1951 British Grand Prix
The 1951 British Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 14 July 1951 at the Silverstone Circuit in Northamptonshire, England. It was the round of the 1951 World Drivers Championship and was contested over 90 laps. The race was the first victory for José Froilán González, and was the first of many for the Scuderia Ferrari team, both the team and driver achieved their first ever pole position during the weekend. José Froilán González was one second quicker than Juan Manuel Fangio in qualifying, achieving the first pole position of his career and it was the first pole position for the Ferrari team, and the first in the World Championship not scored by an Alfa Romeo. Nino Farina and Alberto Ascari qualified in third and fourth positions, González and Fangio shot away almost parallel from the front row of the grid, closely followed by the other Alfa Romeos and Ferraris. Alfa Romeo driver Felice Bonetto, who started in seventh position, was the first man at the first corner, González took the lead from Bonetto on the second lap with Fangio chasing.
The BRM cars of Reg Parnell and Peter Walker were in hot pursuit of the leaders, the team had arrived at the last minute, and had not practiced or even qualified for their debut race, and had started in 19th and 20th positions. Bonettos Alfa Romeo teammates of Fangio and reigning World Champion, Nino Farina, managed to overtake him to move into second, on lap 6, Fangio began to close in on González, he passed him on the straight on lap 10, and slowly began to draw away. Consalvo Sanesi pulled into the pits for fuel and new tyres, Farina pulled up at Abbey curve after 75 laps with a slipping clutch and his engine on fire. He had set the lap record on lap 38, with a time of 1 minute 44 seconds, González retook the lead on lap 39 with an overtake at Becketts corner. He kept his lead for the remainder of the race extending it to 1 minute and 5 seconds with 5 laps to go, before easing off at the end of the race. The BRM drivers of Parnell and Walker were still battling on, despite the fact they were suffering from hand and feet burns, the Alfa Romeos of Fangio and Farina pitted twice for fuel, owing to the awful fuel consumption of their cars.
They were doing 1 1/2 miles to the gallon, and needed to take on 70 gallons for every stop, González eventually took his own and Ferraris first victory in a World Championship race by 51 seconds. It was the first World Championship race that was not won by an Alfa Romeo, an Alfa Romeo was still in second place though, in the form of the years eventual champion Fangio. Luigi Villoresi became the second Ferrari on the podium after he finished in third place and Parnell were the other two point scorers at the race, finishing in fourth and fifth positions respectively. As it turned out, González had actually raced with a chassis and engine than his teammates, Villoresi. ^1 — Maurice Trintignant, Robert Manzon, André Simon and Philippe Étancelin all withdrew from the event prior to practice, Drivers Championship standings Note, Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
American Automobile Association
The American Automobile Association is a federation of motor clubs throughout North America. AAA is a member service organization, with 55.6 million members in the United States. AAA provides services to its members, including roadside assistance and others and its national headquarters are in Heathrow, Florida. Those individual motor clubs included the Chicago Automobile Club, Automobile Club of America, Automobile Club of New Jersey, the Automobile Club of Buffalo joined in 1903. In 1904, the AAA merged with the very first American automobile organization, the first AAA road maps were published in 1905. AAA began printing hotel guides in 1917, the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety, which conducts studies on motorist safety, was established as a separate entity in 1947. AAA created an organization called the Racing Board, and known as the Contest Board, in 1902 to officiate the Vanderbilt Cup international automobile race in Long Island, New York. The Racing Board sanctioned the Indianapolis 500 and awarded national racing championships in 1905,1916, 1920–1941, after the 1955 Le Mans disaster, AAA decided that auto racing distracted from its primary goals, and the United States Automobile Club was formed to take over the race sanctioning/officiating.
In 2005, AAA re-entered racing as a sponsor of ISC-owned tracks, in 2006, AAAs foray into racing expanded when it made a three-year commitment to sponsor Roush Racings number 6 car on the NASCAR Nextel Circuit. In 1935, AAA published Sportsmanlike Driving, the first course outline for high school teachers, in 1936, AAA published the first driver education curriculum for use in high schools. AAA has updated its driver training courses throughout the years and many clubs currently offer their own driving schools, knowing that vehicles pose a hazard to pedestrians, in 1936 AAA began a pedestrian safety program with a grant from the Automotive Safety Foundation. AAA went on to commission and publish a study of pedestrian safety for the purpose of reducing pedestrian fatalities and injuries. The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety was established as an entity in 1947. AAA has provided services to the U. S. government in times of war, during the 1940s, AAA offered its services to the Advisory Commission of the Council of National Defense in anticipation of becoming involved in World War II.
