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Duke of Norfolk

The Duke of Norfolk is the premier duke in the peerage of England, as Earl of Arundel, the premier earl. The Duke of Norfolk is, the Earl Marshal and Hereditary Marshal of England; the seat of the Duke of Norfolk is Arundel Castle in Sussex, although the title refers to the county of Norfolk. The current duke is Edward 18th Duke of Norfolk; the dukes have been Catholic, a state of affairs known as recusancy in England. All past and present dukes have been descended from Edward I; the son of Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, was Henry Earl of Surrey. Before the Dukes of Norfolk, there were the Bigod Earls of Norfolk, starting with Roger Bigod from Normandy, their male line ended with Roger Bigod, 5th Earl of Norfolk, who died without an heir in 1306, so their titles and estates reverted to the crown. Edward II granted his brother, Thomas of Brotherton, the title of Earl of Norfolk in 1312, it passed to Thomas's daughter, to her grandson, Thomas Mowbray. When Richard II made Thomas Mowbray the Duke of Norfolk in 1397, he conferred upon him the estates and titles that had belonged to the Earls of Norfolk.

His elderly grandmother, was still alive, so at the same time she was created Duchess of Norfolk for life. Mowbray died in exile in 1399, months after his grandmother, his dukedom was repealed, his widow took the title of Countess of Norfolk. Between 1401 and 1476, the Mowbray family held the title and estates of the Duke of Norfolk. John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk, died without male issue in 1476, his only surviving child being the 3-year-old Anne Mowbray. A marriage was arranged between Anne and Richard, Duke of York, the 4-year-old son of Edward IV, she remained Richard's child bride until she died at the age of 8. In accordance with the marriage arrangements, Richard inherited the lands and wealth of the Mowbray family, he was made Duke of Norfolk. However, upon the death of Edward IV, the throne was seized by Edward's brother, Richard III. After Prince Richard was confined in June 1483 to the Tower of London, where his elder brother was lodged, both Richard and Edward were declared illegitimate.

They subsequently disappeared, the titles of both York and Norfolk were forfeited to the crown. This left John Howard, the son of Thomas Mowbray's elder daughter Margaret, as heir to the dukedom, his support for Richard III's usurpation secured his creation as 1st Duke of Norfolk in 1483, in the title's third creation. From this point to the present, the title has remained in the hands of the descendants of John Howard; the Catholic faith of the Howard dynasty resulted in conflict with the reigning monarch during and after the reign of Henry VIII. In 1546, Thomas Howard, the third Duke, fell out of favour with the dying Henry and was attainted on 27 January 1547. Imprisoned in the Tower of London, he narrowly escaped execution through Henry's death the following day, but remained imprisoned until the death of Edward VI and the accession of the Catholic Queen Mary to the English throne in 1553, upon which his lands and titles were restored to him. However, the Duke died the following year aged around 81, was succeeded by his grandson Thomas as the fourth Duke of Norfolk.

Following Mary's death in 1558 and the accession of her sister Elizabeth I, the Duke was imprisoned for scheming to marry Elizabeth's cousin Mary, Queen of Scots. After his release under house arrest in 1570 and subsequent participation in the Ridolfi plot to enthrone Mary and Catholicism in England, he was executed in 1572 for treason and his lands and titles again became forfeit. In 1660, the fourth Duke's great-great-grandson, the 23rd Earl of Arundel, was restored to the family lands and dukedom. Mentally infirm, the fifth Duke never married and died in 1677, he was succeeded by his younger brother Henry as the 6th Duke, through whom the 7th Duke, 8th Duke and 9th Duke of Norfolk were descended in the male-line. At the death of the 9th Duke, the title was inherited in 1777 by his heir male, Charles Howard, a grandson of Charles Howard of Greystoke, a younger brother of the 5th and 6th Dukes, he was succeeded by his son, whose lack of a legitimate male heir resulted in the title passing to Bernard Howard, a great-grandson of Bernard Howard of Glossop, the youngest brother of the 5th and 6th Dukes.

