Dutch Malabar known by the name of its main settlement Cochin, was the title of a commandment of the Dutch East India Company on the Malabar Coast between 1661 and 1795, is part of what is today collectively referred to as Dutch India. Dutch presence in the region started with the capture of Portuguese Quilon, ended with the occupation of Malabar by the British in 1795, they possessed military outposts in 11 locations: Alleppey, Chendamangalam, Ponnani, Cranganore, Cannanore and Quilon. The Kingdom of Cochin was an ally of the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch enlarged the Royal Palace built by the Portuguese at Mattancheri for the King of Cochin, which from on became known as the "Dutch Palace". In 1744, an impressive palace called Bolgatty Palace, was erected on Bolghatty Island for the Dutch Governors; the Dutch contributed a monumental work called Hortus Indicus Malabaricus on the medicinal properties of Malabar plants. In Cochin, the Dutch established an orphanage for poor European children and a leper asylum on Vypin.
Although motivated by the lucrative pepper trade on Malabar, the primary aim for the Dutch in capturing the coast from the Portuguese was to secure Dutch Ceylon from Portuguese invasions. After failed attempts to capture the main Portuguese fort of Goa in 1604 and 1639, the Dutch decided to aim for the secondary Portuguese trading posts on the Malabar Coast. In 1650s the Dutch possessed only the unfortified factories at Cannanore, they took Quilon on 29 December 1658, but it was reconquered by the Portuguese on 14 April 1659. On February 10, 1661 the Dutch commander of Ceylon, Adriaan van der Meyden, came to Malabar with the intention of displacing the Portuguese, at Ayyacotta he had an interview with the Calicut prince, it was agreed that Calicut, the most powerful ruler in Malabar and an enemy of the Portuguese, was to conduct an attack on the Portuguese fort at Cranganore by land backed up by the Dutch Navy. According to the treaty between the two parties, Fort Cranganore was to be made over to Calicut after its successful capture.
Van der Meyden dispersed a Nair detachment sent to stop his advance on the way and appeared before Fort Palliport on February 16 1661. The Portuguese fled by the backwaters. On March 21, Rijckloff Van Goens signed a treaty with the local chief of Paliyam on a ship anchored off the coast. Dutch forces soon attacked the palace of the queen at Mattanceri. Subsequently, the queen was taken as a prisoner. In December 1661, Portuguese Quilon was captured by a Dutch expedition under Rijckloff Van Goens; this is regarded as the beginning of the Dutch presence in Malabar. On January 3, 1662 Van Goens was joined by the Calicut army in a siege of Fort Cranganore in the tropical heat. After a fortnight, the fort surrendered, the Dutch demolished the structure with the exception of the bastion, where they stationed a garrison. A new treaty was now signed between Van der Meyden. Calicut agreed to cede Fort Cranganore and Vypin to the Dutch after the capture of the Portuguese fort at Cochin; the allies moved towards Cochin and marched upon the palace of the Raja on 5 February 1662.
The raja was killed in the subsequent battle along with two of his juniors. The Dutch proceeded to besiege the Portuguese fort. Cochin and the chief of Paliyam provided supplies to the Dutch, who faced heroic Portuguese resistance during the prolonged siege; the Native rulers of Porca and Cembakasseri kept the besieged supplied with provisions. Though disrupted by monsoon rains and the deaths of the ruler of Calicut and important Dutch officers, the garrison capitulated on January 8, 1663; the terms of the capitulation were that all the unmarried Portuguese residents were returned to Europe, all married Portuguese and Mestiços were transferred to Goa. The last governor of Portuguese Cochin was Inácio Sarmento, it was said that about four thousand people were banished and decades of Portuguese supremacy in Malabar came to an end. Fort Cochin now became the primary trading post of the Dutch colony; the alliance between Calicut and the Dutch had no chance of crystallizing into a long lasting friendship.
