Duke of Masovia

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Dukes of Masovia in 1450

Duke of Masovia (Polish: Książę Mazowsza) was a title born by the sons and descendants of the Polish Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth. In accordance with the last will and testament of Bolesław, upon his death his lands were divided into four to five hereditary provinces distributed among his sons, and a royal province of Kraków reserved for the eldest, who was to be High Duke of all Poland. This was known as the fragmentation of Poland. Subsequent developments lead to further splintering of the duchies.

The following is a list of all rulers of the Duchy of Masovia and its parts. Although not all incumbents listed here had titular rights to the title of Duke of Masovia, they are all listed as such for simplicity's sake.

Also take note that some of the dates are merely approximate and the ownership of certain lands might be disputed. Finally, this table does not include lands ruled by dukes of other parts of partitioned Poland or Wenceslaus II and Wenceslaus III.

Duchy of Masovia[edit]

Partitions of Masovia[edit]

The Duchy went through various border changes in the coming years, sometimes losing and sometimes gaining territory.

1138–1275 Duchy of Masovia
1275–1294 Duchy of Czersk Duchy of Płock
1294-1310 Duchy of Masovia
1310-1313 Duchy of Czersk Duchy of Masovia
1313-1345 Duchy of Warsaw Duchy of Rawa Duchy of Płock
1345-1349 Duchy of Warsaw-Rawa
1349-1351 Duchy of Warsaw Duchy of Rawa
1351-1355 Annexed to Poland
1355-1370 Duchy of Warsaw-Rawa
1370-1381 Duchy of Masovia
1381-1434 Duchy of Warsaw Duchy of Płock-Rawa
1434-1442/59 Duchy of Rawa Duchy of Płock Duchy of Bełz
1442/59-1462 Duchy of Płock-Rawa
1462-1471 Duchy of Masovia
1471-1488 Duchy of Czersk Duchy of Warsaw Duchy of Płock
1488-1495 Duchy of Czersk-Warsaw
1495-1526 Duchy of Masovia

Dukes of Masovia[edit]

Piast Dynasty[edit]

Ruler Born Reign Death Ruling Part Consort Notes
Bolesław the Curly Jan Matejko, Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy.jpg 1125 1138-1173 5 January 1173 Masovia Viacheslava Vsevolodovna of Novgorod
1138
three children

Maria
after 1160
no children
Son of Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland. Also Duke of Silesia and monarch of Poland.
Leszek I 1162 1173-1186 1186 Masovia Unmarried Son of Bolesław the Curly.
Casimir the Just Kazimierz 2 Sprawiedliwy.jpg 1138 1186-1194 5 May 1194 Masovia Helena of Moravia-Znojmo
1163
seven children
Son of Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland. Also monarch of Poland.
Helena of Moravia-Znojmo (regent) Helena Czeska.jpeg 1141 1194-1200 1202/6 Masovia Casimir the Just
1163
seven children
Regent on behalf of her son.
Leszek II the White Jan Matejko, Leszek Biały.jpg 1184/5 24 November 1227 Masovia Grimislava Ingvarevna of Lutsk
between 1208 and 1211
three children
Son of Casimir the Just. Also monarch of Poland, after his abdication of Masovia to his brother Conrad, in 1200, shorly after reaching majority.
Conrad I Mazowiecki.jpg 1187/8 1200-1247 31 August 1247 Masovia Agafia Yaroslavna of Peremyshl
between 1207 and 1210
ten children
Son of Casimir the Just. Also monarch of Poland.
Bolesław I BolKon.JPG 1208 1247-1248 25 February 1248 Masovia Gertrude of Lower Silesia
1232
no children