The title passed to his son in 1842, Henry Howard, 13th Duke of Norfolk, the father of Henry Fitzalan-Howard, 14th Duke of Norfolk, Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 1st Baron Howard of Glossop. The title passed through the line of the elder brother from 1856 until the death in 1975 of Bernard Fitzalan-Howard, 16th Duke of Norfolk without male issue, he was succeeded by his second cousin once removed, Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk, a great-grandson of the aforementioned 1st Baron Howard of Glossop. The current Duke of Norfolk is Edward Fitzalan-Howard, 18th Duke of Norfolk, who succeeded his father, Miles Stapleton-Fitzalan-Howard, 17th Duke of Norfolk, in 2002. In addition to the ducal title, the Dukes of Norfolk hold the hereditary position of Earl Marshal, which has the duty of organizing state occasions such as the coronation of the monarch and the state opening of Parliament. For the last five centuries, save some periods when it was under attainder, both the Dukedom and the Earl-Marshalship have been in the hands of the Howard family.

According to the House of Lords Act 1999, due to his duties as Earl Marshal, Norfolk is one of only two hereditary peers automatically admitted

Concert film

A concert film or concert movie, is a film that showcases a live performance from the perspective of a concert goer, the subject of, an extended live performance or concert by either a musician or a stand-up comedian. The earliest known concert film is Concert Magic; this concert features virtuoso violinist Yehudi Menuhin at the Charlie Chaplin Studios in 1947. Together with various artists he performed classical and romantic works of famous composers such as Beethoven, Bach and others; the earliest known jazz concert film is the 1959 film Jazz on a Summer's Day. The film was recorded during the fifth annual Newport Jazz Festival; the earliest known rock concert film was the T. A. M. I. Show, which featured acts such as The Beach Boys, James Brown, Marvin Gaye, the Rolling Stones. One of popular music's most ground-breaking concert films is Pink Floyd: Live at Pompeii, directed by Adrian Maben, in which Pink Floyd perform a short set of songs inside the amphitheatre of Pompeii without an audience.

The term was first used by Bill Drake in the 1969 History of Rock & Roll radio broadcast and is a portmanteau of "rock" and "documentary". The term was subsequently used to describe concert films containing appearances by multiple artists. In 1976, the term was used by the promoters of the live musical production Beatlemania which documented the evolving career of The Beatles; the 1984 mockumentary film, This Is Spinal Tap, notably parodied the rockumentary genre


Interleukins are a group of cytokines that were first seen to be expressed by white blood cells. ILs can be divided into four major groups based on distinguishing structural features. However, their amino acid sequence similarity is rather weak; the human genome encodes related proteins. The function of the immune system depends in a large part on interleukins, rare deficiencies of a number of them have been described, all featuring autoimmune diseases or immune deficiency; the majority of interleukins are synthesized by helper CD4 T lymphocytes, as well as through monocytes and endothelial cells. They promote the development and differentiation of T and B lymphocytes, hematopoietic cells. Interleukin receptors on astrocytes in the hippocampus are known to be involved in the development of spatial memories in mice; the name "interleukin" was chosen in 1979, to replace the various different names used by different research groups to designate interleukin 1 and interleukin 2. This decision was taken during the Second International Lymphokine Workshop in Switzerland.

The term interleukin derives from "as a means of communication", "deriving from the fact that many of these proteins are produced by leukocytes and act on leukocytes". The name is something of a relic; the term was coined by University of Victoria. Some interleukins are classified as lymphokines, lymphocyte-produced cytokines that mediate immune responses. Interleukin 1 alpha and interleukin 1 beta are cytokines that participate in the regulation of immune responses, inflammatory reactions, hematopoiesis. Two types of IL-1 receptor, each with three extracellular immunoglobulin -like domains, limited sequence similarity and different pharmacological characteristics have been cloned from mouse and human cell lines: these have been termed type I and type II receptors; the receptors both exist in transmembrane and soluble forms: the soluble IL-1 receptor is thought to be post-translationally derived from cleavage of the extracellular portion of the membrane receptors. Both IL-1 receptors appear to be well conserved in evolution, map to the same chromosomal location.

