Duke of Edinburgh

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Dukedom of Edinburgh
3rd Creation
Coat of Arms of Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.svg
Creation date 20 November 1947
Monarch George VI
Peerage Peerage of the United Kingdom
Present holder Prince Philip
Heir apparent Charles, Prince of Wales
Remainder to the 1st Duke's heirs male of the body lawfully begotten
Subsidiary titles Earl of Merioneth
Baron Greenwich
Prince Frederick Louis (1707–1751) was the very first Duke of Edinburgh, from 1727 to his death.

Duke of Edinburgh, named after the city of Edinburgh, Scotland, is a substantive title that has been created three times for members of the British royal family since 1726. The current holder is Prince Philip, consort to Queen Elizabeth II.

1726 creation[edit]

Prince George was the second Duke of Edinburgh, before he became George III.

The title was first created in the Peerage of Great Britain on 26 July 1726 by George I, who bestowed it on his grandson Prince Frederick, who also became Prince of Wales the following year. The subsidiary titles of the dukedom were Baron of Snowdon, in the County of Caernarvon, Viscount of Launceston, in the County of Cornwall, Earl of Eltham, in the County of Kent,[1] and Marquess of the Isle of Ely.[2][3][4] These titles were also in the Peerage of Great Britain, the marquessate was apparently erroneously gazetted as Marquess of the Isle of Wight[1] although Marquess of the Isle of Ely was the intended title. In later editions of the London Gazette the Duke is referred to as the Marquess of the Isle of Ely.[5][6] Upon Frederick's death, the titles were inherited by his son Prince George. When Prince George became King George III in 1760, the titles "merged into the Crown", and ceased to exist.

1866 creation[edit]

Queen Victoria re-created the title on 24 May 1866 for her second son Prince Alfred, this time in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. The subsidiary titles of the dukedom were Earl of Kent and Earl of Ulster, also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.[7] When Alfred became the sovereign of the two German duchies Saxe-Coburg and Saxe-Gotha in 1893, he retained his British titles. His only son Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha committed suicide in 1899, so the title Duke of Edinburgh again became extinct upon the elder Alfred's death in 1900.

1947 creation[edit]

The title was created for a fourth time on 19 November 1947 by King George VI, who bestowed it on his son-in-law Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten, when he married Princess Elizabeth. Subsequently, Elizabeth was styled HRH The Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh until she became Queen in 1952, the subsidiary titles of the dukedom are Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich, of Greenwich in the County of London. Like the dukedom, these titles are also in the Peerage of the United Kingdom.[8] Earlier that year, Philip had renounced his Greek and Danish royal titles (he was born a Prince of Greece and Denmark, being a male-line grandson of King George I of Greece and male-line great-grandson of King Christian IX of Denmark) along with his rights to the Greek throne; in 1957, Philip became a Prince of the United Kingdom.[9]

Dukes of Edinburgh[edit]

First creation, 1726[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Prince Frederick
House of Hanover
1726–1751
also: Marquess of the Isle of Ely, Earl of Eltham, Viscount Launceston, Baron Snowdon (1726–1729);
Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1729), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick and Baron of Renfrew (1398), Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1729)
Prince Frederick 1 February 1707
Hanover
son of King George II and Queen Caroline
Princess Augusta of Saxe-Gotha
17 April 1736
9 children
31 March 1751
London
aged 44
Prince George
House of Hanover
1751–1760
also: Marquess of the Isle of Ely, Earl of Eltham, Viscount Launceston, Baron Snowdon (1751–1760);
Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester (1751), Duke of Cornwall (1337), Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Carrick and Baron of Renfrew (1398), Lord of the Isles and Prince and Great Steward of Scotland (1751)
Prince George 4 June 1738
London
son of Prince Frederick and Princess Augusta
Princess Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
8 September 1761
15 children
29 January 1820
Windsor
aged 81
Prince George succeeded as George III in 1760 upon his grandfather's death, and his titles merged with the crown.

Second creation, 1866[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Prince Alfred
House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
1866–1900
also: Earl of Kent and Earl of Ulster (1844)
Prince Edward 6 August 1844
Windsor
son of Queen Victoria and Albert, Prince Consort
Grand Duchess Maria Alexandrovna of Russia
23 January 1874
6 children
30 July 1900
Coburg
aged 55
Prince Alfred and Princess Maria had two sons, but died before him and all his titles became extinct on his death.

Third creation, 1947[edit]

Duke Portrait Birth Marriages Death
Prince Philip
House of Glücksburg
1947–present
also: Earl of Merioneth and Baron Greenwich (1947)
Prince Philip 10 June 1921
Corfu
son of Prince Andrew of Greece and Denmark and Princess Alice of Battenberg
Elizabeth II
20 November 1947
4 children

Line of succession[edit]

  1. Charles, Prince of Wales (born 1948) (elder son of the present Duke)
  2. Prince William, Duke of Cambridge (born 1982) (elder son of the Prince of Wales)
  3. Prince George of Cambridge (born 2013) (only son of Duke of Cambridge)
  4. Prince Henry of Wales (born 1984) (younger son of the Prince of Wales)
  5. Prince Andrew, Duke of York (born 1960) (second son of the present Duke)
  6. Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex (born 1964) (third son of the present Duke)
  7. James, Viscount Severn (born 2007) (only son of the Earl of Wessex)

Possible future creations[edit]

It was announced in 1999, at the time of the wedding of Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex, that he would follow his father as Duke of Edinburgh, this is unlikely to happen by direct inheritance, as Prince Edward is the youngest of Prince Philip's three sons. Rather, the title is expected to be newly created for Prince Edward after it "eventually reverts to the crown"[10] after "both the death of the current Duke of Edinburgh and the Prince of Wales' succession as King."[11]

Family tree[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "No. 6494". The London Gazette. 12 July 1726. p. 1. 
  2. ^ "Frederick Louis Hanover, Prince of Wales". Thepeerage.com. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  3. ^ "Peerages: Eames to Emly". Leighrayment.com. Retrieved 2014-08-25. 
  4. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 April 2013. Retrieved 13 July 2012. 
  5. ^ "No. 6741". The London Gazette. 4 January 1728. p. 2. 
  6. ^ "No. 9050". The London Gazette. 16 April 1751. p. 1. 
  7. ^ "No. 23119". The London Gazette. 25 May 1866. p. 3127. 
  8. ^ "No. 38128". The London Gazette. 21 November 1947. p. 5496. 
  9. ^ "No. 41009". The London Gazette. 22 February 1957. p. 1209. 
  10. ^ "The Earl of Wessex". Royal.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 3 December 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-30. 
  11. ^ Whitaker's Almanack 2010, page 46 'Peers of the Blood Royal'

External links[edit]