Reductions in manufacturing because of the war increased the need for conservation in automobiles, in 1944, AAA’s Keep em Rolling campaign sponsored a cross-country tour featuring cars equipped with synthetic tires. The tour demonstrated the reliability of tires made with synthetic rubber, AAA assisted in the development of a manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices and their operation during wartime. In 1946, AAA launched a campaign called Take It Easy, fatalities dropped 20 percent below the pre-war figure. In the 1960s, AAA helped draft the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966, setting safety standards for automobiles and equipment
1950 Monaco Grand Prix
The 1950 Monaco Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held on 21 May 1950 at Monaco. This race was the round of 1950 World Drivers Championship. The 100-lap race was held at a distance of 318.1 km and was won by Juan Manuel Fangio for the Alfa Romeo team after starting from pole position. Alberto Ascari finished 2nd for Ferrari and Louis Chiron finished 3rd for Maserati, the starting grid consisted of alternating rows of three and two, starting with three on the front row and continuing up to two on the 8th row. This format meant that Luigi Villoresi started 6th, despite his time being fast enough for 2nd place on the grid, thanks to an accident in practice, Alfredo Piàn did not start the race, with Peter Whitehead another non-starter. The race was marred by a large pile-up during the first lap, nino Farina in 2nd, spun and crashed while Fangio managed to escape the chaos. Those who were behind them tried to stop or avoid the carnage, none of them was injured, but José Froilán González, who damaged his Maserati in the pile-up but was subsequently running second, crashed during the second lap.
His car caught fire and he suffered burns, the race went on with many cars going off at Tabac Corner, nearly causing other accidents. Ferrari driver Luigi Villoresi charged his way from the back of the field after being delayed by the pile-up, harry Schells Cooper was the first rear-engined car to start in a championship race. ^1 — Entry cancelled prior to event, positions 1-5 determined by Thursday practice. The rest of the field was set on Saturday, Drivers Championship standings Note, Only the top five positions are listed. Only the best 4 results counted towards the Championship
The Mercedes-Benz W154 was a Grand Prix racing car designed by Rudolf Uhlenhaut. The W154 competed in the 1938 and 1939 Grand Prix seasons and was used by Rudolf Caracciola to win the 1938 European Championship. The W154 was created as a result of a change by the sports governing body AIACR. Mercedes previous car, the W125 used a 5700cc engine and was ineligible to be entered. Mercedes decided that a new car, designed from the outset to comply with the new regulations would be preferable to modifying the existing car and thus designed the W154. Although using the chassis design as the 1938 car, a different body was used for the 1939 season. As a result of the new engine, the 1939 car is often referred to as a Mercedes-Benz W163. For the 1938 season, Grand Prix racings governing body AIACR moved from a limited by weight to one limited by engine capacity. This meant Mercedes-Benzs previous car, the W125, was not eligible for entry into 1938 Grands Prix, when designing the new car, Mercedes based the chassis on that used in the W125.
The new engine allowed a maximum capacity of 3000cc with a supercharger or 4500cc without. After testing both types, Mercedes chose to use a supercharged 3000cc variant, the chassis was largely based on that of the preceding W125. The frame was constructed using oval tubes made of molybdenum to provide a stiff chassis. The bodywork of the W125 was aluminium metal, which like its predecessors was left unpainted in its bare silver colour and this brought Mercedes cars during this period, including the W154, the nickname of Silver Arrows. The suspension was identical to the W125. The rear consisted of De Dion tube, a non-independent suspension designed to keep the two wheels in parallel using a solid tubular beam. The rear had hydraulic rear dampers, which were possible to adjust from within the cockpit during a race, due to the new regulations, a completely new engine was used for the 1938 season. The M154 was a 3000cc supercharged V12, attaining an output between 425-474 horse power, in 1939, the 2-stage supercharged version of this 2,961.54 cc V12 engine recorded a test bed power of 476 BHP at 7,800 rpm.