Anastasia Alexandrovna of Belz
between 1245 and July 1247
no children
Son of Conrad I. Died without descendants.
Siemowit I Ziemowit I Duke of Mazovia.PNG 1224/8 1248-1262 23 June 1262 Masovia Pereyaslava Danilovna of Halych
1248
three children
Brother of Bolesław I. Killed in a battle against the Lithuanians, who also took his heir prisoner.
Pereyaslava Danilovna of Halych (regent) Before 1248 1262-1264 12 April 1283 Masovia Siemowit I
1248
three children
Regents during Conrad's captivity in Lithuania.
Bolesław of Greater Poland (regent) Boleslaw Pobożny.jpeg 1224/7 14 April 1279 Masovia Yolanda of Hungary
1257
three children
Conrad II Konrad II Czerski seal.PNG 1250 1264-1275 24 June or 21 December 1294 Masovia Hedwig of Legnica
1265/70
one child
Released after two years of captivity. In 1275 divided the land with his brother Bolesław.
Conrad II Konrad II Czerski seal.PNG 1250 1275-1294 24 June or 21 December 1294 Czersk Hedwig of Legnica
1265/70
one child
After the division of the duchy he received Czersk. His death without male heirs allowed his brother to reunite the Duchy
Bolesław II Bolesław II.jpg 1253/8 1275-1294 20 April 1313 Płock Gaudemantė Sophia of Lithuania
1279
three children

Kunigunde of Bohemia
1291
(divorced 1302)
two children
Reunited the duchy after the death of his brother, but after his own death Masovia was divided again.
Bolesław II Bolesław II.jpg 1253/8 1294-1313 20 April 1313 Masovia Gaudemantė Sophia of Lithuania
1279
three children

Kunigunde of Bohemia
1291
(divorced 1302)
two children
Reunited the duchy after the death of his brother, but after his own death Masovia was divided again.
Trojden I Trojden I.jpg 1284/6 1310-1313 13 March 1341 Czersk Maria Yurievna of Galicia-Volhynia
1309/10
four children
Son of Boleslaus II, retained Czersk during his father's lifetime. After Boleslaus' death, Trojden received more lands in inheritance and made Warsaw his new capital.
Trojden I Trojden I.jpg 1284/6 1313-1341 13 March 1341 Warsaw Maria Yurievna of Galicia-Volhynia
1309/10
four children
Put his own son in the throne of Galicia-Volhynia.
Siemowit II Ziemowit II Mazowiecki seal.PNG 1283 1313-1345 18 February 1345 Rawa Unmarried Son of Boleslaus II, retained Rawa. Left no descendants and his duchy was inherited by his nephews Siemowit III and Casimir I.
Wenceslaus I Masovia Seal of Wenceslaus I of Płock.png 1293/7 1313-1336 23 May 1336 Płock Dannila Elisabeth of Lithuania
1316
two children
Son of Boleslaus II, retained Płock.
Siemowit II (regent) Ziemowit II Mazowiecki seal.PNG 1283 1336-1340 18 February 1345 Płock Unmarried Regents in name of their nephew, Bolesław III.
Trojden I (regent) Trojden I.jpg 1284/6 13 March 1341 Płock Maria Yurievna of Galicia-Volhynia
1309/10
four children
Bolesław III 1322/30 1340-1351 20 August 1351 Płock Unmarried Son of Wenceslaus. In 1351 Płock was annexed by the Kingdom of Poland.
Annexation to the Kingdom of Poland (1351-1370)
Siemowit III Siemowit III.jpg 1320 1341-1345 16 June 1381 Warsaw Euphemia of Opava
1335
five children

Anna of Ziębice
c.1360
three children
Ruled together. In 1345 inherited Rawa.
Casimir I Kazimierz I.jpg 1329/31 26 November/5 December 1355 Warsaw Unmarried
Siemowit III Siemowit III.jpg 1320 1345-1349 16 June 1381 Warsaw and Rawa Euphemia of Opava
1335
five children

Anna of Ziębice
c.1360
three children
Ruled together. In 1349 divided the land between them.
Casimir I Kazimierz I.jpg 1329/31 26 November/5 December 1355 Warsaw and Rawa Unmarried
Siemowit III Siemowit III.jpg 1320 1349-1355 16 June 1381 Warsaw Euphemia of Opava
1335
five children

Anna of Ziębice
c.1360
three children
Received Warsaw. Inherited his brother's part after his death.
Casimir I Kazimierz I.jpg 1329/31 1349-1355 26 November/5 December 1355 Rawa Unmarried Received Rawa.
Siemowit III Siemowit III.jpg 1320 1355-1381 16 June 1381 Masovia Euphemia of Opava
1335
five children

