Frederick, Landgrave of Hesse-Eschwege
Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Eschwege was from 1632 until his death Landgrave of the apanage of Hesse-Eschwege, which stood under the suzerainty of Hesse-Kassel. At the instigation of his wife, Juliane of Nassau-Dillenburg, Maurice set aside a quarter of his country. Of those, Herman IV received the Rothenburg area, Frederick received Eschwege and Ernest received the former Lower County of Katzenelnbogen, Maurice himself lived with his second family in Eschwege until his death in 1632. His widow moved to Rotenburg Castle with her children, the castle and town of Eschwege were pillaged and looted during the Thirty Years War at Easter 1637. Frederick had a military career in the Swedish army, where he made it to the Major General. It is unknown whether he was active during the Thirty Years War, during the Second Northern War, he commanded a Swedish battle group. Due to his career, he spent much time at the Swedish court. His three brothers ruled his share of the Rotenburg Quarter on his behalf, even so, he cared about his subject and contributed significantly to the reconstruction after the end of the Thirty Years War.
His wife mostly stayed in Eschwege and his children were born there, Frederick died on 24 September 1655 in Poland, in the army of his brother-in-law Charles X Gustav of Sweden. He was buried in the Market Church in Eschwege, it took two years before his coffin arrived there, Hesse-Eschwege fell to his brother Ernest of Hesse-Rheinfels. The castle in Eschwege was assigned to his widow as dower and she died in 1692 and was buried in the royal crypt in the Market Church in Eschwege. The castle in Eschwege was mortgaged to Brunswick-Bevern in 1667, to raise a dowry for his daughter Christina. His full title, as immortalized on his coffin, Frederick, Frederick married on 8 September 1646 in Stockholm with Eleonora Catherine, daughter of the Count Palatine John Casimir of Kleeburg and sister of the Swedish king Charles X Gustav. They had the children, Margarete. Christine, married in 1667 to Ferdinand Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg-Bevern,7,1955, p. 43-44 Kurt Holzapfel, Landgraf Friedrichs Ende.
Gefallen 1655, beigesetzt in Eschwege 1657, in, Das Werraland, vol
Jutland, known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula, is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and the northern portion of Germany. The names are derived from the Jutes and the Cimbri, jutlands terrain is relatively flat, with open lands, heaths and peat bogs in the west and a more elevated and slightly hilly terrain in the east. Jutland is a peninsula bounded by the North Sea to the west, the Skagerrak to the north and historically, Jutland comprises the regions of South Jutland, West Jutland, East Jutland and North Jutland. There are several subdivisions and regional names, some of which are still occasionally encountered today. They include Nørrejyllland, Sydvestjylland and Slesvig, Jutland was regulated by the Law Code of Jutland. This civic code covered the Jutland Peninsula from the north of the River Eider to Funen as well as the North Jutlandic Island. The Danish part of Jutland is currently divided into three regions, North Denmark Region, Central Denmark Region and Region of Southern Denmark.
These three regions have an area of 29,775 km2, a population of 2,599,104. The northernmost part of Jutland is separated from the mainland by the Limfjord and this area is called the North Jutlandic Island, Vendsyssel-Thy or simply Jutland north of the Limfjord, it is only partly co-terminous with the North Jutland region. Inhabitants of Als would agree to be South Jutlanders, but not necessarily Jutlanders, the Danish Wadden Sea Islands and the German North Frisian Islands stretch along the southwest coast of Jutland in the German Bight. Jutland has historically been one of the three lands of Denmark, the two being Scania and Zealand. Before that, according to Ptolemy, Jutland or the Cimbric Chersonese was the home of Teutons, many Angles and Jutes migrated from Continental Europe to Great Britain starting in c.450 AD. The Angles themselves gave their name to the new emerging kingdoms called England and this is thought by some to be related to the invasion of Europe by the Huns from Asia. Saxons and Frisii migrated to the region in the part of the Christian era.
