Emeric, King of Hungary
Emeric known as Henry or Imre, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1196 and 1204. In 1184, his father, Béla III of Hungary, ordered that he be crowned king, appointed him as ruler of Croatia and Dalmatia around 1195. Emeric ascended the throne after the death of his father. During the first four years of his reign, he fought his rebellious brother, who forced Emeric to make him ruler of Croatia and Dalmatia as appanage. Emeric cooperated with the Holy See against the Bosnian Patarenes, whom the Catholic Church considered to be heretics. Taking advantage of a civil war, Emeric expanded his suzerainty over Serbia, he failed to prevent the Republic of Venice, assisted by crusaders of the Fourth Crusade, from seizing Zadar in 1202. He could not impede the rise of Bulgaria along the southern frontiers of his kingdom. Emeric was the first Hungarian monarch to use the "Árpád stripes" as his personal coat of arms and to adopt the title of King of Serbia. Before his death, Emeric had Ladislaus III, crowned king.
Emeric was the eldest child of Béla's first wife, Agnes of Antioch. His tutor was Bernard. Nicholas, Archbishop of Esztergom, crowned the eight-year-old Emeric king on 16 May 1182, which confirmed Emeric's right to succeed his father. Emeric was betrothed to a daughter of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I, but she died in 1184. Béla III appointed Emeric to administer Croatia and Dalmatia around 1195. Emeric succeeded his father, who died on 23 April 1196. Béla III had bequeathed estates and money to Emeric's younger brother, under the condition that Andrew should lead a crusade to the Holy Land. Instead, Andrew turned against Emeric, demanding a separate duchy for himself in 1197. Leopold VI, Duke of Austria, intervened on behalf of Andrew, at the end of the year, their combined forces routed Emeric's troops at Mački, Slavonia. In early 1198, Emeric was forced to make Andrew Duke of Dalmatia as an appanage. Andrew continued to conspire against Emeric, although Pope Innocent III continued urging Andrew to launch a crusade.
On 10 March 1199, Emeric forced Boleslaus, Bishop of Vác, a supporter of Andrew, to give him documents that proved the conspiracy against him. In the summer of that year, Emeric defeated Andrew's army near Lake Balaton, which made Andrew flee to Austria. A papal legate named Gregory arrived in Hungary to mediate a reconciliation between the two brothers. According to the brothers' treaty, Emeric once again granted Croatia and Dalmatia to Andrew in the summer of 1200. From around 1200, Emeric was involved in the affairs of the Balkan Peninsula. On 11 October 1200, Pope Innocent urged him to take measures to liquidate the "heretics" in Bosnia. Upon Emeric's request, the Pope refused to send a royal crown to Grand Prince Stephen of Serbia. Emeric invaded Serbia in 1201 or 1202, helped Stephen's brother Vukan seize the throne; as a token of his suzerainty over Serbia, Emeric became the first Hungarian monarch to adopt the title of King of Serbia in 1202. He was the first king to use a royal seal depicting the so-called "Árpád stripes", which became part of the coat of arms of Hungary.
In the summer of 1202, the Venetian doge Enrico Dandolo signed a treaty with the leaders of the Fourth Crusade, who agreed to help the Venetians recapture Zadar, a town in Dalmatia, which had accepted the Hungarian monarchs' suzerainty since 1186. Though Pope Innocent III forbade the crusaders to besiege Zadar, they seized the town on 24 November and gave it to the Venetians. Although the Pope excommunicated the Venetians and the crusaders upon Emeric's demand, Zadar remained under Venetian rule. In fear of a crusade by Emeric, Ban Kulin of Bosnia held a synod of the Church of Bosnia at Bilino Polje on 6 April 1203; the synod ordered the reform of the rites. Kulin acknowledged Emeric's suzerainty. In a letter written in 1203, the Bulgarian tsar Kaloyan informed Pope Innocent that Emeric had occupied five districts in Bulgaria, Kaloyan demanded the Pope's intervention. Duke Andrew once again rose up in open rebellion against Emeric in the autumn of 1203, their armies met at Varaždin on the river Drava in October.