The Zamorin of Calicut had sought Dutch cooperation so that he might once more recover his hold on the Cochin Raja. Hence his stipulation for the cession of Vypin and reduction of the Cochin Raja to the position of a Calicut tributary in the treaty of 1662, but the Dutch, having established themselves in Cochin and Calicut, asked them to fulfill their treaty obligations. It was in these circumstances, Calicut welcomed the British and allowed them to establish a factory at Calicut in 1664; the Dutch authorities in Amsterdam were alarmed and wrote to their officers in India to "spare no pains" to secure the expulsion of the British from Calicut. The Dutch attacked Cranganore; the Dutch at once summoned their allies, Thekkumkur, Paravur and Mangatt. Calicut forces, including Moplahs and supported by a Portuguese named Pacheco, were at first successful. After a year of desultory fighting the Calicut forces withdrew, the Dutch destroyed the Fort Round and built a bastion near Cranganore. In 1669, Dutch Malabar became a separate commandment of the Dutch East India Company.
In 1670, the Zamorin of Calicut ruler was persuaded by his prince to go to Cranganore to encourage the Nairs. But, the Dutch m
Java is an island of Indonesia, bordered by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Java Sea on the north. With a population of over 141 million or 145 million, Java is the home to 56.7 percent of the Indonesian population and is the world's most populous island. The Indonesian capital city, Jakarta, is located on its northwestern coast. Much of Indonesian history took place on Java, it was the center of powerful Hindu-Buddhist empires, the Islamic sultanates, the core of the colonial Dutch East Indies. Java was the center of the Indonesian struggle for independence during the 1930s and 1940s. Java dominates Indonesia politically and culturally. Four of Indonesia's eight UNESCO world heritage sites are located in Java: Ujung Kulon National Park, Borobudur Temple, Prambanan Temple, Sangiran Early Man Site. Formed as the result of volcanic eruptions from geologic subduction between Sunda Plate and Australian Plate, Java is the 13th largest island in the world and the fifth largest in Indonesia by landmass at about 138,800 square kilometres.
A chain of volcanic mountains forms an east–west spine along the island. Three main languages are spoken on the island: Javanese and Madurese, where Javanese is the most spoken. Furthermore, most residents are bilingual, speaking Indonesian as their second language. While the majority of the people of Java are Muslim, Java's population comprises people of diverse religious beliefs and cultures. Java is divided into four administrative provinces, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Banten, two special regions and Yogyakarta; the origins of the name "Java" are not clear. One possibility is that the island was named after the jáwa-wut plant, said to be common in the island during the time, that prior to Indianization the island had different names. There are other possible sources: the word jaú and its variations mean "beyond" or "distant". And, in Sanskrit yava means barley, a plant for which the island was famous. "Yavadvipa" is mentioned in the Ramayana. Sugriva, the chief of Rama's army dispatched his men to Yavadvipa, the island of Java, in search of Sita.
It was hence referred to in India by the Sanskrit name "yāvaka dvīpa". Java is mentioned in the ancient Tamil text Manimekalai by Chithalai Chathanar that states that Java had a kingdom with a capital called Nagapuram. Another source states that the "Java" word is derived from a Proto-Austronesian root word, Iawa that meaning "home"; the great island of Iabadiu or Jabadiu was mentioned in Ptolemy's Geographia composed around 150 CE in the Roman Empire. Iabadiu is said to mean "barley island", to be rich in gold, have a silver town called Argyra at the west end; the name indicates Java, seems to be derived from the Sanskrit name Java-dvipa. The annual news of Songshu and Liangshu referred Java as She-po, He-ling called it She-po again until the Yuan dynasty, where they began mentioning Zhao-Wa. According to Ma Huan's book, the Chinese call Java as Chao-Wa, the island was called She-pó in the past; when John of Marignolli returned from China to Avignon, he stayed at the Kingdom of Saba for a few months, which he said had many elephants and led by a queen.