Old Saxony was on referred to as Holstein, during the First World War, the Battle of Jutland in the North Sea west of Jutland was one of the largest naval battles in history. In this pitched battle, the British Royal Navy engaged the Imperial German Navy, the British fleet sustained greater losses, but remained in control of the North Sea, so in strategic terms, most historians regard Jutland either as a British victory or as indecisive. The distinctive Jutish dialects differ substantially from standard Danish, especially West Jutlandic, dialect usage, although in decline, is better preserved in Jutland than in eastern Denmark, and Jutlander speech remains a stereotype among many Copenhageners and eastern Danes. Administratively, Danish Jutland comprises three of Denmarks five regions, namely the Region Nordjylland, Region Midtjylland and the half of Region of Southern Denmark
Ivan VI of Russia
Ivan VI Antonovich of Russia was nominally Emperor of Russia in 1740-41. He was only two months old when he was proclaimed Emperor and his mother named regent, scarcely a year his first cousin twice-removed, seized the throne in a coup, ruling thereafter as Empress of Russia. Ivan and his parents were imprisoned far from the capital and spent the rest of their lives in captivity, after more than twenty years as a prisoner, Ivan was killed by his guards when some army officers attempted to free him. His surviving siblings, who had born in prison, were released into the custody of their aunt, the Queen of Denmark. This expectation was fulfilled within two months of the birth of their first-born child, on 5 October 1740 the infant Ivan was adopted by his grandaunt and declared her heir apparent. The empress declared that her lover and advisor, Ernst Johann von Biron, duke of Courland. Indeed the desire to ensure that her lover would enjoy power, Empress Anna died soon thereafter on 17/28 October 1740.
The following day the infant was proclaimed emperor as Ivan VI, Autocrat of All The Russias, the idea of Biron wielding power was not acceptable either to Ivans parents or to most of the nobility. During his years as Annas lover he had many enemies. Within three weeks Ivans father had engineered Birons fall, at midnight on 8/19 November 1740 Biron was seized in his bedroom by partisans of the royal couple and banished to Siberia. Ivans mother, Anna Leopoldovna, was regent, though the vice-chancellor, Andrei Osterman. Upon the accession of Peter III in 1762 Ivans situation seemed about to improve, for the new emperor visited and sympathised with his plight, new instructions were sent to Ivan’s guardian to place manacles on his charge and even to scourge him should he become refractory. Under no circumstances was he to be delivered alive into anyones hands, by this time twenty years of solitary confinement had disturbed Ivans mental equilibrium, though he does not seem to have been actually insane.
Nevertheless, despite the mystery surrounding him, he was aware of his imperial origin. Instructions had been not to educate him, but he had been taught his letters. Since his presence at Shlisselburg could not remain concealed forever its eventual discovery was the cause of his demise, a sub-lieutenant of the garrison, Vasily Mirovich, learned of his identity and formed a plan for freeing and proclaiming him Emperor. At midnight on 5 July 1764, Mirovich won over some of the garrison, arrested the commandant and his jailers, on orders of their commander, an officer surnamed Chekin, immediately murdered Ivan in compliance with the secret instructions already in their possession. Mirovich and his supporters were arrested and executed shortly thereafter, Ivan was buried quietly in the fortress, and his death secured Catherine IIs position on the throne until her own son came of age
Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Maurice of Hesse-Kassel, called Maurice the Learned, was the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel in the Holy Roman Empire from 1592 to 1627. Maurice was born in Kassel as the son of William IV, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel, although Maurice had been raised in the Lutheran faith, he converted to Calvinism in 1605. On the principle Cuius regio eius religio, Maurices subjects were required to convert to Calvinism. Maurices conversion was controversial since the Peace of Augsburg had only settled religious matters betweens Roman Catholics, Maurice tried to introduce Calvinism to the lands which he had inherited from the extinct Hesse-Marburg branch of his family. Such a change of faith was contrary to the inheritance rules and it brought him into conflict with the Holy Roman Emperor, Matthias. English strolling players were frequent visitors to, and performers in, towns and cities in Germany and other European countries, including Kassel, landgraf Moritz was a great supporter of the performing arts and even built the first permanent theatre in Germany, named the Ottoneum, in 1605.
