Duke of Albany

Duke of Albany was a peerage title, bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and the British royal family in the Houses of Stuart and Windsor. The Dukedom of Albany was first granted in 1398 by King Robert III of Scotland on his brother, Robert Stewart, the title being in the Peerage of Scotland. "Albany" was a broad territorial term representing the parts of Scotland north of the River Forth the former Kingdom of the Picts. The title was the first Dukedom created in Scotland, it passed to Robert's son Murdoch Stewart, was forfeited in 1425 due to the attainder of Murdoch. The title was again created in 1458 for Alexander Stewart but was forfeit in 1483, his son John Stewart was restored to the second creation in 1515 but died without heirs in 1536. In 1541 Robert, second son of James V of Scotland, was styled Duke of Albany, but he died at less than a month old; the fourth creation, along with the Earldom of Ross and Lordship of Ardmannoch, was for Mary, Queen of Scots' king consort Lord Darnley, whose son James VI of Scotland, I of England and Ireland, inherited the titles on his death.

That creation merged with the Scottish crown upon James's ascension. The title, along with the title of Duke of York, with which it has since been traditionally coupled, was created for a fifth time in 1604 for Charles, son of James VI and I. Upon Charles's ascent to the throne in 1625, the title of Duke of Albany merged once again in the crowns; the title was next granted in 1660 to Charles I's son, James, by Charles II. When James succeeded his elder brother to the throne in 1685, the titles again merged into the crown; the cities of New York and Albany, New York, were thus both named after James, as he was the Duke of York and of Albany. The pretender, Charles Edward Stuart, gave the title Duchess of Albany to his illegitimate daughter Charlotte; the title "Duke of York and Albany" was granted three times by the Hanoverian kings. The title of "Albany" alone was granted for the fifth time, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, in 1881 to Prince Leopold, the fourth son of Queen Victoria.

Prince Leopold's son, Prince Charles Edward, was deprived of the peerage in 1919 for bearing arms against the United Kingdom in World War I. His grandson, Ernst Leopold, only son of Charles Edward's eldest son Johann Leopold, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, sometimes used the title "Duke of Albany", although the Titles Deprivation Act 1917 stipulates that any successor of a suspended peer shall be restored to the peerage only by direction of the sovereign, the successor's petition for restoration having been submitted for and obtained a satisfactory review of the appropriate Privy Council committee. Other titles: Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan, Earl of Atholl Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, third son of Robert IIOther titles: Earl of Menteith, Earl of Fife, Earl of Buchan Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, eldest son of the 1st Duke was attainted and his honours forfeit in 1425 Other titles: Earl of March, Earl of Mar and Earl of Garioch Alexander Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany, second son of James II, forfeited his honours in 1479, was restored in 1482 forfeited them again in 1483Other titles: Earl of March John Stewart, 2nd Duke of Albany, only legitimate son of the 1st Duke, was restored to his father's dukedom and Earldom of March in 1515.

The honours became extinct upon his death without issue Thomas Norton and Thomas Sackville's play Gorboduc includes Fergus, the Duke of Albany, who tries to claim the British throne after Gorboduc's death through his royal descent. William Shakespeare's King Lear includes as a major character the Duke of Albany, husband to Lear's daughter Goneril. In the movie Kate & Leopold, Leopold is the Duke of Albany meant to be the same person as the historic Prince Leopold, Duke of Albany, who would have held the title at that time, as the fictitious character comments that his surname is Mountbatten. Duchess of Albany Duke of York Duke of York and Albany Alba Albany

Ned Hanlan

Edward "Ned" Hanlan was a professional sculler and alderman from Toronto, Canada. Hanlan was born to Irish parents, his mother was Mary Gibbs, his father, was first a fisherman and a hotel keeper on the Toronto Islands. The Hanlan family lived at the east end of Toronto Island, but a severe storm in 1865 pushed their house into the harbour, it washed ashore at the island's west end. A few years Hanlan's father built a small hotel there, the area started becoming known as Hanlan's Point, long before Hanlan became famous. Young Hanlan used to row several kilometres across the harbour to go to and from George Street public school, Toronto every day, he developed speed and strength by rowing his boat with freshly-caught fish to sell at market before other fishermen arrived to compete. By the time Hanlan was a teenager, he was competing in rowing events and he gained his first important success at the age of eighteen, when he became amateur champion of Toronto Bay, he turned professional in c. 1874 / 5 and soon afterwards he beat all comers at the Centennial International Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876.