Java lies between Sumatra to Bali to the east. Borneo lies to the north and Christmas Island is to the south, it is the world's 13th largest island. Java is surrounded by the Java Sea to the north, Sunda Strait to the west, the Indian Ocean to the south and Bali Strait and Madura Strait in the east. Java is entirely of volcanic origin; the highest volcano in Java is Mount Semeru. The most active volcano in Java and in Indonesia is Mount Merapi. In total, Java boast more than 150 mountains. More mountains and highlands help to split the interior into a series of isolated regions suitable for wet-rice cultivation. Java was the first place where Indonesian coffee was grown, starting in 1699. Today, Coffea arabica is grown on the Ijen Plateau by larger plantations; the area of Java is 150,000 square kilometres. It is up to 210 km wide; the island's longest river is the 600 km long Solo River. The river rises from its source in central Java at the Lawu volcano flows north and eastward to its mouth in the Java Sea near the city of Surabaya.
Other major rivers are Brantas, Citarum and Serayu. The average temperature ranges from 22 °C to 29 °C; the northern coastal plains are hotter, averaging 34 °C during the day in the dry season. The south coast is cooler than the north, highland areas inland are cooler; the wet season ends in April. During that rain falls in the afternoons and intermittently during other parts of the year; the wettest months are February. West Java is wetter than East mountainous regions receive much higher rainfall; the Parahyangan highlands of West Java receive over 4,000 millimetres annually, while the north coast of East Java receives 900 millimetres annually. The natural environment of Jav
A proverb is a simple, traditional saying that expresses a truth based on common sense or experience. Proverbs are metaphorical and use formulaic language. Collectively, they form a genre of folklore; some proverbs exist in more than one language because people borrow them from languages and cultures similar to theirs. In the West, the Bible and medieval Latin have played a considerable role in distributing proverbs. Not all Biblical proverbs, were distributed to the same extent: one scholar has gathered evidence to show that cultures in which the Bible is the "major spiritual book contain between three hundred and five hundred proverbs that stem from the Bible," whereas another shows that, of the 106 most common and widespread proverbs across Europe, eleven are from the Bible; however every culture has its own unique proverbs. What is a proverb? Lord John Russell observed poetically that a "proverb is the wit of one, the wisdom of many." But giving the word "proverb" the sort of definition theorists need has proven to be a difficult task, although scholars quote Archer Taylor's argument that formulating a scientific "definition of a proverb is too difficult to repay the undertaking...
An incommunicable quality tells us that one is not. Hence no definition will enable us to identify positively a sentence as proverbial," many students of proverbs have attempted to itemize its essential characteristics. More constructively, Mieder has proposed the following definition, "A proverb is a short known sentence of the folk which contains wisdom, truth and traditional views in a metaphorical and memorizable form and, handed down from generation to generation". Norrick created a table of distinctive features to distinguish proverbs from idioms, etc. Prahlad distinguishes proverbs from some other related types of sayings, "True proverbs must further be distinguished from other types of proverbial speech, e.g. proverbial phrases, maxims and proverbial comparisons." Based on Persian proverbs and Ameri propose the following definition: "A proverb is a short sentence, well-known and at times rhythmic, including advice, sage themes and ethnic experiences, comprising simile, metaphor or irony, well-known among people for its fluent wording, clarity of expression, simplicity and generality and is used either with or without change".
There are many sayings in English that are referred to as "proverbs", such as weather sayings. Alan Dundes, rejects including such sayings among proverbs: "Are weather proverbs proverbs? I would say emphatically'No!'" The definition of "proverb" has changed over the years. For example, the following was labeled "A Yorkshire proverb" in 1883, but would not be categorized as a proverb by most today, "as throng as Throp's wife when she hanged herself with a dish-cloth"; the changing of the definition of "proverb" is noted in Turkish. In other languages and cultures, the definition of "proverb" differs from English. In the Chumburung language of Ghana, "aŋase are literal proverbs and akpare are metaphoric ones". Among the Bini of Nigeria, there are three words that are used to translate "proverb": ere and itan; the first relates to historical events, the second relates to current events, the third was "linguistic ornamentation in formal discourse". Among the Balochi of Pakistan and Afghanistan, there is a word batal for ordinary proverbs and bassīttuks for "proverbs with background stories".