Anna of Ziębice
c.1360
three children
Reunited Masovia after his brother's death. Brought Płock from Poland in 1370. After his death the duchy was again divided between his sons Janusz I and Siemowit IV.
Janusz I the Elder Janusz I Starszy.jpg 1347/52 1381-1429 8 December 1429 Warsaw Danutė Anna of Lithuania
1371/3
four children
Son of Siemowit III, since 1386 hereditary vassal of Poland, after 1391 Duke of Podlasie. Although the division, the duchy of Czersk remained annexed to the duchy of Warsaw.
Siemowit IV the Younger Gostynin, Rynek, pomnik.JPG 1353/6 1381-1426 21 January 1426 Płock and Rawa Alexandra of Lithuania
1387
thirteen children
Son of Siemowit III. Since 1386, was an hereditary vassal of Poland, and, although having lost much of his domain to the Teutonic Order in 1382 (Wizna, Zawkrze, Płońsk), he gained other duchies (Bełz) from Poland.
Trojden II 1403/6 1426-1427 25 July 1427 Płock and Rawa Unmarried Sons of Siemowit IV. Ruled jointly.
Siemowit V 1389 1426-1434 17 February 1442 Płock and Rawa Margareta of Opava-Ráciborz
Between 15 October 1434 and 17 February 1437
one child
Casimir II 1401/3 15 September 1442 Płock and Rawa Margareta Szamotuły
26 June 1442
no children
Władysław I Władysław I Płocki seal 1435.PNG 1406/9 11/12 December 1455 Płock and Rawa Anna of Oleśnica
1444
two children
Anna of Lithuania (regent) c.1390? 1429-1436 3 May/1 August 1458 Warsaw Bolesław Januszowic, heir of Warsaw
1412
three children
Daughter-in-law of Janusz I the Elder; Regent on behalf of her son.
Bolesław IV Bolesław IV.jpg 1421 1436-1454 10 September 1454 Warsaw Barbara Olelkovna of Slutsk-Kapy
1440/5
ten children
Siemowit V 1389 1434-1442 17 February 1442 Rawa Margareta of Opava-Ráciborz
Between 15 October 1434 and 17 February 1437
one child
Left no male heirs. After his death, gave his wife Gostynin as her Oprawa wdowia. The remaining Rawa rejoined Płock.
Casimir II 1401/3 1434-1442 15 September 1442 Bełz Margareta Szamotuły
26 June 1442
no children
Władysław I Władysław I Płocki seal 1435.PNG 1406/9 1434-1442 11/12 December 1455 Płock Anna of Oleśnica
1444
two children
Margareta of Opava-Ráciborz 1410 1442-1459 5 July 1459 Rawa-Gostynin Siemowit V
Between 15 October 1434 and 17 February 1437
one child
Received Gostynin as her husband's inheritance. After her death her part rejoined Płock.
Władysław I Władysław I Płocki seal 1435.PNG 1406/9 1442-1455 11/12 December 1455 Płock, Bełz and Rawa-Rawa Anna of Oleśnica
1444
two children
Reunited the majority of Rawa in 1442, and also Belz, which defintively integrated Płock.
Barbara Olelkovna of Slutsk-Kapy (regent) 1421 1454-1462 10 September 1454 Warsaw Bolesław IV
1440/5
ten children
Regents on behalf of Barbara's sons.
Paul Giżycki, Bishop of Płock (regent) 1400 28 January 1463 Warsaw Unmarried
Conrad III the Red Anonymous Konrad III the Red.jpg 1447/8 1462 28 October 1503 Warsaw Magdaena Stawrot
1468/70
(morganatic)
no children