To compensate for the engine compared to the W125, the W154 had an extra gear with a 5-speed manual transmission
Sprint car racing
Sprint cars are high-powered race cars designed primarily for the purpose of running on short oval or circular dirt or paved tracks. Sprint car racing is popular in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, typically they are powered by a naturally aspirated, mechanically fuel injected American V8 with an engine displacement of 410 cubic inches capable of engine speeds of 9000 rpm. Depending on the setup and the track layout these cars achieve speeds in excess of 160 mph. A lower budget but likewise very popular class of Sprint cars uses a 360 cubic inch engines that produce approximately 700 horsepower, Sprint cars do not utilize a transmission, they have an in or out gear box and quick change rear differentials for occasional gearing changes. As a result, they do not have electric starters and require a push to start them, the safety record of sprint car racing in recent years has been greatly improved by the use of roll cages, and especially on dirt tracks, wings, to protect the drivers.
Many IndyCar Series and NASCAR drivers used sprint car racing as a stepping stone on their way to more high-profile divisions. Foyt, Mario Andretti, Johnny Rutherford, Parnelli Jones, Johnnie Parsons, Al Unser, Sr. and Al Unser, Jr. as well as NASCAR Sprint Cup champions Jeff Gordon and Tony Stewart. In fact, having announced his retirement from NASCAR, Tony Stewart plans on returning to Sprint Car racing. It has always been his passion, according to Stewart. The National Sprint Car Hall of Fame & Museum located in Knoxville, there are a few sanctioning bodies for non-winged sprint cars. This series has become the premier non-winged sprint car series on the west coast of the United States, USAC has hosted the Silver Crown series based in the Midwestern United States state of Indiana for decades. The Silver Crown series was started in 1971 as an offshoot of the series competed for the National Championship Trail including the Indianapolis 500. Non-wing Sprint cars are considered the traditional sprint car, dating back to the first sprint cars in the 1930s and 1940s, they are essentially the same car as a Winged Sprint Car, only without wings.
In fact, many of them have the stub outs in the frame for adding wings and they use the same 410ci or 360ci Aluminum engines as their winged cousins. Their tuning and gearing are different for performance at lower RPMs than a winged car, chassis set ups and tires are different. While they dont have the top speed as a winged car. They tend to have a more extreme driving style and are often sliding sideways through corners, this makes them more dangerous than winged cars and their crashes are known for their spectacular nature. They lack the inherent safety that a wing provides and it is fairly uncommon for someone to be good at driving both wing and non-wing cars, they are very different to drive
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third-most populous city in the United States. With over 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the state of Illinois, and it is the county seat of Cook County. In 2012, Chicago was listed as a global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. Chicago has the third-largest gross metropolitan product in the United States—about $640 billion according to 2015 estimates, the city has one of the worlds largest and most diversified economies with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce. In 2016, Chicago hosted over 54 million domestic and international visitors, landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Museum of Science and Industry, and Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicagos culture includes the arts, film, especially improvisational comedy. Chicago has sports teams in each of the major professional leagues. The city has many nicknames, the best-known being the Windy City, the name Chicago is derived from a French rendering of the Native American word shikaakwa, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum, from the Miami-Illinois language.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as Checagou was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir, henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the wild garlic, called chicagoua, grew abundantly in the area. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable was of African and French descent and arrived in the 1780s and he is commonly known as the Founder of Chicago. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, which was destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn, the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis. The Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, on August 12,1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people, on June 15,1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S.
The City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4,1837, as the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States. Chicagos first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, and the Illinois, the canal allowed steamboats and sailing ships on the Great Lakes to connect to the Mississippi River. A flourishing economy brought residents from rural communities and immigrants from abroad and retail and finance sectors became dominant, influencing the American economy. The Chicago Board of Trade listed the first ever standardized exchange traded forward contracts and these issues helped propel another Illinoisan, Abraham Lincoln, to the national stage
1953 Formula One season
The 1953 Formula One season was the seventh season of the FIAs Formula One racing. It consisted only of a number of motor races. As in 1952, the FIA chose to limit all Grand Prix races counting towards the World Championship of Drivers to cars complying with Formula Two regulations rather than with Formula One. The 4th FIA World Championship of Drivers, which commenced on 18 January and ended on 13 September after nine races, was won by Alberto Ascari, Ascari became the first driver to successfully defend his title. In addition to the non-championship Formula One races and the World Championship Formula Two races, the 1953 championship was the first truly global World Championship of Drivers, with a championship event being stage outside of Europe or the United States for the first time. That race, the 1953 Argentine Grand Prix, was marred by an accident involving the Ferrari of Giuseppe Farina, the 1953 World Championship of Drivers was contested over a nine race series. The Spanish Grand Prix, scheduled to be staged on 26 October, was cancelled, the following teams and drivers competed in the 1953 FIA World Championship of Drivers.