Emeric walked into his brother's camp unarmed, stating, "Now I shall see who will dare to raise a hand to shed the blood of the royal lineage!", according to the nearly contemporaneous Thomas the Archdeacon. Nobody ventured to stop the king. Duke Andrew was held in captivity for months, but his supporters released him in early 1204. Taking advantage of the civil war in Hungary, Kaloyan invaded and captured Belgrade and other fortresses. Emeric made preparations for a campaign against Bulgaria, but he disbanded his army upon Pope Innocent's demand; the Pope, negotiating a church union with Kaloyan, sent a royal crown to him, but Emeric imprisoned the papal legate, delivering the crown to Bulgaria when the legate was passing through Hungary. Having fallen ill, Emeric had his four-year-old son, crowned king on 26 August 1204, he released the papal legate. He reconciled with his brother, "entrusting to him the guardianship of his son and the administration of the entire kingdom until the ward should reach the age of majority", according to Thomas the Archdeacon.
Emeric died on 30 November, according to the Illuminated Chronicle. Emeric was buried in the cathedral of Eger. Emeric's wife, was the daughter of King Alfonso II of Aragon, their marriage took place between 1196 and 1200. Their only known child, was born around 1200 and died on 7 May 1205. Queen Co
Stephen of Anjou
Stephen was a Hungarian royal prince of the Capetian House of Anjou. He was the youngest son of Charles I of Elizabeth of Poland to survive childhood, he was styled as duke of Slavonia from 1339 to 1346, but he had no role in the government of the province. Stephen's separate household was set up in 1349. In this year, he received the counties of Szepes and Sáros from Louis I of Hungary. Louis soon appointed him to administer Slavonia. Stephen was regarded his childless brother's heir, he and his mother governed the kingdom during Louis's first campaign of Naples in 1350. Late in the same year, Stephen was again made duke of Transylvania, but from 1352 to 1353 he was styled duke of Szepes and Sáros. Thereafter, he was entrusted with the administration of Croatia and Slavonia, he died on his return from a campaign against Serbia. His infant son, inherited his duchy. Stephen was the youngest of five sons born to Charles I of Hungary and his third wife, Elizabeth of Poland. Of the five, Louis and Stephen survived infancy.
Stephen was born on "the feast of St Stephen" according to the Illuminated Chronicle. He was named for the first king of Hungary, canonized in 1083, he was baptized by Archbishop Csanád Telegdi. A priest of Bohemian origin, was one of his tutors. Stephen was first mentioned in a royal charter of his father on 12 May 1339. In the document, he was styled as Duke of Slavonia, but he did not assume direct government of the province: the bans continued to govern Slavonia on the king's behalf. In July, Stephen's maternal uncle, Casimir III of Poland, named Stephen's mother and father or one of their sons as his heir if he died without a legitimate heir. Decades the Polish historian, Jan of Czarnków, claimed that Charles had decided to secure a throne for each of his sons and wanted to make Stephen his heir in Hungary. Next year, a Venetian envoy recorded that Charles was planning to visit Dalmatia along with his wife and "their younger son" who must have been Stephen. Charles I died on 16 July 1342. During the first years of the reign of his brother, Stephen was only sporadically mentioned in official documents.
At Stephen's request, the judge royal, Paul Nagymartoni, deferred a hearing in 1343 and exempted a nobleman of paying a fine in 1344. Stephen was mentioned in his brother's charters of grant from May 1345, evidencing that he had become a member of the royal council. Stephen's brother, who had married Joanna I of Naples, was murdered on 18 September 1345. Louis I of Hungary accused Joanna of staging the plot against Andrew. Louis entered into correspondence with Pope Clement VI. From early 1346, Louis urged the pope to grant the Kingdom of Naples to him or to Stephen; the pope styled Stephen as duke or duke of Transylvania in his letters addressed to Louis, but the Hungarian documents referred to him as the "duke of all Slavonia" in 1345 and 1346. Louis conquered significant territories during his first campaign in southern Italy in 1347 and 1348, but after he returned to Hungary and her second husband, Louis of Taranto, expelled Louis' troops from most fortresses. Stephen was given a household of his own and he received the counties of Szepes and Sáros in the summer of 1349.