Unknown
before 20 July 1477
(morganatic, divorced 1493?)
no children

Anna Radziwiłł
between 29 September 1496 and 2 April 1497
four children
Sons of Bolesław IV. Ruled jointly. In 1462 they inherited the rest of Masovia, reuniting the Duchy.
Casimir III 10 June 1448/8 June 1449 9 June 1480 Warsaw Unmarried
Bolesław V Bolesław V Warszawski seal 1462.PNG c.1453 27 April 1488 Warsaw Anna Radzanów
20 July 1477
(morganatic, annulled 1480)
no children
Janusz II Seal of Janusz II Prince of Płoc.PNG 1455 16 February 1495 Warsaw Unmarried
Anna of Oleśnica (regent) 1425? 1455-1459 After 15 August 1482 Płock and Rawa-Rawa Władysław I
1444
two children
Regents on behalf of Anna's sons.
Paul Giżycki, Bishop of Płock (regent) 1400 28 January 1463 Płock and Rawa-Rawa Unmarried
Siemowit VI 2 January 1446 1459-1462 31 December 1461/1 January 1462 Płock and Rawa (Rawa and Gostynin) Unmarried Sons of Władysław I. Ruled jointly. In 1459 inherited Gostynin from their aunt Margareta. After their deaths, Masovia was again reunited by the sons of Boleslaus IV.
Władysław II After 31 October 1448 27 February 1462 Płock and Rawa (Rawa and Gostynin) Unmarried
Conrad III the Red Anonymous Konrad III the Red.jpg 1447/8 1462-1471 28 October 1503 Masovia Magdaena Stawrot
1468/70
(morganatic)
no children

Unknown
before 20 July 1477
(morganatic, divorced 1493?)
no children

Anna Radziwiłł
between 29 September 1496 and 2 April 1497
four children
Ruled jointly in the reunited Masovia. In 1471 divided the land again.
Casimir III 10 June 1448/8 June 1449 9 June 1480 Masovia Unmarried
Bolesław V Bolesław V Warszawski seal 1462.PNG c.1453 27 April 1488 Masovia Anna Radzanów
20 July 1477
(morganatic, annulled 1480)
no children
Janusz II Seal of Janusz II Prince of Płoc.PNG 1455 16 February 1495 Masovia Unmarried
Conrad III the Red Anonymous Konrad III the Red.jpg 1447/8 1471-1488 28 October 1503 Czersk Magdaena Stawrot
1468/70
(morganatic)
no children

Unknown
before 20 July 1477
(morganatic, divorced 1493?)
no children

Anna Radziwiłł
between 29 September 1496 and 2 April 1497
four children
Received Czersk. In 1488 reunited it with Warsaw.
Bolesław V Bolesław V Warszawski seal 1462.PNG c.1453 1471-1488 27 April 1488 Warsaw Anna Radzanów
20 July 1477
(morganatic, annulled 1480)
no children
Received Warsaw. After his death his land was reunited with Czersk.
Casimir III 10 June 1448/8 June 1449 1471-1475 9 June 1480 Płock Unmarried In 1475 abdicated of his lands to his brother Janusz.
Janusz II Seal of Janusz II Prince of Płoc.PNG 1455 1475-1495 16 February 1495 Płock Unmarried Inherited Płock from his brother. After his death Masovia was definitively reunited.
Conrad III the Red Anonymous Konrad III the Red.jpg 1447/8 1488-1495 28 October 1503 Czersk and Warsaw Magdaena Stawrot
1468/70
(morganatic)
no children

Unknown
before 20 July 1477
(morganatic, divorced 1493?)
no children

Anna Radziwiłł
between 29 September 1496 and 2 April 1497
four children
In 1495 reunited all Masovia.
Conrad III the Red Anonymous Konrad III the Red.jpg 1447/8 1495-1503 28 October 1503 Masovia Magdaena Stawrot
1468/70
(morganatic)
no children

Unknown
before 20 July 1477
(morganatic, divorced 1493?)
no children

Anna Radziwiłł
between 29 September 1496 and 2 April 1497
four children
Anna Radziwiłł (regent) Anna Radziwiłłówna.jpg 1475/6 1503-1518 15 March 1522 Masovia Conrad III the Red
between 29 September 1496 and 2 April 1497
four children
Regent in name of her children.
Janusz III Janusz Mazowiecki.jpg 27 September 1502 1518-1526 9/10 March 1526 Masovia Unmarried Ruled jointly with his brother Stanisław I until his death in 1524.
Stanisław I Stanisław Mazowiecki.jpg 17 May 1501 1518-1524 8 August 1524 Masovia Unmarried Ruled jointly with his brother Janusz III.
Anna Anna Odrowąż.jpg c.1498 1526 After 26 January 1557 Masovia Stanisław Odrowąż
1536
one child
The last Masovian Piast. Sister of Stanislaus and Janusz III. Anna was elected duchess by the nobles to maintain the independence of the Duchy. It was unsuccessful, because, in the same year, Masovia was annexed to the Kingdom of Poland.

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