This building still exists today but as a Natural History Museum, in 1627 he abdicated in favour of his son William V. Five years he died in Eschwege and he was not only a serious musician but an expert composer. The leading musical figures whom he supported included Heinrich Schütz and John Dowland, on 23 September 1593, Maurice married Agnes of Solms-Laubach. They had six children, Hereditary Prince of Hesse-Kassel, married John Albert II, Duke of Mecklenburg. On 22 May 1603, Maurice married Countess Juliane of Nassau-Dillenburg, married John Casimir, Prince of Anhalt-Dessau. Magdalene, married Erich Adolf, Count of Salm-Reifferscheid, married Philip I, Count of Schaumburg-Lippe. Christian, Swedish colonel, died after an altercation with General Johan Banér and some other officers and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Anonymous. Free scores by Maurice, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel in the Choral Public Domain Library Free scores by Moritz von Hessen-Kassel at the International Music Score Library Project
Kholmogory, Arkhangelsk Oblast
Kholmogory is a historic rural locality and the administrative center of Kholmogorsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It lies on the bank of the Northern Dvina River. The name is derived from the Finnish Kalmomäki for corpse hill, the Kholmogory area was at first in historical times inhabited by the Finno-Ugrians Savolotshij Thsuuds, known as Yems in old Novgorod chronicles, and Karelians. The first Slavonic population to enter to Kalmamäki were Pomors from Vologda area after 1220, as early as the 14th century, the village was an important trading post of the Novgorod Republic in the Far North of Russia. Its commercial importance further increased in 1554 when the English Muscovy Company made it a center of its operations in furs, the Polish-Lithuanian vagabonds besieged the wooden fort during the Time of Troubles, but had to retreat in failure. In the course of the 17th and 18th centuries, the settlement was a place of exile, notably for ex-regent Anna Leopoldovna, in 1682, the six-pillared Kholmogory cathedral was consecrated, the biggest in the region.
It was disfigured by the Communists in the 1930s, many ancient wooden shrines and mills, still survive in the neighborhood. One of the villages is the birthplace of the Russian polymath Mikhail Lomonosov. Local artisans—such as Fedot Shubin—have been famed for their craft of carving the tusks of mammoths, in Kholmogory, a craft of Kholmogory bone carving was developed in the 17th century. The bone carvings from Kholmogory were notable for excellent craftsmanship and perfected technique, the best carving masters from Kholmogory were invited to work in the Kremlin Armoury, which performed orders for the tsar’s court. The handicraft reached its peak under the reign of Peter the Great, currently the carving is being performed at the Lomonosov Bone Carving Factory. An 18th-century walrus-ivory chess set from Kholmogory Modern works of Kolmogory craftsmen Kholmogory Bone Carving
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Duchess Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg
Elisabeth Sophie of Mecklenburg, Duchess of Brunswick-Lüneburg was a German poet and composer. She began studying music at the court of her father, Duke John Albert II of Mecklenburg-Güstrow and she moved to the court of Kassel, which had a strong musical tradition, when the Thirty Years War threatened her court in 1628. In 1635 she married the learned Augustus the Younger, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and they had two children, Ferdinand Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg Marie Elisabeth of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. Elisabeth Sophie was charged with organizing the orchestra, and at times worked closely with Heinrich Schütz. She may have collaborated with him on arias in his Theatralische neue Vorstellung von der Maria Magdalena, most of Elisabeth Sophie s compositions are hymns or devotional arias. Some of these were published in 1651 and 1667, the one printed in 1651, Vinetum evangelicum, Evangelischer Weinberg, is believed to have been the first music published by a woman in Germany. She played a role in establishing large court entertainments, including masquerades, plays.
Her additional involvement in these entertainments is unclear, two of her dramatic works survive, Friedens Sieg and Glückwünschende Freudensdarstellung. Sibylle Ursula von Braunschweig-Lüneburg was her stepdaughter, women in music, §II, Western classical traditions in Europe & the USA3