The Clare family were a prominent Anglo-Norman noble house that held at various times the earldoms of Pembroke and Gloucester in England and Wales, as well as playing a prominent role in the Norman invasion of Ireland. They were descended from Richard Fitz Gilbert, Lord of Clare, a kinsman of William the Conqueror who accompanied him into England during the Norman conquest of England; as a reward for his service, Richard was given lands in Suffolk centred on the village of Clare. As a result and his descendants carried the name of ‘de Clare’ or ‘of Clare’; the Clare family derive in the male line from Gilbert, Count of Brionne, whose father Geoffrey, Count of Eu was an illegitimate son of Richard I, Duke of Normandy by an unknown mistress. Gilbert de Brionne was one of the guardians of William II, who became Duke of Normandy as a child in 1035; when Gilbert was assassinated in 1039 or 1040, his young sons Baldwin and Richard fitz Gilbert fled with their guardians to Baldwin V, Count of Flanders.
After the conquest of England, Richard fitz Gilbert received extensive estates, notably including Clare and Tonbridge. From his holding the former, the family he founded are referred to by historians as'de Clare'." Historical sources are vague and sometimes contradictory about when the name Clare came into common usage, but Richard fitz Gilbert is once referred to as Richard of Clare in the Suffolk return of the Domesday Survey. His brother Baldwin de Meules was left in charge of Exeter on its submission and made sheriff of Devonshire. Large estates in Devonshire and Somersetshire are entered to him in Domesday as "Baldwin of Exeter" or "Baldwin the Sheriff". On his death, Richard's English estates passed to his son Gilbert fitz Richard de Clare, while a younger son, Robert Fitz Richard, would give rise to a lineage that became Barons FitzWalter. A younger son of Gilbert fitz Richard named Gilbert, establishing himself in Wales, acquired the Earldom of Pembroke in 1138 and Lordship of Striguil.
Earl Gilbert's nephew of the senior line, the son of his older brother, Richard Fitz Gilbert de Clare, would be made an Earl. Gilbert fitz Richard was named Earls of Hertford in 1138 but at least by 1141, subsequently the family would sometimes use the style of Earls of Clare; the first Earl of Hertford died without issue and was succeeded by his brother, Roger de Clare, 2nd Earl of Hertford, from whom the Earls of Hertford descended. The son of Gilbert fitz Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Pembroke, was Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, known as Strongbow, a leader of the Norman invasion of Ireland, his only son died while still a minor, Strongbow's many Irish and Welsh possessions passed with his daughter Isabel, to her husband, William Marshal. Some of these lands would be brought back into the family via the marriage of one of the coheiresses of Isabel de Clare and William Marshal, Isabel Marshal, to her distant cousin, Gilbert de Clare, 4th Earl of Hertford, he inherited from his mother the estates of his maternal grandfather, William Fitz Robert, 2nd Earl of Gloucester, including the earldom and honour of Gloucester and the lordship of Glamorgan.
The family continued to hold both Earldoms until the early 14th century, when Gilbert de Clare, 8th Earl of Gloucester died without issue and the Earldoms became extinct, while his lands were divided among several sisters. Richard de Clare, a member of a junior line that had become lords of Thomond, in Ireland, would be summoned to Parliament in 1309, hence is held to have been made Lord Clare, but the death of his infant son in 1321, shortly after his own death, brought an end to the last of the lines called de Clare, though the male line persisted at least a century in the Barons FitzWalter; the early Clares appear to have used a coat of arms, chevronny, as seen in the seals of Gilbert, 1st Earl of Pembroke, of his niece, Countess of Lincoln. Richard'Strongbow', 2nd Earl of Pembroke, would simplify this to a coat with three chevronels, matching the three red chevrons on a gold background that would be the arms of the Clare Earls of Hertford. J. C. Ward, "Fashions in monastic endowment: the foundations of the Clare family, 1066–1314", Journal of Ecclesiastical History, vol.