The first reference to a member of Stephen's household was recorded on 11 June. Historian Éva B. Halász says, the establishment of Stephen's own household was most connected to his brother's negotiations with the papal legate, Guy of Boulogne. Louis I proposed that Stephen should marry Joanna I's sister and heir and the pope should grant Naples to Stephen. Stephen styled himself as "lord of Szepes and Sáros" in his two charters in 1349. In his second charter, issued in November, he bore the title of "duke of Transylvania". B. Halász proposes that Louis I made his brother duke of the province because of the short rebellion of Andrew Szécsi, Bishop of Transylvania, but Stephen's tenure was short because he was appointed to administer Slavonia. One of his retainers, Thomas Gönyűi, was first mentioned as the ispán of a Slavonian county on 8 December 1349 and the ban of Slavonia did not witness Louis I's charters from the same month until October 1350, showing that Stephen received the realm in late 1349.
Stephen had been regarded the childless Louis's heir. Before departing for his second Neapolitan campaign in 1350, Louis I appointed Stephen and their mother his lieutenants. Stephen was again made duke of Transylvania in November or October 1350, after Louis's return from Naples, he visited Transylvania and issued a charter in Felvinc in January 1351. He styled himself duke of Transylvania for the last time on 18 October 1351. Stephen again governed Szepes and Sáros, bearing the title of duke, from late 1351 to early 1353. Thereafter, Louis I appointed him to administer Croatia and Slavonia, most because the relationship of Hungary and the neighboring powers and Serbia, had become tense, his relationship with his tutor had worsened for unknown reason and Ladislaus described Stephen as a new Nero in a letter addressed to the pope. Stephen accompanied Louis against Serbia in the summer of 1354. Stephen died for unknown reasons during his return from the campaign on 9 August 1354, he was buried in the Zagreb Cathedral, according to local tradition, first recorded in 1760.
Plans about the marriage of Stephen and Margaret of Bavaria were first mentioned in 1345. She was the daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor, Louis IV, excommunicated by the Holy See. Stephen married Margaret only after her fa
Andrew II of Hungary
Andrew II known as Andrew of Jerusalem, was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1205 and 1235. He ruled the Principality of Halych from 1188 until 1189/1190, again between 1208/1209 and 1210, he was the younger son of Béla III of Hungary, who entrusted him with the administration of the newly conquered Principality of Halych in 1188. Andrew's rule was unpopular, the boyars expelled him. Béla III willed money to Andrew, obliging him to lead a crusade to the Holy Land. Instead, Andrew forced his elder brother, King Emeric of Hungary, to cede Croatia and Dalmatia as an appanage to him in 1197; the following year, Andrew occupied Hum. Despite the fact that Andrew did not stop conspiring against Emeric, the dying king made Andrew guardian of his son, Ladislaus III, in 1204. After the premature death of Ladislaus, Andrew ascended the throne in 1205. According to historian László Kontler, "t was amidst the socio-political turmoil during reign that the relations, institutional framework and social categories that arose under Stephen I, started to disintegrate in the higher echelons of society" in Hungary.
Andrew introduced a new grants policy, the so-called "new institutions", giving away money and royal estates to his partisans despite the loss of royal revenues. He was the first Hungarian monarch to adopt the title of "King of Halych and Lodomeria", he waged at least a dozen wars to seize the two Rus' principalities, but the local boyars and neighboring princes prevented him from conquering the principalities. He participated in the Fifth Crusade to the Holy Land in 1217 -- 1218; when the servientes regis, or "royal servants", rose up, Andrew was forced to issue the Golden Bull of 1222, confirming their privileges. This led to the rise of the nobility in the Kingdom of Hungary, his Diploma Andreanum of 1224 listed the liberties of the Transylvanian Saxon community. The employment of Jews and Muslims to administer the royal revenues led him into conflict with the Holy See and the Hungarian prelates. Andrew pledged to respect the privileges of the clergymen and to dismiss his non-Christian officials in 1233, but he never fulfilled the latter promise.