There are language communities that combine proverbs and riddles in some sayings, leading some scholars to create the label "proverb riddles". Haste makes waste. You can catch more flies with honey. You can lead a horse to water; those who live in glass houses should not throw stones. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. Fortune favours. A little learning is a dangerous thing, it ain't over till the fat lady sings It is better to be smarter than you appear than to appear smarter than you are. Good things come to those. A poor workman blames his tools. A dog is a man's best friend. An apple a day keeps the doctor away If the shoe fits, wear it! Honesty is the best policy Slow and steady wins the race Don't count your chickens before they hatch Practice makes perfect. Better the devil you know than the devil you don't know Proverbs come from a variety of sources; some are, the result of people pondering and crafting language, such as some by Confucius, Baltasar Gracián, etc. Others are taken from such diverse sources as poetry, songs, advertisements, literature, etc.
A number of the well known sayings of Jesus and others have become proverbs, though they were original at the time of their creation, many of these sayings were not seen as proverbs when they were first coined. Many proverbs are based on stories the end of a story. For example, the proverb "Who will bell the cat?" is from the end of a story about the mice planning how to be safe from the cat. Some authors have created proverbs in their writings, such a J. R. R. Tolkien, some of these proverbs have made their way into broader society, such as the bumper sticker pictured below. C. S. Lewis' created proverb about a lobster in a pot, from the Chronicles of Narnia, has gained currency. In cases like this, deliberately created proverbs for fictional societies have bec
History of the Netherlands
The History of the Netherlands is the history of seafaring people thriving on a lowland river delta on the North Sea in northwestern Europe. Records begin with the four centuries during which the region formed a militarised border zone of the Roman Empire; this came under increasing pressure from Germanic peoples moving westwards. As Roman power collapsed and the Middle Ages began, three dominant Germanic peoples coalesced in the area, Frisians in the north and coastal areas, Low Saxons in the northeast, the Franks in the south. During the Middle Ages, the descendants of the Carolingian dynasty came to dominate the area and extended their rule to a large part of Western Europe; the region of the Netherlands therefore became part of Lower Lotharingia within the Frankish Holy Roman Empire. For several centuries, lordships such as Brabant, Zeeland, Friesland and others held a changing patchwork of territories. There was no unified equivalent of the modern Netherlands. By 1433, the Duke of Burgundy had assumed control over most of the lowlands territories in Lower Lotharingia.
The Catholic kings of Spain took strong measures against Protestantism, which polarised the peoples of present-day Belgium and the Netherlands. The subsequent Dutch revolt led to splitting the Burgundian Netherlands into a Catholic French and Dutch-speaking "Spanish Netherlands", a northern "United Provinces", which spoke Dutch and were predominantly Protestant with a Catholic minority, it became the modern Netherlands. In the Dutch Golden Age, which had its zenith around 1667, there was a flowering of trade, the arts and the sciences. A rich worldwide Dutch empire developed and the Dutch East India Company became one of the earliest and most important of national mercantile companies based on entrepreneurship and trade. During the eighteenth century, the power and influence of the Netherlands declined. A series of wars with the more powerful British and French neighbours weakened it; the UK seized the North American colony of New Amsterdam, renamed it "New York". There was growing conflict between the Orangists and the Patriots.