Championship points were awarded to first five finishers in each race on an 8,6,4,3,2 basis, points for shared drives were divided equally between the drivers, regardless of the number of laps driven by each. 1 point was awarded for the fastest lap in each race. The point was shared equally between drivers sharing the fastest lap, only the best four results from the nine races counted towards a drivers total points in the World Championship. Numbers without parentheses are retained championship points and numbers within parentheses are total points scored, * Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † Position shared between more drivers of the same car ‡ Several cars were shared in this race. See the race page for details, the following Formula One/Formula Two races, which did not count towards the World Championship of Drivers, were held during 1953
1952 French Grand Prix
The 1952 French Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 6 July 1952 at Rouen-Les-Essarts. It was the round of the 1952 World Drivers Championship. Having won the previous weekends Grand Prix de la Marne, Jean Behra, driving for Gordini were regulars Robert Manzon and Prince Bira, alongside Maurice Trintignant, who replaced Johnny Claes from the lineup for the previous round. Claes entered the race in a Simca-Gordini under his own Ecurie Belge label, Ferrari retained their lineup of Ascari and Taruffi, who had locked out the front row of the grid in Belgium. HWM again ran regular drivers Lance Macklin and Peter Collins, this time alongside Frenchman Yves Giraud-Cabantous, while the factory Maserati team remained absent, their new car, the A6GCM, made its World Championship debut, driven by Philippe Étancelin of Escuderia Bandeirantes. Enrico Platé entered a pair of older Maseratis, the 4CLT/48 model, for Toulo de Graffenried, completing the grid were Peter Whitehead, in a privately run Alta, and Mike Hawthorn, who again took part in a Cooper-Bristol.
Ascari took his second pole position, with his Ferrari teammates Farina. The Gordini team locked out the row, with Behra and Manzon qualifying in fourth and fifth. Their teammates Trintignant and Bira started from the row, alongside Peter Collins in the fastest of the HWMs. The new Maserati A6GCM proved a disappointment, with Philippe Étancelin only managing to qualify on the row of the grid. The Ferraris once again dominated the race, with Alberto Ascari leading Farina from start to finish, Manzon finished fourth, a lap behind Taruffi, while his teammate Maurice Trintignant took the final points-scoring position of fifth. HWM driver Peter Collins took sixth, two laps behind Trintignant, ahead of Jean Behra, for whom seventh represented something of a recovery and his race had been compromised when he crashed and consequently needed to pit. Ascaris win, and fastest lap, ensured that he took a five-point lead in the Drivers Championship, farinas second consecutive second-place finish took him to third in the standings, one point adrift of Taruffi.
Indianapolis 500 winner Troy Ruttman was a further four points behind in fourth, ^1 — Piero Taruffi qualified and drove the entire race in the #12 Ferrari. Luigi Villoresi, who was entered in the same car, was unable to participate due to injury. ^2 — Toulo de Graffenried qualified and drove 26 laps of the race in the #16 Maserati, Harry Schell, whose own vehicle had already retired, took over the car for a further 8 laps before again being forced to retire. ^3 — Philippe Étancelin qualified and drove the race in the #28 Maserati. Eitel Cantoni was entered in the car, but took no part in the Grand Prix after being fired, ^4 — Chico Landi withdrew from the event prior to practice
1954 Formula One season
The 1954 Formula One season was eighth season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1954 World Championship of Drivers and a number of non-championship races, the World Championship of Drivers was contested over a nine race series which commenced on 17 January and ended on 24 October 1954. The championship was won by Juan Manuel Fangio who drove, and won races, argentine drivers gained the first two positions in the championship with José Froilán González placing second to his compatriot Fangio. With Formula One changing to 2, fangios French success had come after switching from the Maserati team with whom he had won the first two Grands Prix of the season. Reigning champion Alberto Ascari had a successful switch of teams. Unfortunately for him, Lancias car, the D50, was not ready until the final World Championship race, Championship points were awarded for first five places in each race on an 8,6,4,3,2 basis with 1 point awarded for the fastest lap. Only the best five of nine scores counted towards the championship, points for shared drives were divided equally between the drivers, regardless of who had driven more laps unless one of the drivers was deemed to have completed insufficient distance.