32, p. 427–451. J. C. Ward, "Royal service and reward: the Clare family and the crown, 1066–1154", Anglo-Norman Studies, vol. 11, p. 261–278. Michael Altschul, A Baronial Family in Medieval England: The Clares, 1217–1314, The Johns Hopkins Press, Baltimore, 1965. See online summary. Attribution Round, John Horace. "Clare". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 423–424. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John Horace. "Clare, de". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 10. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 375–376
Lord Guildford Dudley
Lord Guildford Dudley was the teenage husband of Lady Jane Grey. King Edward VI had declared her his heir, she occupied the English throne from 10 July until 19 July 1553. Guildford Dudley had a humanist education and was married to Jane in a magnificent celebration about six weeks before the King's death. After Guildford's father, the Duke of Northumberland, had engineered Jane's accession and Guildford spent her brief rule residing in the Tower of London, they were still in the Tower when their regime collapsed and they remained there, in different quarters, as prisoners. They were condemned to death for high treason in November 1553. Queen Mary I was inclined to spare their lives, but Thomas Wyatt's rebellion against Mary's plans to marry Philip of Spain led to the young couple's execution, a measure, seen as unduly harsh. Lord Guildford Dudley was the second youngest surviving son of John Dudley, 1st Duke of Northumberland, his wife, Jane Guildford; the Dudley lineage goes back to a family called Sutton.
In the early 14th century they became the lords of Dudley Castle, from whom Guildford descended through his paternal grandfather. This was Edmund Dudley, a councillor of Henry VII, executed after his royal master's death. Through his father's mother, Elizabeth Grey, Viscountess Lisle, Guildford descended from the Hundred Years War heroes, Richard Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury; the Dudley children—there were thirteen born in all—grew up in a Protestant household and enjoyed a humanist education. Under the young King Edward VI, Guildford's father became Lord President of the Privy Council and de facto ruled England from 1550–1553; the chronicler Richard Grafton, who knew him, described Guildford as "a comely and goodly gentleman". In 1552 Northumberland unsuccessfully tried to marry Guildford to Margaret Clifford, a cousin of Jane Grey. Instead, in the spring of 1553, Guildford was engaged to the sixteen-year-old Jane Grey herself. Jane Grey figured higher in the line of succession than Margaret Clifford.
On 25 May 1553, three weddings were celebrated at Durham Place, the Duke of Northumberland's town mansion. Guildford married Jane, his sister Katherine was matched with Henry Hastings, the Earl of Huntingdon's heir, another Catherine, Jane's sister, married Lord Herbert, the heir of the Earl of Pembroke, it was a magnificent festival, with jousts and masques. For the latter, two different companies had been booked, one male, one female; the Venetian and French ambassadors were guests, there were "large numbers of the common people... and of the most principal of the realm". Guildford and some others suffered an attack of food poisoning, because of "a mistake made by a cook, who plucked one leaf for another." King Edward, in his "Device of the Succession", settled the Crown on his cousin once removed, Jane Grey, bypassing his half-sisters and Elizabeth. After Edward's death on 6 July 1553 the Duke of Northumberland undertook the enforcement of the King's will; the envoys of the Holy Roman Empire and France were sure of the plan's success.
Jane was reluctant to accept the Crown: She gave in after remonstrances by an assembly of nobles, including her parents and in-laws. On 10 July Jane and Guildford made their ceremonial entry into the Tower of London. Residing in there, Guildford wanted to be made king, but Jane would agree only to make him Duke of Clarence. When the Duchess of Northumberland heard of the argument she became furious and forbade Guildford to sleep any longer with his wife, she commanded him to leave the Tower and go home, but Jane insisted that he remain at court at her side. According to remarks by the Imperial ambassadors, the daily Council meetings were presided over by Guildford, who also dined in state alone and had himself addressed in regal style. Antoine de Noailles, the French ambassador, described Guildford as "the new King"; the Imperial court in Brussels believed in the existence of King Guildford. On 10 July, the same day as Jane's proclamation, a letter from Mary Tudor arrived in London, saying that she was now queen and demanding the obedience of the Council.
