Duke University is a private research university in Durham, North Carolina. Founded by Methodists and Quakers in the present-day town of Trinity in 1838, the school moved to Durham in 1892. In 1924, tobacco and electric power industrialist James Buchanan Duke established The Duke Endowment and the institution changed its name to honor his deceased father, Washington Duke. Duke is ranked as one of the world's top 20 universities, is ranked top 10 in the United States; the Wall Street Journal has named Duke as the best university for graduate outcomes for several years in a row. Several faculty members and alumni have been awarded the Nobel Prize in recent years. Notable examples since 2012 include Robert Lefkowitz, Brian Kobilka, Gregg L. Semenza, Paul Modrich, William Kaelin, George Smith. In 2019, Clarivate Analytics named 54 members of Duke's faculty to its list of "Highly Cited Researchers"; that number places Duke 8th among the world's universities behind Harvard, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Max Planck Society, Broad Institute, UC Berkeley and WUSTL.
Duke's campus spans over 8,600 acres on three contiguous sub-campuses in Durham as well as a marine lab in Beaufort. The West Campus—designed by architect Julian Abele—incorporates Gothic architecture with the 210-foot Duke Chapel at the campus' center and highest point of elevation, is adjacent to the Medical Center. East Campus, 1.5 miles away, home to all first-years, contains Georgian-style architecture. The university administers two concurrent schools in Asia, Duke-NUS Medical School in Singapore and Duke Kunshan University in Kunshan, China; as of 2019, 15 Nobel laureates and 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the university. Duke alumni include 50 Rhodes Scholars and 25 Churchill Scholars; the university has produced the fifth-highest number of Rhodes, Truman and Udall Scholars of any American university between 1986 and 2015. Duke started in 1838 as Brown's Schoolhouse, a private subscription school founded in Randolph County in the present-day town of Trinity. Organized by the Union Institute Society, a group of Methodists and Quakers, Brown's Schoolhouse became the Union Institute Academy in 1841 when North Carolina issued a charter.
The academy was renamed Normal College in 1851 and Trinity College in 1859 because of support from the Methodist Church. In 1892, Trinity College moved to Durham due to generosity from Julian S. Carr and Washington Duke and respected Methodists who had grown wealthy through the tobacco and electrical industries. Carr donated land in 1892 for the original Durham campus, now known as East Campus. At the same time, Washington Duke gave the school $85,000 for an initial endowment and construction costs—later augmenting his generosity with three separate $100,000 contributions in 1896, 1899, 1900—with the stipulation that the college "open its doors to women, placing them on an equal footing with men." In 1924 Washington Duke's son, James B. Duke, established The Duke Endowment with a $40 million trust fund. Income from the fund was to be distributed to hospitals, the Methodist Church, four colleges. William Preston Few, the president of Trinity at the time, insisted that the institution be renamed Duke University to honor the family's generosity and to distinguish it from the myriad other colleges and universities carrying the "Trinity" name.
At first, James B. Duke thought the name change would come off as self-serving, but he accepted Few's proposal as a memorial to his father. Money from the endowment allowed the University to grow quickly. Duke's original campus, East Campus, was rebuilt from 1925 to 1927 with Georgian-style buildings. By 1930, the majority of the Collegiate Gothic-style buildings on the campus one mile west were completed, construction on West Campus culminated with the completion of Duke Chapel in 1935. In 1878, Trinity awarded A. B. degrees to three sisters—Mary and Theresa Giles—who had studied both with private tutors and in classes with men. With the relocation of the college in 1892, the Board of Trustees voted to again allow women to be formally admitted to classes as day students. At the time of Washington Duke's donation in 1896, which carried the requirement that women be placed "on an equal footing with men" at the college, four women were enrolled. In 1903 Washington Duke wrote to the Board of Trustees withdrawing the provision, noting that it had been the only limitation he had put on a donation to the college.
A woman's residential dormitory was built in 1897 and named the Mary Duke Building, after Washington Duke's daughter. By 1904, fifty-four women were enrolled in the college. In 1930, the Woman's College was established as a coordinate to the men's undergraduate college, established and named Trinity College in 1924. Engineering, taught at Duke since 1903, became a separate school in 1939. In athletics, Duke hosted and competed in the only Rose Bowl played outside California in Wallace Wade Stadium in 1942. During World War II, Duke was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a navy commission. In 1963 the Board of Trustees desegregated the undergraduate college. Duke enrolled its first black graduate students in 1961; the school did not admit Black undergraduates until September 1963. The teaching staff remained all-White until 1966. Increased activism on campus during the 1960s prompted Ma
The Trans-European conventional rail network, together with the Trans-European high-speed rail network, make up the Trans-European Rail network, which in turn is one of a number of the European Union's Trans-European transport networks. It was defined by the Council Directive 2001/16/EC of 19 March 2001; the aim of this EU Directive is to achieve the interoperability of the European conventional rail network at the various stages of its design and operation. The network is defined as a system consisting of a set of infrastructures, fixed installations, logistic equipment and rolling stock. By definition of the EC decision, the conventional rail network may be subdivided into the following categories: lines intended for passenger services lines intended for mixed traffic lines specially designed or upgraded for freight services passenger hubs freight hubs, including inter-modal terminals lines connecting the components mentioned aboveThis infrastructure includes traffic management and navigation systems.