Andrew's first wife, Gertrude of Merania, was murdered in 1213 because her blatant favoritism towards her German kinsmen and courtiers stirred up discontent among the native lords. The veneration of their daughter, Elizabeth of Hungary, was confirmed by the Holy See during Andrew's lifetime. After Andrew's death, his sons, Béla and Coloman, accused his third wife, Beatrice d'Este, of adultery and never considered her son, Stephen, to be a legitimate son of Andrew. Andrew was the second son of Béla's first wife, Agnes of Antioch; the year of Andrew's birth is not known, but modern historians agree that he was born around 1177. Andrew was first mentioned in connection to his father's invasion of the Principality of Halych in 1188; that year, Béla III invaded Halych upon the request of its former prince, Vladimir II Yaroslavich, expelled by his subjects. Béla forced Roman Mstislavich, to flee. After conquering Halych, he granted it to Andrew. Béla captured Vladimir Yaroslavich and imprisoned him in Hungary.
After Béla's withdrawal from Halych, Roman Mstislavich returned with the assistance of Rurik Rostislavich, Prince of Belgorod Kievsky. They tried to expel Andrew and his Hungarian retinue, but the Hungarians routed the united forces of Mstislavich and Rostislavich. A group of local boyars offered the throne to Rostislav Ivanovich, a distant cousin of the imprisoned Vladimir Yaroslavich. Béla III sent reinforcements to Halych. Andrew's reign remained unpopular in Halych, because the Hungarian soldiers insulted local women and did not respect Orthodox churches; the local boyars allied with their former prince, Vladimir Yaroslavich, who had escaped from captivity and returned to Halych. Duke Casimir II of Poland supported Vladimir Yaroslavich, they expelled Andrew and his retinue from the principality in August 1189 or 1190. Andrew returned to Hungary after his defeat, he did not receive a separate duchy from his father. On his deathbed, Béla III, who had pledged to lead a crusade to the Holy Land, ordered Andrew to fulfill his vow.
Andrew's father died on 23 April 1196, Andrew's older brother, succeeded him. Andrew used the funds that he inherited from his father to recruit supporters among the Hungarian lords, he formed an alliance with Leopold VI, Duke of Austria, they plotted against Emeric. Their united troops routed the royal army at Mački, Slavonia, in December 1197. Under duress, King Emeric gave Dalmatia to Andrew as an appanage. In practice, Andrew administered Dalmatia as an independent monarch, he granted land and confirmed privileges. He cooperated with the Frankopans, Babonići, other local lords; the Canons Regular of the Holy Sepulchre settled in the province during his rule. Taking advantage of Miroslav of Hum's death, Andrew invaded Hum and occupied at least the land between the Cetina and Neretva rivers, he styled himself, "By the grace of God, Duke of Zadar and of all Dalmatia and Hum" in his charters. Pope Innocent III urged Andrew to lead a crusade the Holy Land, but Andrew hatched a new conspiracy against Emeric with the help of John, Abbot of Pannonhalma, Bishop of Vác, many other prelates and lords.
The Pope threatened him with excommunication if he failed to fulfill his father's vow, but Andrew did not yield. The conspiracy was uncovered on 10 March 1199, when King Emeric seize
Charles III of Naples
Charles the Short or Charles of Durazzo was King of Naples and titular King of Jerusalem from 1382 to 1386 as Charles III, King of Hungary from 1385 to 1386 as Charles II. In 1381, Charles created the chivalric Order of the Ship. In 1383, he succeeded to the Principality of Achaea on the death of James of Baux, he was the only child of his wife, Margaret of Sanseverino. Louis of Durazzo was a younger son of John, Duke of Durazzo, the youngest son of King Charles II of Naples and Mary of Hungary. Charles's date of birth is uncertain: he was born in 1354, according to historian Szilárd Süttő, in 1357, according to Nancy Goldstone. Louis of Durazzo rebelled against his cousins, Joanna I of Naples, her husband, Louis of Taranto in the spring of 1360, but he was defeated, he was compelled to send the child Charles as a hostage to Queen Joanna I's court in Naples. After Charles's father died in prison in the summer of 1362, Queen Joanna ordered that Charles was to be treated "with all honours due to the royal household and to maintain him in a royal state".