Mary was assembling her supporters in East Anglia. The Duke of Northumberland marched to Cambridge with his troops and passed a week that saw no action, until he heard on 20 July that the Council in London had declared for Mary. Northumberland now proclaimed Mary Tudor himself at the market-place and was arrested the next morning. On 19 July, a few hours before Queen Mary I's proclamation in London, the baptism of one of the Gentlemen Pensioners' children took place. Jane had wished the child's name to be Guildford; the Bishop of Winchester, Stephen Gardiner, imprisoned in the Tower for five years, took great offence at this fact as he heard of it. A majority of the Privy Council moved out of the Tower before switching their allegiance. Becoming aware of his colleagues' change of mind, Jane's father, the Duke of Suffolk, abandoned his command of the fortress and proclaimed Mary I on nearby Tower Hill. After he had left, his wife was told she could go home, while Jane and the Duchess of Northumberland were not allowed to.
Jane was moved from the royal apartments to the Gentleman Gaoler's lodgings and
English wine cask units
Capacities of wine casks were measured and standardised according to a specific system of English units. The various units were defined in terms of the wine gallon so varied according to the definition of the gallon until the adoption of the Queen Anne wine gallon in 1707. In the United Kingdom and its colonies the units were redefined with the introduction of the imperial system whilst the Queen Anne wine gallon was adopted as the standard US liquid gallon; the major wine producing countries use barrels extensively and have developed standards at variance with the traditional English volumes are used in the wine and wine cooperage industries. Examples include a hogshead of 300 L, a barrique of 220 L, a barrel of 225 L, a barrel of 230 L and a puncheon of 465 L. TunThe tun is an English unit of liquid volume, used for measuring wine, oil or honey. A large vat or vessel, most holding 252 wine gallons, but other sizes were used. In one example from 1507, a tun is defined as 240 gallons. Early Modern English: "He that ys a gawner owght to understonde there ys in a tunne lx systerns and every systern ys iiii galons be yt wyne or oylle."Translation: "He, a gauger ought to understand that there is in a tunne 60 sesters, every sester is 4 gallons, be it wine or oil."
Pipe or buttThe butt or pipe was 1008 pints. Tradition has it that George, Duke of Clarence, the brother of Edward IV of England, was drowned in a butt of malmsey on 18 February 1478. In Edgar Allan Poe's short story "The Cask of Amontillado", the narrator claims he has received "a pipe of what passes for Amontillado". In Edward Bulwer-Lytton's novel "Paul Clifford", Lord Mauleverer states to Lawyer William Brandon "Because he sent me, in the handsomest manner possible, a pipe of that wonderful Madeira, which you know I consider the chief grace of my cellars, he gave up a canal navigation bill, which would have enriched his whole county, when he knew that it would injure my property." Puncheon or tertianThe puncheon was a third of a tun. The term puncheon, shortened to pon in the United States, is thought to derive from the fact that it would have been marked by use of a punch to denote its contents; the unit was known as a tertian. Hogshead Of comparable size to the beer hogshead, the wine hogshead was equal to half a butt or a quarter of a tun.
Tierce Closely related to the modern oil barrel, the tierce was half a puncheon, a third of a butt or a sixth of a tun. BarrelThe wine barrel was half a wine hogshead or an eighth of a tun. RundletThe rundlet was a fourteenth of a tun; the tun was defined as 256 wine gallons. At some time before the 15th century, it was reduced to 252 gallons, so as to be evenly divisible by other small integers, including seven. Note that a 252-gallon tun of wine has an approximate mass of one long ton. With the adoption of the Queen Anne wine gallon of 231 cubic inches the tun approximated the volume of a cylinder with both diameter and height of 42 inches; these were adopted as the standard US liquid gallon and tun. When the imperial system was introduced the tun was redefined in the UK and colonies as 210 imperial gallons; the imperial tun remained evenly divisible by small integers. There was little change in the actual value the tun
St Andrews is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles southeast of Dundee and 30 miles northeast of Edinburgh. St Andrews has a recorded population of 16,800 in 2011, making it Fife's fourth largest settlement and 45th most populous settlement in Scotland; the town is home to the University of St Andrews, the third oldest university in the English-speaking world and the oldest in Scotland. According to some rankings, it is ranked as the third best university in the United Kingdom, behind Oxbridge; the University is an integral part of the burgh and during term time students make up one third of the town's population. The town is named after Saint Andrew the Apostle. There has been an important church in St Andrews since at least the 747 AD when it was mentioned in the Annals of Tigernach, a bishopric since at least the 11th century; the settlement grew to the west of St Andrews cathedral with the southern side of the Scores to the north and the Kinness burn to the south. The burgh soon became the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, a position, held until the Scottish Reformation.