The receptors can both bind all three forms of IL-1. The crystal structures of IL1A and IL1B have been solved, showing them to share the same 12-stranded beta-sheet structure as both the heparin binding growth factors and the Kunitz-type soybean trypsin inhibitors; the beta-sheets are arranged in 4 similar lobes around a central axis, 8 strands forming an anti-parallel beta-barrel. Several regions the loop between strands 4 and 5, have been implicated in receptor binding. Molecular cloning of the Interleukin 1 Beta converting enzyme is generated by the proteolytic cleavage of an inactive precursor molecule. A complementary DNA encoding protease that carries out this cleavage has been cloned. Recombinant expression enables cells to process precursor Interleukin 1 Beta to the mature form of the enzyme. Interleukin 1 plays a role in the Central Nervous System. Research indicates that mice with a genetic deletion of the type I IL-1 receptor display markedly impaired hippocampal-dependent memory functioning and Long-term potentiation, although memories that do not depend on the integrity of the hippocampus seem to be spared.

However, when mice with this genetic deletion have wild-type neural precursor cells injected into their hippocampus and these cells are allowed to mature into astrocytes containing the interleukin-1 receptors, the mice exhibit normal hippocampal-dependent memory function, partial restoration of long-term potentiation. T lymphocytes regulate the growth and differentiation of T cells and certain B cells through the release of secreted protein factors; these factors, which include interleukin 2, are secreted by lectin- or antigen-stimulated T cells, have various physiological effects. IL2 is a lymphokine. In addition, it acts on some B cells, via receptor-specific binding, as a growth factor and antibody production stimulant; the protein is secreted as a single glycosylated polypeptide, cleavage of a signal sequence is required for its activity. Solution NMR suggests that the structure of IL2 comprises a bundle of 4 helices, flanked by 2 shorter helices and several poorly defined loops. Residues in helix A, in the loop region between helices A and B, are important for receptor binding.

Secondary structure analysis has suggested similarity to IL4 and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor. Interleukin 3 is a cytokine that regulates hematopoiesis by controlling the production and function of granulocytes and macrophages; the protein, which exists in vivo as a monomer, is produced in activated T cells and mast cells, is activated by the cleavage of an N-terminal signal sequence. IL3 is produced by T lymphocytes and T-cell lymphomas only after stimulation with antigens, mitogens, or chemical activators such as phorbol esters. However, IL3 is constitutively expressed in the myelomonocytic leukaemia cell line WEHI-3B, it is thought that the genetic change of the cell line to constitutive production of IL3 is the key event in development of this leukaemia. Interleukin 4 is produced by CD4+ T cells specialized in providing he

Lundberg v. County of Humboldt

Lundberg v. County of Humboldt was a United States District Court for the Northern District of California decision issued on April 29, 2005 which arose out of a protest dispute in 1997 between environmental activists for the Headwaters Forest and the Sheriff's Deputies of Humboldt County, California. During three protests in the Fall of 1997, police officers swabbed pepper spray in the eyes of eight activists practicing nonviolent resistance; the action taken by the police was judged to be excessive force and a violation of the Fourth Amendment to the United States Constitution. In three incidents, the first in September 25, 1997, in the office lobby of Pacific Lumber Company in Scotia, the second at a Pacific Lumber logging site in Bear Creek on October 3, 1997, a third incident at the Eureka district office of Congressman Frank Riggs on October 16, 1997, County sheriff's deputies stuck pepper spray drenched Q-tips into the protesters' eyes to try to coerce them to end the protest. Meeting resistance, a second dose of pepper spray, sprayed, some of them directly in the eyes with canisters held a few inches from the protestors faces.

The plaintiffs charged. The first trial occurred in August 1998 in U. S. District Court in San Francisco, ended in a deadlock. Judge Walker threw the case out; the plaintiffs appealed to the U. S. 9th Circuit Court of Appeals, based in San Francisco. Headwaters Forest Defense v. Humboldt County, 240 F.3d 1185, 1197. On May 5, 2000 the court denying qualified immunity to Sheriff and Chief Deputy and overturning the summary judgment, thus giving an opportunity for a new trial. No. 98-17250, D. C. No. CV-97-03989-VRW The defendants appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court and the case was sent back to the 9th Circuit for reconsideration, which again ruled in favor of the plaintiffs; the defendants again appealed all the way to the Supreme Court, denied. The second trial began Sept. 8, 2004, presided by U. S. District Judge Susan Illston, but resulted in a hung jury; the third trial began April 2005 resulting in a victory for the plaintiffs. The plaintiffs were awarded only $1 per person in damages. A reference to this incident is made in a 1999 episode of The Simpsons titled "Homer to the Max".