Drivers who shared more than one car during a race received points only for their highest finish, argentine Onofre Marimon was killed during practice for the German Grand Prix driving a Maserati 250F. It was the first fatality at a championship Formula One race weekend, the following races counted towards the 1954 World Championship of Drivers. All championship races were open to cars complying with FIA Formula One regulations with the exception of the Indianapolis 500 which was for cars complying with AAA National Championship regulations. The Dutch Grand Prix was originally supposed to be held at Zandvoort but there was no money for the race to be held, the German Grand Prix was given the honorary title of being the European Grand Prix of 1954. The following teams and drivers competed in the 1954 FIA World Championship of Drivers, italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position † Position shared between multiple drivers of the same car ‡ Several cars were shared in this race. See the race page for details, only the best 5 results counted towards the Championship.
Numbers without parentheses are Championship points, numbers in parentheses are total points scored, the following is a summary of the races for Formula One cars staged during the 1954 season that did not count towards the 1954 World Championship of Drivers
1952 British Grand Prix
The 1952 British Grand Prix was a Formula Two race held on 19 July 1952 at Silverstone Circuit. It was the round of the 1952 World Drivers Championship. New pit facilities had been built on the straight between Woodcote and Copse corners, the pits were located between Abbey and Woodcote. Jean Behra was unable to part in the British Grand Prix. Consequently, Maurice Trintignant took over Behras Gordini T16 for Silverstone, the Gordini team fielded regular drivers Robert Manzon and Prince Bira. As in the race, Belgian driver Johnny Claes entered a privateer Simca-Gordini under the Ecurie Belge moniker. Ferrari stuck with the three drivers — Alberto Ascari, Nino Farina and Piero Taruffi — who had monopolised the podium positions at the French Grand Prix. There were a number of privateer Ferrari entrants and Hirt for Ecurie Espadon, Peter Whitehead, HWM continued their policy of partnering regulars Peter Collins and Lance Macklin with a local driver, in this case Duncan Hamilton. The three works Ferraris, led on occasion by Farina, again qualified in the top three positions on the grid, this time being joined on the four-car front row by Manzon.
The second row consisted of Downing alongside Reg Parnell and Mike Hawthorn in a pair of Cooper-Bristols, the Connaughts of Poore and Thompson shared row three with Biras Gordini and Hamilton in his HWM. Ascari took the lead at the start of the race and held onto it for the whole 85 laps, taking his third consecutive victory in the World Championship. Polesitter Nino Farina was in place for the first 26 laps but he dropped down the field when he needed to pit to change spark plugs, eventually finishing in sixth. Despite making a bad start saw him drop to ninth by the end of the first lap, fellow Ferrari driver Taruffi recovered to take second place. Dennis Poore, who had been running in third after Farinas pit stop and this allowed Hawthorn to inherit third place, which he held for the remainder of the race. He finished a lap behind Taruffi and took his first World Championship podium in just his third race, Poore took fourth, ahead of Connaught teammate Eric Thompson in the fifth and final points position.
Ascaris win, coupled with yet another fastest lap, allowed him to extend his lead in the Drivers Championship once again and he now enjoyed an eight-point lead over fellow Ferrari driver Taruffi. Farina, having not scored any points, was seven points adrift of Taruffi, ^1 — Roy Salvadori qualified and drove the entire race in the #14 Ferrari. Bobbie Baird, named substitute driver for the car, was not used during the Grand Prix, ^2 — Louis Rosier and Ken Wharton both withdrew from the event prior to practice
1941 Indianapolis 500
The 29th International 500-Mile Sweepstakes Race was held at Indianapolis Motor Speedway on Friday, May 30,1941. Floyd Davis was the driver for the #16 car. On lap 72, Davis came in for a pit stop, Rose had started the race in another car and dropped out earlier. Car owner Lou Moore was apparently unsatisfied with Davis performance thus far in the race, Rose charged up the standings and took the lead in the #16 car, and went on to win. Both drivers were credited as co-winners, similar to what occurred in the 1924 race and this marked the last time that one car would carry two drivers to victory at Indy. Speedway president Eddie Rickenbacker did not attend the race, and instead listened to it on the radio and he was recovering from injuries suffered in a near-fatal plane crash a few months before the race. Sam Hanks was injured in a crash the day before the race. He was credited with 33rd place, on the morning of the race a fire broke out in the garage area. George Barringers revolutionary rear-engined car was destroyed, at the time, the car was being refueled.