The French Revolution spilled over after 1789, a pro-French Batavian Republic was established in 1795–1806. Napoleon made it a satellite state, the Kingdom of Holland, simply a French imperial province. After the collapse of Napoleon in 1813–15, an expanded "United Kingdom of the Netherlands" was created with the House of Orange as monarchs ruling Belgium and Luxembourg; the King imposed unpopular Protestant reforms on Belgium, which revolted in 1830 and became independent in 1839. After an conservative period, following the introduction of the 1848 constitution. Modern -day Luxembourg became independent from the Netherlands in 1839, but a personal union remained until 1890. Since 1890, it is ruled by another branch of the House of Nassau; the Netherlands was neutral during the First World War, but during the Second World War, it was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany. The Nazis, including many collaborators, rounded up and killed all of the country's Jewish population; when the Dutch resistance increased, the Nazis cut off food supplies to much of the country, causing severe starvation in 1944–45.
In 1942, the Dutch East Indies were conquered by Japan, but prior to this. Indonesia proclaimed its independence from the Netherlands in 1945, followed by Suriname in 1975; the post-war years saw rapid economic recovery, followed by the introduction of a welfare state during an era of peace and prosperity. The Netherlands formed a new economic alliance with Belgium and Luxembourg, the Benelux, all three became founding members of the European Union and NATO. In recent decades, the Dutch economy has been linked to that of Germany, is prosperous; the four countries adopted the Euro on 1 January 2002, along with eight other EU member states. The prehistory of the area, now the Netherlands was shaped by its shifting, low-lying geography; the area, now the Netherlands was inhabited by early humans at least 37,000 years ago, as attested by flint tools discovered in Woerden in 2010. In 2009 a fragment of a 40,000-year-old Neanderthal skull was found in sand dredged from the North Sea floor off the coast of Zeeland.
During the last ice age, the Netherlands had a tundra climate with scarce vegetation and the inhabitants survived as hunter-gatherers. After the end of the ice age, various Paleolithic groups inhabited the area, it is known. Another group residing elsewhere is known to have made canoes; the oldest recovered. According to C14 dating analysis it was constructed somewhere between 8200 BC and 7600 BC; this canoe is exhibited in the Drents Museum in Assen. Autochthonous hunter-gatherers from the Swifterbant culture are attested from around 5600 BC onwards, they are linked to rivers and open water and were related to the southern Scandinavian Ertebølle culture. To the west, the same tribes might have built hunting camps including seals. Agriculture arrived in the Netherlands somewhere around 5000 BC with the Linear Pottery culture, who were central European farmers. Agriculture was practised only on the loess plateau in the south, but there it was not established permanently. Farms did no
The Dutch guilder or fl. was the currency of the Netherlands from the 17th century until 2002, when it was replaced by the euro. Between 1999 and 2002, the guilder was a "national subunit" of the euro. However, physical payments could only be made in guilder, as no euro coins or banknotes were available; the Netherlands Antillean guilder is still in use in Curaçao and Sint Maarten, but this currency is distinct from the Dutch guilder. In 2004, the Surinamese guilder was replaced by the Surinamese dollar; the Dutch name gulden was a Middle Dutch adjective meaning "golden", the name indicates the coin was made of gold. The symbol ƒ or fl. for the Dutch guilder was derived from the florin. The exact exchange rate, still relevant for old contracts and for exchange of the old currency for euros at the central bank, is 2.20371 Dutch guilders for 1 euro. Inverted, this gives EUR 0.453780 for NLG 1. Before the introduction of the first guilder, there were regional and foreign golden coins that were referred to as "gulden" in Dutch.
The first internationally accepted. Before that, the County of Holland had minted golden coins since 1378. An early guilder, a 10.61-gram.910 silver coin, was minted by the States of Holland and West Friesland in 1680. The original guilder design featured Pallas Athena standing, holding a spear topped by a hat in her right hand, resting with her left forearm on Gospels set on an ornate basis, with a small shield in the legend; this guilder was divided into each of 8 duiten or 16 penningen. The guilder replaced other silver coin denominations circulating in the United Netherlands: the florijn, the daalder, the rijksdaalder, the silver ducat and the silver rider ducaton. Between 1810 and 1814, the Netherlands was annexed to France and the French franc circulated. After the Napoleonic wars, the Kingdom of the Netherlands readopted the guilder. In 1817 it became decimalised, with one guilder equal to 100 cents. However, it was not until 1848 that the last pre-decimal coins were withdrawn from circulation, whilst some of the new, decimal coins continued to bear nicknames based on their values in the older currency system through to the 21st century.