Charles's distant cousin, Louis I of Hungary, who had not fathered a son, decided to invite Charles to Hungary. Charles came to Hungary in 1364 or 1365. King Louis planned to arrange a marriage between Charles and Anne, a daughter of Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor. However, the negotiations of their marriage were broken off because the relations between Louis I and Charles IV had deteriorated. Next, Louis proposed a marriage between Charles and Charles's cousin, Margaret of Durazzo, the youngest daughter of Queen Joanna's younger sister, Maria of Calabria. Although the queen was opposed to the marriage, Pope Urban VI granted the papal dispensation, necessary for the marriage on 15 June 1369, their marriage took place in Naples on 24 January 1370. Louis made Charles governor of Slavonia and Dalmatia with the title of duke in 1371; the conflict between Joanna and Pope Urban VI caused the Pope to declare her dethroned in 1381 and give the kingdom to Charles. He marched on the Kingdom of Naples with a Croatian army, defeated her husband Otto, Duke of Brunswick-Grubenhagen, at San Germano, seized the city and besieged Joanna in the Castel dell'Ovo.
After Otto's failed attempt to relieve her, Charles had her imprisoned at San Fele. Soon afterwards, when news reached Charles that her adopted heir, Louis I of Anjou, was setting out on an expedition to reconquer Naples, Charles had the Queen strangled in prison in 1382, he succeeded to the crown. Queen Joanna I of Naples acknowledged Clement VII as the lawful pope against Urban VI on 22 November 1378, she gave shelter to Clement VII, expelled from Rome, helped him to leave Italy for Avignon in May 1378. In retaliation, Pope Urban VI excommunicated the queen and declared her deprived of her kingdom in favor of Charles of Durazzo and his wife Margaret on 17 June. Louis's expedition counted to some 40,000 troops, including those of Amadeus VI of Savoy, had the financial support of Antipope Clement VII and Bernabò Visconti of Milan. Charles, who counted on the mercenary companies under John Hawkwood and Bartolomeo d'Alviano, for a total of some 14,000 men, was able to divert the French from Naples to other regions of the kingdom and to harass them with guerrilla tactics.
Amadeus fell ill and died in Molise on 1 March 1383, his troops abandoned the field. Louis asked for help to his king in France, who sent him an army under Enguerrand VII, Lord of Coucy; the latter was able to conquer Arezzo and invade the Kingdom of Naples, but midway was reached by the news that Louis had died at Bisceglie on 20 September 1384. In the meantime relationships with Urban VI became strained, as he suspected that Charles was plotting against him. In January 1385 he had six cardinals arrested, one, under torture, revealed Charles' conjure, he thus raised an interdict over the Kingdom of Naples. The King replied sending Alberico da Barbiano to besiege the pope in Nocera. After six months of siege, Urban was freed by two Neapolitan barons who had sided with Louis of Anjou, Raimondello Orsini and Tommaso di Sanseverino. While Urban took refuge in Genoa, Charles left the Kingdom to move to Hungary. Here, on the death of Louis I of Hungary, he had claimed the Hungarian throne as the senior Angevin male, ousted Louis' daughter Mary of Hungary in December 1385.