The famous cathedral, the largest in Scotland, now lies in ruins. St Andrews is known worldwide as the "home of golf"; this is in part because The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, founded in 1754, which until 2004 exercised legislative authority over the game worldwide. It is because the famous St Andrews Links are the most frequent venue for The Open Championship, the oldest of golf's four major championships. Visitors travel to St Andrews in great numbers for several courses ranked amongst the finest in the world, as well as for the sandy beaches; the Martyrs Memorial, erected to the honour of Patrick Hamilton, George Wishart, other martyrs of the Reformation epoch, stands at the west end of the Scores on a cliff overlooking the sea. The civil parish has a population of 18,421; the town contains numerous museums, a botanic garden and an aquarium. The earliest recorded name of the area is Cennrígmonaid; this is Old Gaelic and composed of the elements ríg and monaid. This was Scoticised to Kilrymont.
The modern Gaelic spelling is Cill Rìmhinn. The name St Andrews derives from the town's claim to be the resting place of bones of the apostle Andrew. According to legend, St Regulus brought the relics to Kilrymont, where a shrine was established for their safekeeping and veneration while Kilrymont was renamed in honour of the saint; this is the origin of a third name for the town Kilrule. The first inhabitants who settled on the estuary fringes of the rivers Tay and Eden during the mesolithic came from the plains in Northern Europe between 10,000 and 5,000 BCE; this was followed by the nomadic people who settled around the modern town around 4,500 BCE as farmers clearing the area of woodland and building monuments. In the mid-eighth century a monastery was established by the Pictish king Oengus I, traditionally associated with the relics of Saint Andrew, a number of bones supposed to be the saints's arm, three fingers and a tooth believed to have been brought to the town by St Regulus. In AD 877, king Causantín mac Cináeda built a new church for the Culdees at St Andrews and the same year was captured and executed after defending against Viking raiders.
In AD 906, the town became the seat of the bishop of Alba, with the boundaries of the see being extended to include land between the River Forth and River Tweed. In 940 Constantine III took the position of abbot of the monastery of St Andrews; the establishment of the present town began around 1140 by Bishop Robert on an L-shaped vill on the site of the ruined St Andrews Castle. According to a charter of 1170, the new burgh was built to the west of the Cathedral precinct, along Castle Street and as far as what is now known as North Street; this means that the lay-out may have led to the creation of two new streets from the foundations of the new St Andrews Cathedral filling the area inside a two-sided triangle at its apex. The northern boundary of the burgh was the southern side of the Scores with the southern by the Kinness Burn and the western by the West Port; the burgh of St Andrews was first represented at the great council at Scone Palace in 1357. St Andrews, in particular the large cathedral built in 1160, was the most important centre of pilgrimage in medieval Scotland and one of the most important in Europe.