Until 1948, the plural of cent used on coins was centen. The Netherlands was on a bimetallic standard, with the guilder equal to 605.61 milligrams of fine gold or 9.615 grams of fine silver. In 1840, the silver standard was adjusted to 9.45 grams, with the gold standard suspended in 1848. In 1875, the Netherlands adopted a gold standard with 1 guilder equal to 604.8 milligrams of fine gold. The gold standard was suspended between 1914 and 1925 and was abandoned in 1936. In 1914 the guilder was traded at a rate of 2.46 guilders = 1 U. S. dollar. As of 1938, the rate was 1.82 guilders = 1 U. S. dollar. One Dutch guilder in 1914 could buy the same amount of goods and services as 10.02 U. S. dollars or 8.17 Euros in December 2017. In 1938, the guilder purchasing power would be equal to 9.54 U. S. dollars or 7.78 Euros in December 2017. Overall, the guilder remained a stable currency and was the third highest-valued currency unit in Europe in the interwar period. Following the German occupation, on 10 May 1940, the guilder was pegged to the Reichsmark at a rate of 1 guilder = 1.5 Reichsmark.
This rate was reduced to 1.327 on 17 July of the same year. The liberating Allied forces set an exchange rate of 2.652 guilders = 1 U. S. dollar, which became the peg for the guilder within the Bretton Woods system. In 1949, the peg was changed to 3.8 guilders = 1 dollar matching the devaluation of the British pound. In 1961, the guilder was revalued to 3.62 guilders = 1 dollar, a change in line with that of the German mark. After 1967 guilders were made from nickel instead of silver. In 2002, the guilder was replaced by the euro at an exchange rate of 2.20371 guilders. Coins remained exchangeable for euros at branches of the Netherlands Central Bank until 1 January 2007. Banknotes valid at the time of conversion to the euro may be exchanged there until 1 January 2032. In the 18th century, coins were issued by the various provinces. There were copper 1 duit, silver 1, 2, 6 and 10 stuivers, 1 and 3 guilders, 1⁄2 and 1 rijksdaalder and 1⁄2 and 1 ducaton. Gold 1 and 2-ducat trade coins were minted.
Between 1795 and 1806, the Batavian Republic issued coins in similar denominations to the earlier provincial issues. The Kingdom of Holland minted silver 10 stuivers, 1 florin and 1 guilder, 50 stuivers and 2 1⁄2 guilder and 1 rijksdaalder, along with gold 10 and 20 guilders. Before decimalization, the Kingdom of the Netherlands issued some 1 rijksdaalder coins; the gold 1 and 2 ducat and silver ducat are still minted today as bullion coins. In 1817, the first coins of the decimal currency were issued, the copper 1 cent and silver 3 guilders; the remaining denominations were introduced in 1818. These were copper 1⁄2 cents, silver 5, 10 and 25 cents, 1⁄2 and 1 guilder, gold 10 guilders. In 1826, gold 5-guilder coins were introduced. In 1840, the silver content of the coinage was reduced and this was marked by the replacement of the 3-guilder coin by a 2 1⁄2-guilder piece; the gold coinage was su
Indonesia the Republic of Indonesia, is a country in Southeast Asia, between the Indian and Pacific oceans. It is the world's largest island country, with more than seventeen thousand islands, at 1,904,569 square kilometres, the 14th largest by land area and the 7th largest in combined sea and land area. With over 261 million people, it is the world's 4th most populous country as well as the most populous Muslim-majority country. Java, the world's most populous island, is home to more than half of the country's population; the sovereign state is a constitutional republic with an elected parliament. It has 34 provinces. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the second most populous urban area in the world; the country shares land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, the eastern part of Malaysia. Other neighbouring countries include Singapore, the Philippines, Australia and India's Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Despite its large population and densely populated regions, Indonesia has vast areas of wilderness that support a high level of biodiversity.