It was not difficult for him to reach the power, as he counted with the support of several Croatian lords, many contacts which he made during his period as Duke of Croatia and Dalmatia. However, Elizabeth of Bosnia, widow of Louis and mother of Mary, arranged to have Charles assassinated on 7 February 1386, he died of wounds at Visegrád on 24 February. He was buried in Visegrád without religious ceremony, because of his still valid excommunication by Pope Urban VI, his son Ladislaus succeeded him in Naples, while the regents of Mary of Hungary reinstated her as Queen of Hungary. However, Ladislaus would try to obtain the crown of Hungary in the future. Charles III and Margaret of Durazzo had three children: Mary of Durazzo. Joanna II of Naples. Ladislaus of Naples. "Papa Urbano VI e il Regno di Napoli", at Cronologia della Storia d'Italia Armorial of the House Anjou-Sicily House of Anjou-Sicily
King of Hungary
The King of Hungary was the ruling head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1918. The style of title "Apostolic King of Hungary" was endorsed by Pope Clement XIII in 1758 and used afterwards by all Monarchs of Hungary. Before 1000 AD, Hungary was not recognized as a kingdom and the ruler of Hungary was styled Grand Prince of the Hungarians; the first King of Hungary, Stephen I. was crowned on 25 December 1000 with the crown Pope Sylvester II had sent him and with the consent of Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor. Following King Stephen I's coronation, all the monarchs of Hungary used the title "King". However, not all rulers of Hungary were kings--for example, Stephen Bocskai and Francis II Rákóczi were proclaimed rulers as "High Princes of Hungary", there were three Governors of Hungary who were sometimes styled "regents", János Hunyadi, Lajos Kossuth and Miklós Horthy. From the 13th century a certain process was established to confirm the legitimacy of the King. No person could become the legitimate King of Hungary without fulfilling the following criteria: Coronation by the Archbishop of Esztergom.
This meant a certain level of protection to the integrity of the Kingdom. For example, stealing the Holy Crown of Hungary was no longer enough to become legitimate King; the first requirement was confirmed by Béla III, crowned by the Archbishop of Kalocsa based on the special authorisation of Pope Alexander III, but after his coronation he declared that his coronation would not harm the customary claim of the Archbishops of Esztergom to crown the kings. In 1211, Pope Innocent III denied to confirm the agreement of Archbishop John of Esztergom and Archbishop Berthold of Kalocsa on the transfer of the claim, he declared that it is only the Archbishop of Esztergom, entitled to crown the King of Hungary; the King Charles I of Hungary was crowned in May 1301 with a provisional crown in Esztergom by the Archbishop of this city, that lead to his second coronation in June 1309. In this time the Holy Crown wasn't used and he was crowned in Buda by the archbishop of Esztergom; however his third coronation was in 1310, in the city of Székesfehérvár, with the Holy Crown and effectuated by the archbishop of Esztergom.
The King's coronation was considered legitimate. On the other hand, in 1439, the dowager queen Elizabeth of Luxemburg ordered one of her handmaidens to steal the Holy Crown from the palace of Visegrád, promoted the coronation of her newborn son Ladislaus V, carried out legitimately in Székesfehérvár by the Archbishop of Esztergom. A similar situation occurred with the Matthias Corvinus, when he negotiated to get back the Holy Crown, in the possession of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. After obtaining it he was legitimately crowned; as in all the traditional monarchies, the heir descended through the male line from a previous King of Hungary. In accordance with Hungarian tradition, this right passed to younger brothers, before passing to the son of the previous King, which caused family disputes on many occasions; the founder of the first Hungarian royal house was Árpád, who led his people into the Carpathian Basin in 895. His descendants, who ruled for more than 400 years, included Saint Stephen I, Saint Ladislaus I, Andrew II, Béla IV.
In 1301 the last member of the House of Árpád died, Charles I was crowned, claiming the throne in the name of his paternal grandmother Mary, the daughter of Stephen V. With the death of Mary, the granddaughter of Charles I, in 1395, the direct line was interrupted again, Mary's husband Sigismund continued reigning, after being elected by the nobility of the Kingdom in the name of the Holy Crown. Matthias Corvinus was elected by the nobles of the Kingdom, being the first Hungarian monarch who descended from an aristocratic family, not from a royal family that inherited the title; the same happened decades with John Zápolya, elected in 1526 after the death of Louis II in the battle of Mohács. After this, the House of Habsburg inherited the throne, ruled Hungary from Austria for 400 years until 1918. Over the centuries, the Kings of Hungary acquired or claimed the crowns of several neighboring countries, they began to use the royal titles connected to those countries. By the time of the last kings, their precise style was: "By the Grace of God, Apostolic King of Hungary, Croatia, Rama, Galicia, Lodomeria and Bulgaria, Grand Prince of Transylvania, Count of the Székelys".