Pilgrims from all over Scotland came in large numbers hoping to be blessed, in many cases to be cured, at the shrine of Saint Andrew. The presence of the pilgrims brought about increased development. Recognised as the ecclesiastical capital of Scotland, the town now had vast economic and political influence within Europe as a cosmopolitan town. In 1559, the town fell into decay after the violent Scottish Reformation and the Wars of the Three Kingdoms losing the status of ecclesiastical capital of Scotland; the University of St Andrews was considering relocating to Perth around 1697 and 1698. Under the authorisation of the bishop of St Andrews, the town was made a burgh of barony in 1614. Royal Burgh was granted as a charter by King James VI in 1620. In the 18th century, the town was still in decline, but despite this the town was becoming known for having links'well known to golfers'. By the 19th century, the town began to expand beyond the original medieval boundaries with streets of new houses and town vi
Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale
Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, was the eldest child of the Prince and Princess of Wales and grandson of the reigning British monarch, Queen Victoria. From the time of his birth, he was second in the line of succession to the British throne, but never became king because he died before his father and grandmother. Albert Victor was known to his family, many biographers, as "Eddy"; when young, he travelled the world extensively as a naval cadet, as an adult he joined the British Army, but did not undertake any active military duties. After two unsuccessful courtships, he was engaged to be married to Princess Mary of Teck in late 1891. A few weeks he died during an influenza pandemic. Mary married his younger brother, who became King George V in 1910. Albert Victor's intellect and mental health have been the subject of speculation. Rumours in his time linked him with the Cleveland Street scandal, which involved a homosexual brothel, but there is no conclusive evidence that he went there or was homosexual.
Some authors have argued that he was the serial killer known as Jack the Ripper, but contemporary documents show that Albert Victor could not have been in London at the time of the murders, the claim is dismissed. Albert Victor was born two months prematurely on 8 January 1864 at Frogmore House, Berkshire, he was the first child of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, his wife Alexandra of Denmark. Following his grandmother Queen Victoria's wishes, he was named Albert Victor, after herself and her late husband, Albert; as a grandchild of the reigning British monarch in the male line and a son of the Prince of Wales, he was formally styled His Royal Highness Prince Albert Victor of Wales from birth. He was christened Albert Victor Christian Edward in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 10 March 1864 by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Charles Longley, but was known informally as "Eddy", his godparents were Queen Victoria, King Christian IX of Denmark, King Leopold I of Belgium, the Dowager Duchess of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, the Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, the Landgrave of Hesse, the Crown Princess of Prussia and Prince Alfred.
When Albert Victor was just short of seventeen months old, his brother, Prince George of Wales, was born on 3 June 1865. Given the closeness in age of the two royal brothers, they were educated together. In 1871, the Queen appointed John Neale Dalton as their tutor; the two princes were given a strict programme of study, which included games and military drills as well as academic subjects. Dalton complained that Albert Victor's mind was "abnormally dormant". Though he learned to speak Danish, progress in other languages and subjects was slow. Sir Henry Ponsonby thought. Albert Victor never excelled intellectually. Possible physical explanations for Albert Victor's inattention or indolence in class include absence seizures or his premature birth, which can be associated with learning difficulties, but Lady Geraldine Somerset blamed Albert Victor's poor education on Dalton, whom she considered uninspiring. Separating the brothers for the remainder of their education was considered, but Dalton advised the Prince of Wales against splitting them up as "Prince Albert Victor requires the stimulus of Prince George's company to induce him to work at all."
In 1877, the two boys were sent to HMS Britannia. They began their studies there two months behind the other cadets as Albert Victor contracted typhoid fever, for which he was treated by Sir William Gull. Dalton accompanied them as chaplain to the ship. In 1879, after a great deal of discussion between the Queen, the Prince of Wales, their households and the Government, the royal brothers were sent as naval cadets on a three-year world tour aboard HMS Bacchante. Albert Victor was rated midshipman on his sixteenth birthday, they toured the British Empire, accompanied by Dalton, visiting the Americas, the Falkland Islands, South Africa, Fiji, the Far East, Ceylon, Egypt, the Holy Land and Greece. They acquired tattoos in Japan. By the time they returned to Britain, Albert Victor was eighteen; the brothers were parted in 1883. At Bachelor's Cottage, Albert Victor was expected to cram before arriving at university in the company of Dalton, French instructor Monsieur Hua, a newly chosen tutor/companion James Kenneth Stephen.