The country has abundant natural resources like oil and natural gas, tin and gold. Agriculture produces rice, palm oil, coffee, medicinal plants and rubber. Indonesia's major trading partners are China, United States, Japan and India. History of the Indonesian archipelago has been influenced by foreign powers drawn to its natural resources, it has been an important region for trade since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and later Majapahit traded with entities from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent. Local rulers absorbed foreign cultural and political models from the early centuries and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms flourished. Muslim traders and Sufi scholars brought Islam, while European powers brought Christianity and fought one another to monopolise trade in the Spice Islands of Maluku during the Age of Discovery. Although sometimes interrupted by the Portuguese and British, the Dutch were the foremost European power for much of its 350-year presence in the archipelago. In early 20th century, the concept of "Indonesia" as a nation state emerged, independence movements began to take shape.
During the decolonisation of Asia after World War II, Indonesia achieved independence in 1949 following an armed and diplomatic conflict with the Netherlands. Indonesia consists of hundreds of distinct native ethnic and linguistic groups, with the largest—and politically dominant—ethnic group being the Javanese. A shared identity has developed, defined by a national language, ethnic diversity, religious pluralism within a Muslim-majority population, a history of colonialism and rebellion against it. Indonesia's national motto, "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika", articulates the diversity that shapes the country. Indonesia's economy is the world's 16th largest by nominal GDP and the 7th largest by GDP at PPP. Indonesia is a member of several multilateral organisations, including the UN, WTO, IMF and G20, it is a founding member of Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, East Asia Summit, Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
The name Indonesia derives from the Greek name of the Indos and the word nesos, meaning "Indian islands". The name dates to the 18th century, far predating the formation of independent Indonesia. In 1850, George Windsor Earl, an English ethnologist, proposed the terms Indunesians—and, his preference, Malayunesians—for the inhabitants of the "Indian Archipelago or Malayan Archipelago". In the same publication, one of his students, James Richardson Logan, used Indonesia as a synonym for Indian Archipelago. However, Dutch academics writing in East Indies publications were reluctant to use Indonesia. After 1900, Indonesia became more common in academic circles outside the Netherlands, native nationalist groups adopted it for political expression. Adolf Bastian, of the University of Berlin, popularised the name through his book Indonesien oder die Inseln des Malayischen Archipels, 1884–1894; the first native scholar to use the name was Ki Hajar Dewantara, when in 1913 he established a press bureau in the Netherlands, Indonesisch Pers-bureau.
Fossils and the remains of tools show that the Indonesian archipelago was inhabited by Homo erectus, known as "Java Man", between 1.5 million years ago and 35,000 years ago. Homo sapiens reached the region around 45,000 years ago. Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population, migrated to Southeast Asia from what is now Taiwan, they arrived around 4,000 years ago, as they spread through the archipelago, confined the indigenous Melanesians to the far eastern regions. Ideal agricultural conditions and the mastering of wet-field rice cultivation as early as the 8th century BCE allowed villages and small kingdoms to flourish by the first century CE; the archipelago's strategic sea-lane position fostered inter-island and international trade, including links with Indian kingdoms and Chinese dynasties, which were established several centuries BCE. Trade has since fundamentally shaped Indonesian history. From the 7th century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished as a result of trade and the influences of Hinduism and Buddhism that were imported with it.