In where Homer Simpson, Marge Simpson, Ed Begley Jr. chain themselves to redwood trees in the hope to save them from destruction

Naming customs of the Dagomba people

As with many ethnic groups in Ghana, names form part of the cultural fabric of the Mole-Dagombas. Naming practices stem from either traditional origins. Islam is the main religion among the Mole-Dagombas; some individuals have one Islamic and the other traditional. While most names are given at birth, others are given based on some cultural circumstances. Newborns are given the name Sanpaga; this marks the baby as stranger in the family. Seven days after birth, the naming ceremony is performed under the auspices of the father and/or the head of the household; the naming is done either in the indigenous traditional way, known as zugupinbu where a talisman or soothsayer is consulted to give a name to the new born baby or in the Islamic way, known as Suuna. In the traditional ceremony, the baby's hair is shaved and a name given by a Soothsayer after consultation with the gods; the soothsayer determines. The child is declared to be the ancestor's namesake, which stems from two words sigili and lana which means'owner'.

The name may alternatively be that of a buguli. Male: Andani, Napari, Shagba, Gariba. Female: Napari, Nakpambo, Balemini, etc. Male: Tia, from which Tido is derivedFemale: Tipaga from TiaUngendered: Jebuni and Zenebu; when a mother has a successful birth after repeated infant deaths, the family may decide to take the child to a trash heap to "throw the baby away". A person of different ethnicity/tribe buys the child and hand the child back to the parents; such a child is given name from the tribe of the buyer. Such names depend on the tribe of the buyer and include. Female: Tampulimpaga, Kulikulipaga, etc.*TAMPULI is refers to the "rubish heap" so the name could be interpreted as a "man" or "woman" of the rubish heap. Hence Tampulimdoo or Tampulimpaga; the idea being to discourge the return of souls that do not stay after birth. Babies named for family events are the most common names; such names are based on proverbs. Such names include: Tunteya: based on a ground growing plant; this names indicates that the family is growing Zantale: this name is given in reference to quarrels.

Suhuyini: this name specifies that the family is wholehearted.e.g. Alhassan Suhuyin Names may come from the time of the day; the word'neen or nein' stems from the world'brightening' and'doo' for male while'paga' signals that the baby was born during the day. Such names include. Example: Damba, Chimsi. Another class of names are given to babies to signify the day of the week. Unlike the southern part of Ghana, this class is less prevalent among the Mole-Dagombas and have no implications for the individual's social identity; such names can be assumed by anyone. Kropp Dakubu, Mary Esther. Personal names of the Dagomba. Michigan State University. OCLC 773574013. Oppong, Christine. Growing up in Dagbon. Ghana Pub. Corp. OCLC 869372045. Krapp Dakubu, Mary Esther; the Languages of Ghana. KPI and International African Institute


Abeed, is a derogatory term in Arabic meaning "slave". The name has been explained as an allusion to the submission. Meyer dismisses this as "efforts by propagandists explain the term away at the least, disingenuous". There have been instances of Northern Sudanese using the terms "Abid" or "Abeed" to refer to Southern Sudanese. In Sudan they're considered the "Slave tribe" because of the Trans-Saharan slave trade; this usage has fallen into relative disuse over the years. Southern Sudanese in turn refer to Northerners as "Mundukuru" and "Minga". According to Professor Mahmoud Mamdani however, conflicts in Sudan are not compatible with western pre-conceptions of "race". Francis Deng described the north-south division imposed by the British on Anglo-Egyptian Sudan as the British saying to the Northerners: "You Northerners are slave traders and you treat the Southerners like Abeed. Don't call them Abeed! They are slaves no longer."Jok Madut Jok argued that the Sudanese slave trade persists in the 21st century.

He claimed that Southern Sudanese who work in Northern Sudan at marginal and petty jobs are regarded as Abeed because of the social standing, concomitant with such occupations. Dinka labourers earning just enough to buy food are treated as the property of landowners and merchants. "Displaced Southerners," Jok states, "are at the bottom of the racial hierarchy in Northern Sudan." He explains that they depend upon patronage and exploitative relationships with power brokers, with relations ranging from servitude through bonded work to serving as attractants for resources from foreign aid agencies. "The lines dividing slavery and cheap labor", he states, "are blurred." List of ethnic slurs