In 1877 he became champion sculler of Canada, followed by Champion sculler of the United States in 1878. That same year, Hanlan won the Dufferin Gold Medal. After further success in North America he decided to test his mettle against Europe and traveled to England in 1879 where, on 16 June 1879 he defeated the English champion, W. Elliott of Blyth, rowing the course from the Mansion House in Newcastle upon Tyne to the Scotswood Bridge on the River Tyne in the record time of 21 minutes 2 seconds, he lost only six of his 300 races during his rowing career. He was the world sculling champion for five consecutive years from 1880-1884. Unlike his English professional rivals, he used the slide with the swing, kept his body well back, held his arms straight long past the perpendicular before bending them, added strength being given by the skilful use of his great leg power. With this triple crown the Hanlan Club disbanded, its mission accomplished, but the oarsman himself had one more goal, the World Championship, held by Australian Edward Trickett.

On 15 November 1880 he raced him on the River Thames's historic Putney to Mortlake course and, with 100,000 spectators lining the banks, won easily. In doing so he became Canada's first world sporting champion in an singles event, he rowed a boat built by George Warin of Toronto. News of Hanlan's success, spread by telegraph and newspaper, touched off a rare moment of communion among English-speaking Canadians, his victory enriched “hundreds” of Ontarians “from Judges to peanut vendors” who had backed him with cabled wagers. Hanlan was an active champion, accepting frequent challenges and racing against the larger fields of non-title regattas. Defending his United States title against the latest American hope was lucrative. In 1878 he had won an unprecedented $10,000 by defeating Charles Edward Courtney at Que. Two years Hanlan beat him again in Washington, D. C. winning $6,000. Although it was the champion's prerogative to veto the site of any match, he never insisted on home advantage. Three months after he trounced Trickett he defended his world title against another Australian, Elias C.

Laycock, on the Thames. In 1882 he returned to beat Englishman R. W. Boyd and, a month Trickett again; the following year, after a bout with typhoid which had led to reports of his death, he turned back challenges in the United States from James Kennedy, an American, Wallace Ross. There is some debate about these two races as they are not recorded in the list of Championship Races such as the one published in 1930 by the British Rowing Almanac nor in other publications. There is no doubt; the Kennedy match was rowed in Boston. Wallace Ross had beaten Hanlan in an earlier non-title match and thus claimed to be the unofficial World Champion. To try to make it official Ross challenged Hanlan and the match took place in New York. Hanlan won and made a record time in the process by taking fifty seconds off the previous best time for the four mile course; these two matches were the only World Championship matches held in the US, other than one in 1932. In 1884 Hanlan again beat this time on the Nepean River, in New South Wales.

Strangely enough, of the twelve Championship races that Hanlan rowed none of them was raced in Canada. For further details of his Championship races see World Sculling Championship. Hanlan's genius was a superbly efficient stroke – he was the father of the modern technique, he took full advantage of the sliding seat, not only to obtain greater reach but to drive with the large muscles of the legs in a coordinated, fluid motion so that the power of his whole body was marshalled into every stroke. This movement was no easy task in a tipsy shell. Novices were discouraged from employing the slider for many years, many of his rivals who did use it pulled with their arms. Hanlan, only 5 feet 8 3/4 inches tall, weighed a mere 150 pounds in most of his races, yet his powerful stroke enabled him to beat larger, stronger men. While he rowed at more than 36 strokes per minute, compared with as many as 42 for his rivals, he led from the start toying with opponents. During his championship race against Morris he slowed down, twice stopped altogether, to enable the American to make a race of it.

He competed with icy calm and, although the term had yet to be coined, was a master at "psyching out" opponents with timely taunts. He had no q

Joseph Li Jing

Joseph Li Jing is a Chinese Catholic priest and Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ningxia since December 20, 2009. Li was born on November 15, 1968, in Bayannur, Inner Mongolia, but from a Muslim family in Ningxia, he studied at an institute in Beijing since 1985. In 1994 he pursued advanced studies in Germany and returned to China in 1998, he was ordained a priest on August 8, 1996. After returning to China he worked at the National Priest Conference in Beijing. In 2005, he came to the Roman Catholic Diocese of Ningxia. On December 20, 2009, John Baptist Liu Jingshan resigned at the age of 95, Li succeeded as Bishop there, his appointment was approved by the Holy See