Between the 8th and 10th century CE, the agricultural Buddhist Saile
Duchy of Cleves
The Duchy of Cleves was a State of the Holy Roman Empire which emerged from the mediaeval Hettergau. It was situated in the northern Rhineland on both sides of the Lower Rhine, around its capital Cleves and the towns of Wesel, Xanten, Emmerich and Duisburg bordering the lands of the Prince-Bishopric of Münster in the east and the Duchy of Brabant in the west, its history is related to that of its southern neighbours: the Duchies of Jülich and Berg, as well as Guelders and the Westphalian county of Mark. The Duchy was archaically known as Cleveland in English; the duchy's territory covered the present-day German districts of Cleves and the city of Duisburg, as well as adjacent parts of the Limburg, North Brabant and Gelderland provinces in the Netherlands. In the early 11th century Emperor Henry II entrusted the administration of the Klever Reichswald, a large forested area around the Kaiserpfalz at Nijmegen directly subordinate to the Imperial rule, to local Lower Lorrainian nobles at Geldern and Kleve.
A County of Cleves was first mentioned in the 11th century. In 1417, the county became a duchy. Upon the death of Count Johann in 1368, the fief was inherited by his nephew Adolf III of the Marck. Cleves and the Marck were ruled in personal union by the House of La Marck after Adolf's elder brother Count Engelbert III had died without issue in 1391. King Sigismund of Germany raised Count Adolph I to the status of a duke and a Prince of the Holy Roman Empire in 1417; the Cleves-Mark territories became one of the most significant estates of the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle in 1500, rivaled by the Prince-Bishops of Münster. In 1511 John III of La Marck, son of Duke John II of Cleves, by his marriage with Maria inherited the fiefs of Jülich and Berge upon the death of his father-in-law Duke William IV; when John III succeeded his father as Duke of Cleves in 1521, the states of Jülich, Berge and Mark formed the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. His daughter Anne of Cleves became Queen Consort of England for a few months in 1540, as her brother William, duke since 1539, quarrelled with Emperor Charles V over the possession of Guelders and sought support from King Henry VIII.
When the last duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berge died issueless in 1609, the War of the Jülich succession broke out. The lands were divided between the Wittelsbach dukes of Palatinate-Neuburg and the Margraviate of Brandenburg, who gained Cleves with Mark and Ravensberg according to the 1614 Treaty of Xanten; the Hohenzollern margraves thereby got a first foothold in the Rhineland. Incorporated into Brandenburg-Prussia by the Great Elector Frederick William I of Brandenburg in 1666 and part of the Kingdom of Prussia after 1701, Cleves was occupied by French forces in the Seven Years' War. In 1795 the Duchy of Cleves west of the Rhine and Wesel was occupied by France, became part of the French département of the Roer; the rest of the duchy was occupied between 1803 and 1805, became part of the département of Yssel-Supérieur and the puppet-state Grand Duchy of Berg. In 1815, after the defeat of Napoleon, the duchy became part of the Prussian Province of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, which merged in the Prussian Rhine Province in 1822.
The cities Gennep and Huissen became part of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands as a result of the 1815 Congress of Vienna. 1092–1119 Dietrich I 1119–1147 Arnold I 1147–1172 Dietrich II 1172–1188 Dietrich III 1188–1198 Dietrich IV 1198–1201 Arnold II 1201–1260 Dietrich V 1260–1275 Dietrich VI 1275–1305 Dietrich VII of Meissen 1305–1310 Otto I the Peaceable 1310–1347 Dietrich VIII the Pious 1347–1368 Johann 1368–1394 Adolf III of the Marck 1394–1448 Adolph I, son of Adolf III 1394–1448 Adolph I, Duke of Cleves 1448–1481 John I, son of Adolph I 1481–1521 John II the Pious, son of John I 1521–1539 John III the Peaceful, son of John II 1539–1592 William the Rich, son of John III 1592–1609 John William, son of William Edicts of Jülich, Berg, Grand Duchy Berg, 1475–1815 online Settlement of Dortmund between Brandenburg and Palatinate-Neuburg and the conflict of succession in Jülich, in full text Map of the Duchy of Cleves in 1789