In a nearby garage, another car which was owned by Joel Thorne was being worked on with a welder, the fumes caught fire from the sparks of the welding, and a huge fire broke out which burned down about a third of the southern bank of garages. The start of the race was delayed by a couple hours, Barringers car was withdrawn, and he was credited with 32nd finishing position. With Sam Hanks and Barringer out, the lined up with only 31 cars. Two-time defending champion Wilbur Shaw crashed while leading on lap 152, as of 2016, no driver has ever won the Indianapolis 500 three consecutive years. He would have become the first four-time winner of the 500. Going down the mainstretch, the car lost control, and hit the outside wall, Shaw was drenched with fuel, and suffered a back injury which left him immobile for several minutes. Despite the fuel spill, the fuel did not ignite, and it is believed that the morning fire had an effect on Shaws efforts. At some point before the race, Shaws crew was preparing his tires for race day, one particular wheel was determined to be out of balance, and rather than being discarded, it was labeled in chalk with the words USE LAST.
However, the water hoses are believed to have washed off the chalk message
The straight-eight engine or inline-eight engine is an eight-cylinder internal combustion engine with all eight cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase. The type has been produced in side-valve, IOE, overhead-valve, sleeve-valve, a straight-eight can be timed for inherent primary and secondary balance, with no unbalanced primary or secondary forces or moments. However, crankshaft torsional vibration, present to some degree in all engines, is sufficient to require the use of a harmonic damper at the end of the crankshaft. Without such damping, fatigue cracking near the main bearing journal may occur. Also, due to the number of power strokes per revolution. The smooth running characteristics of the straight-eight made it popular in luxury, the engines length demanded the use of a long engine compartment, making the basic design unacceptable in modern vehicles. Also, due to the length of the engine, torsional vibration in both crankshaft and camshaft can adversely affect reliability and performance at high speeds, as a result, the design has been displaced almost completely by the shorter V8 engine configuration.
The first straight-eight was conceived by Charron, Girardot et Voigt in 1903, great strides were made during World War I, as Mercedes made straight-eight aircraft engines like the Mercedes D. IV. The disadvantages of crank and camshaft twisting were not considered at this time, unlike the V8 engine configuration, examples of which were used in De Dion-Bouton, Scripps-Booth, and Cadillac automobiles by 1914, no straight-eight engines were used in production cars before 1920. The Duesenberg brothers introduced their first production straight-eight in 1921, straight-eight engines were used in expensive luxury and performance vehicles until after World War II. Bugattis and Duesenbergs commonly used double overhead cam straight-eight engines, other notable straight-eight-powered automobiles were built by Daimler, Mercedes-Benz, Isotta-Fraschini, Alfa Romeo, Stearns-Knight and Packard. One marketing feature of engines was their impressive length — some of the Duesenberg engines were over 4 ft long, resulting in the long hoods found on these automobiles.
In the United States in the 1920s, automobile manufacturers, including Chandler, Gardner, Engine manufacturer Lycoming built straight-eight engines for sale to automobile manufacturers, including Gardner and Locomobile. The automobile manufacturers within the Cord Corporation, comprising Auburn, Lycoming continues to this day as an aircraft engine manufacturer. In the late 1920s, volume sellers Hudson and Studebaker introduced straight-eight engines for the vehicles in their respective lines. They were followed in the early 1930s by Nash, REO, and the Buick, the Buick straight-eight engine was an overhead valve design, while the Oldsmobile and Pontiac straight-eights were flathead engines. Chevrolet, as a marque, did not have a straight-eight. Cadillac, the brand of General Motors, stayed with their traditional V8 engines