The rolling stock may comprise all the stock to travel on all or part of the trans-European conventional rail network. The EU has decided on nine "core network corridors" within the TEN-T framework, which are: The Scandinavian–Mediterranean Corridor: Hamina–Helsinki–Turku, Stockholm/Oslo–Copenhagen/Rostock–Hamburg/Berlin–Kassel/Leipzig–Nuremberg-Regensburg–Munich–Innsbruck–Verona–Florence–Rome–Naples–Messina/Bari–Palermo/Taranto–Valletta The North Sea–Baltic Corridor: Rotterdam–Amsterdam/Brussels–Hannover–Berlin–Warsaw–Kaunas–Riga–Tallinn The North Sea–Mediterranean Corridor: Cork–Dublin–Belfast, Glasgow/Edinburgh/Holyhead–Manchester–Birmingham–London–Brussels–Luxembourg–Strasbourg/Nancy–Lyon–Marseille/Montpellier The Baltic–Adriatic Corridor: Gdańsk/Szczecin–Warsaw/Poznań–Łódź/Wrocław–Katowice–Ostrava–Brno/Bratislava–Vienna–Ljubljana/Udine–Venice–Bologna–Ravenna The Orient/East–Mediterranean Corridor: Hamburg/Bremen/Rostock–Hannover–Leipzig/Berlin–Dresden–Prague–Vienna/Bratislava–Budapest–Timișoara–Sofia–Burgas/Athens–Patras/Limassol–Nicosia The Rhine–Alpine Corridor: Amsterdam/Rotterdam/Ostend–Düsseldorf/Brussels–Cologne–Frankfurt–Basel–Bern–Novara/Milan–Genoa The Atlantic Corridor: Lisbon/Porto/Algeciras–Salamanca/Madrid–San Sebastián–Bordeaux–Paris–Le Havre/Mannheim/Strasbourg The Rhine–Danube Corridor: Strasbourg–Frankfurt–Prague–Kosice/Strasbourg–Stuttgart–Munich–Vienna–Bratislava–Budapest–Timișoara–Bucharest–Costanța The Mediterranean Corridor: Algeciras–Seville/Málaga–Madrid/Valencia–Barcelona–Montpellier–Lyon–Turin–Milan–Venice–Ljubljiana–Zagreb–BudapestThe listed routes are approximate and there are branches on several of them.
Gerald Brooke was a British teacher who taught Russian in the early 1960s at Holborn College for Law and Commerce in Holborn, central London. In 1965 he travelled to the Soviet Union. Brooke and his wife Barbara were arrested on 25 April by KGB agents for smuggling anti-Soviet leaflets. Barbara was released and returned to Britain, but Gerald was sentenced to five years' detention, including four years in labour camps, for "subversive anti-Soviet activity on the territory of the Soviet Union". Brooke lived in Finchley in northwest London and his case was raised in the House of Commons by local MP Margaret Thatcher. After four years in custody he was exchanged, on 24 July 1969, for Soviet spies Morris and Lona Cohen, whose "worknames" while in the UK were Peter and Helen Kroger, arrested by Special Branch detectives; the Russian authorities only told Brooke he was being sent home 24 hours before he was released back to Britain. Upon his arrival at Heathrow Brooke was surprised by the huge presence of reporters.
He explained that he was suffering from an inflamed colon, aggravated by prison food, he was not used to speaking English or seeing so many people. Prevented from saying too much about his ordeal he stated that prison conditions "were not soft." The Cohens returned to the Soviet Union in October 1969 after serving nine years of their 20-year sentence. Such exchanges had happened before. Notable examples included Soviet spy Rudolf Abel for U2 pilot Gary Powers and Konon Molody for Greville Wynne, but British Prime Minister Harold Wilson's Labour Government was criticised by the opposition for agreeing to release Peter and Helen Kroger in exchange for Brooke. Opponents claimed it set a dangerous precedent, was an example of blackmail rather than a fair exchange. Brooke claimed he had passed on concealed documents, including codes, on behalf of the National Alliance of Russian Solidarists. In years, Gerald Brooke taught Russian language, inter alia, at the Languages Faculty of the University of Westminster.
The Languages Faculty was based in Euston Road, London