Some biographers have said that Stephen was a misogynist, although this has been questioned, he may have felt attached to Albert Victor, but whether or not his feelings were overtly homosexual is open to question. Stephen was optimistic about tutoring the prince, but by the time the party were to move to Cambridge had concluded, "I do not think he can derive much benefit from attending lectures at Cambridge... He hardly knows the meaning of the words to read". At the start of the new term in October, Albert Victor and Lieutenant Henderson from Bacchante moved to Nevile's Court at Trinity College, generally
Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence
Lionel of Antwerp, 1st Duke of Clarence, KG was the third son, but the second son to survive infancy, of the English king Edward III and Philippa of Hainault. He was named at Antwerp in the Duchy of Brabant. Lionel was a grandson of William I, Count of Hainaut, he had an athletic build. Betrothed as a child to Elizabeth de Burgh, 4th Countess of Ulster and heiress of William Donn de Burgh, 3rd Earl of Ulster, he was married to her in 1352, but before this date he had entered into possession of her great Irish inheritance, he was called Earl of Ulster from 1347. Having been named as his father's representative in England in 1345 and again in 1346, Lionel joined an expedition into France in 1355, but his chief energies were reserved for the affairs of Ireland. Appointed governor of that country, he landed at Dublin in 1361, in November of the following year was created Duke of Clarence, the third dukedom created in England, while his father made an abortive attempt to secure for him the crown of Scotland.
His efforts to secure an effective authority over his Irish lands were only moderately successful. After holding a parliament at Kilkenny, which passed the celebrated Statute of Kilkenny in 1366, he dropped the task in disgust and returned to England; the poet Geoffrey Chaucer was at one time a page in Lionel's household. After Lionel's first wife Elizabeth died in 1363, a second marriage was arranged with Violante Visconti, daughter of Galeazzo Visconti, lord of Pavia. Journeying to fetch his bride, Lionel was received in great state both in France and Italy and was married to Violante at Milan in June 1368; some months were spent in festivities, during which Lionel was taken ill at Alba, where he died on 17 October 1368. There was strong speculation at the time that he had been poisoned by his father-in-law, although this has never been proven. Lionel had only one child, daughter of his first wife Elizabeth. In 1368 she married Edmund Mortimer, 3rd Earl of March, their granddaughter and eventual heir, Anne Mortimer, married into the Yorkist branch of the English royal family and was the mother of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York.
Though Richard was a descendant in the male line of Edward III, the House of York based its claim to the English throne on descent through the female line from Lionel to establish a lasting blood line. Lionel was the ancestor of Kings Edward IV, Edward V, Richard III and all British monarchs except for Henry VII, whose wife Elizabeth of York was Lionel's descendant. Lionel's arms were at some point those of the kingdom, differenced by a label argent of five points, with each point bearing a cross gules, thus presenting the flag of England's Saint George's cross on each point There are suggestions, such as the above image, that at some point he bore a differentiating label argent of three points, each bearing a canton gules. Ormrod, W. M.. "Lionel, duke of Clarence". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/16750. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Clarence, Dukes of s.v. Lionel of Antwerp".
Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 428. Tout, Thomas Frederick. "Lionel of Antwerp". Dictionary of National Biography. 33. Pp. 335–338
Counts and dukes of Aumale
The County of Aumale elevated to a duchy, was a medieval fief in Normandy. It was disputed between France during parts of the Hundred Years' War; the fief of Aumale was granted by the archbishop of Rouen to Odo, brother-in-law of William the Conqueror, who erected it into a countship. After several extinctions the title was re-created in 1547 for Francis styled Count of Aumale by courtesy. On his accession as Duke of Guise, he ceded it to his brother Duke of Aumale, it was used as a title by Henri d'Orléans, the youngest son of Louis-Philippe, King of the French and Duke of Orléans. As of 2019, the titleholder is a grandson of the late Henri, Count of Paris, Orléans heir, his wife, Princess Isabelle of Orléans-Braganza of Brazil. Prince Foulques, Duke of Aumale, son of Prince Jacques, Duke of Orléans and the duchess, née Gersende de Sabran-Pontèves, added it to his title of Comte d'Eu. Norman Counts: Guerinfroi, lord before 996–? Guerinfroi Aymard?–1048 Bertha of Aumale 1048–1052 Hugh II, Count of Ponthieu 1048–1052 Enguerrand I of Aumale Adelaide of Normandy 1053–1087 with Lambert of Boulogne 1053–1054 Anglo-Norman Counts: Odo of Troyes 1069–1115 Stephen of Aumale before 1070–1127 William le Gros 1127–1179 Hawise of Aumale 1179–1194 with her husbands as Counts jure uxoris: William de Mandeville, 3rd Earl of Essex 1180–1189 William de Forz 1189–1194 Baldwin of Bethune 1195–1196 confiscated.
