.

Most of the remaining 37% was spent on electrical home appliances, a field where 21st century innovations in energy conservation began to make considerable energy savings. This left hot water supply as the most difficult area for energy conservation, leaving a gap in the market for the EcoCute. By January 2005, 26 Japanese companies were producing more than 450 models of EcoCute machines, sales of domestic units increased 130-150% each year between 2001 and 2005. Denso first introduced the EcoCute outside Japan at the COP9 Milan, Italy on December 9, 2003. From 2007, Denso began concentrating on marketing the EcoCute in the EU. In Japan, the Japanese government incorporated the EcoCute into its CO2 reduction program under the Kyoto Protocol, mandating the installation of 5.2 million units in commercial and domestic properties by 2010. The cost of EcoCute is 500 thousand Japanese yen as of February - March 2009. An EcoCute machine or system consists of hot water storage unit; the sealed components are serially connected with refrigerant CO2 gas in circulation.

At the first stage, a heat exchanger collects heat from the air outside to use as energy for the refrigerant. Air flow is obtained using a centrifugal fan. A gas compressor is used to heat the gas CO2 refrigerant to around 100°C under pressure of 10MPa via adiabatic compression; the carbon dioxide becomes a supercritical fluid. Several types of compressors can be used, including dual layer cylindrical compressors, scroll compressors, dual stage rotary compressors. At the second stage a heat exchanger transfers energy from the hot refrigerant into water to produce hot water. Water temperatures around 5 up are suitable at this stage. Ejector or expansion valves reduce pressure on the refrigerant, letting it cool via adiabatic expansion and revert to CO2 gas; the EcoCute can derive two to five units of heat energy from ambient air for every unit of input electrical energy. It produces three to five units of hot water energy, resulting in reduced CO2 emissions compared to water heating via electricity or natural gas.

To prod

2nd Empire Awards

The 2nd Empire Awards ceremony, presented by the British film magazine Empire, honored the best films of 1996 and took place on 5 March 1997 at the Park Lane Hotel in London, England. During the ceremony, Empire presented Empire Awards in nine categories as well as two honorary awards; the award for Best British Director and the honorary Empire Inspiration Award were first introduced this year. The awards were sponsored by Miller Brewing Company. Trainspotting won the most awards with four including Best British Film, Best British Director for Danny Boyle and Best British Actor for Ewan McGregor. Other winners included Seven with two awards including Best Film and 12 Monkeys and Secrets & Lies with one; the Monty Python team received the Empire Inspiration Award and Freddie Francis received the Lifetime Achievement Award. Winners are highlighted in boldface; the following two films received multiple awards: 2nd Empire Awards on IMDb