However, the English kings continued to recognise the title, as Earl of Albemarle French Counts: Renaud I, Count of Dammartin 1224–1227 Mathilde de Dammartin 1227–1260 Countess of Clermont-en-Beauvaisis and Queen of Portugal by her two marriages, Countess of Mortain, Countess of Boulogne and Countess of Dammartin-en-Goële with Philip Hurepel 1227–1234 Alphonso of Portugal 1238–1253 Simon of Dammartin 1234–1239 Joan of Dammartin 1239–1278 with Ferdinand I 1239–1252 Ferdinand II, Count of Aumale 1252–1260 John I 1260–1302 John II 1302–1343 Blanche of Ponthieu 1343–1387 with John III 1343–1356 John IV 1356–1389 John V 1389–1452 John VI, de facto 1415–1424 Mary, de facto 1424–1452, de jure to 1476, with Antoine, Count of Vaudémont 1452–1458 John VI 1458–1473 René 1473–1508 Claude I 1508–1547 Francis 1547–1550 Claude II 1550–1573 Charles 1573–1595 Anne 1618–1638 Henry of Savoy, Duke of Nemours 1618–1632 Louis of Savoy 1638–1641 Charles Amadeus of Savoy 1641–1652 to royal domain Marie Jeanne Baptiste of Savoy-Nemours Louis Charles de Bourbon sold to the crown, but payment not made, so returned to the heir Louis Jean Marie of Bourbon Henri d'Orléans, Duke of Aumale Through the end of the Hundred Years' War, the kings of England at various times ruled Aumale, through their claims to be dukes of Normandy and kings of France.
The title of Count or Duke of Aumale was granted several times during this period. In 1196, Philip II of France captured the castle of Aumale, granted the title of "Count of Aumale" to Renaud de Dammartin. However, despite Philip's conquest of Aumale, the kings of England continued to claim the Duchy of Normandy, to recognize the old line of Counts or Earls of Aumale; these were: see above for Counts before 1196 Hawise of Aumale, 2nd Countess of Aumale, bef. 1196: Baldwin of Bethune, Count of Aumale jure uxoris William de Forz, 3rd Earl of Albemarle, son of the 2nd Countess by her second husband William de Forz William de Forz, 4th Earl of Albemarle, son of the 3rd Earl Thomas de Forz, 5th Earl of Albemarle, son of the 4th Earl Aveline de Forz, Countess of Albemarle, daughter of the 4th EarlAveline married Edmund Crouchback, 1st Earl of Lancaster, in 1269, but she died without issue in 1274. A claim upon the inheritance by John de Eston was settled in 1278 with the surrender of the earldom to the Crown.
Also: Duke of Gloucester, Earl of Essex, Earl of Buckingham Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, fifth son of Edward III, was created Duke of Aumale by writ of summons on 3 September 1385, but was made Duke of Gloucester soon after, seems never to have used the former title. It was certainly forfeit upon his murder while awaiting trial for treason. Note: This creation is not listed in several sources such as "The Complete Peerage", which indicates the creation shown below as the 1st. Also: Duke of York, Earl of Cambridge, Earl of Rutland, Earl of Cork Edward of Norwich, 1st Earl of Rutland, first son of Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, was created Duke of Aumale shortly after Woodstock's murder, but was deprived of the title by Henry IV Bolingbroke in 1399. Also: Duke of Clarence Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, second son of Henry IV Bolingbroke, was created Earl of Aumale along with his dukedom of Clarence, carried both titles until his death without issue. Also: Earl of Warwick Richard de Beauchamp, 13th Earl of Warwick, military commander under Henry V in France, was created Count of Aumale for life only.
In further creations in the English peerage after the Hundred Years' War, Aumale was spelled in the