The title "Apostolic King" was confirmed by Pope Clement XIII in 1758 and used thereafter by all the Kings of Hungary. The title of "King of Slavonia" referred to the territories between the Sava Rivers; that title was first used by Ladislaus I. It was Ladislaus I who adopted the title "King of Croatia" in 1091. Coloman added the phrase "King of Dalmatia" to the royal style in 1105; the title "King of Rama", referring to the claim to Bosnia, was first used by Béla II in 1136. It was Emeric who adopted the title "King of Serbia"; the phrase "King of Galicia" was used to indicate the supremacy over Halych, while the title "King of Lodomeria" referred to Volhynia. In 1233, Béla IV began to use the title "King of Cumania" which expressed the rule over the territories settled by the Cumans at that time; the phrase "King of Bulgaria" was added to the royal style by Stephen V. Transylvania was a province of the Kingdom of Hungary ruled by a voivode, but after 1526 became a semi-independent principality subordinated to the Ot
Ladislaus IV of Hungary
Ladislaus the Cuman known as Ladislas the Cuman, was king of Hungary and Croatia from 1272 to 1290. His mother, was the daughter of a chieftain from the pagan Cumans who had settled in Hungary. At the age of seven, he married a daughter of King Charles I of Sicily. Ladislaus was only 10 when a rebellious lord, Joachim Gutkeled and imprisoned him. Ladislaus was still a prisoner when his father Stephen V died on 6 August 1272. During his minority, many groupings of barons — the Abas, Csáks, Kőszegis, Gutkeleds — fought against each other for supreme power. Ladislaus was declared to be of age at an assembly of the prelates, barons and Cumans in 1277, he allied himself with Rudolf I of Germany against Ottokar II of Bohemia. His forces had a preeminent role in Rudolf's victory over Ottokar in the Battle on the Marchfeld on 26 August 1278. However, Ladislaus could not restore royal power in Hungary. A papal legate, bishop of Fermo, came to Hungary to help Ladislaus consolidate his authority, but the prelate was shocked at the presence of thousands of pagan Cumans in Hungary.
Ladislaus promised that he would force them to adopt a Christian lifestyle, but they refused to obey the legate's demands. Ladislaus decided to support the Cumans; the Cumans imprisoned the legate, the legate's partisans captured Ladislaus. In early 1280, Ladislaus agreed to persuade the Cumans to submit to the legate, but many Cumans preferred to leave Hungary. Ladislaus vanquished a Cuman army that invaded Hungary in 1282. Hungary survived a Mongol invasion in 1285. Ladislaus had, by that time, become so unpopular that many of his subjects accused him of inciting the Mongols to invade Hungary. After he imprisoned his wife in 1286, he lived with his Cuman mistresses. During the last years of his life, he wandered throughout the country with his Cuman allies, but he was unable to control the most powerful lords and bishops any more. Pope Nicholas IV planned to declare a crusade against him, but three Cuman assassins murdered Ladislaus. Ladislaus was the elder son of Stephen V, son of Béla IV of Hungary, Stephen's wife Elizabeth the Cuman.
Elizabeth was the daughter of a chieftain of the Cumans. She was baptized before her marriage to Stephen. Ladislaus was born under the sign of Mars in 1262, according to Simon of Kéza, his chaplain in the 1270s. Conflicts between Ladislaus's father and grandfather developed into a civil war in 1264. Béla IV's troops, which were under the command of Ladislaus's aunt, captured the castle of Sárospatak, where Ladislaus and his mother were staying, imprisoned them. Ladislaus was kept in the Turóc Castle, but two months he was sent to the court of Boleslaw the Chaste, Duke of Cracow, Béla IV's son-in-law. After his grandfather and father made peace in March 1265, Ladislaus was set free and returned to his father. Ladislaus's father made an alliance with Charles I, king of Sicily, in September 1269. According to the treaty, Charles I's daughter, about four years old at that time, was engaged to the seven-year-old Ladislaus; the children's marriage took place in 1270. Béla IV died on 3 May 1270, Ladislaus's father was crowned king two weeks later.
Béla IV's closest advisors — Duchess Anna, Béla IV's former palatine, Henry Kőszegi — left Hungary and sought assistance from Anna's son-in-law, King Ottokar II of Bohemia. The newly appointed Ban of Slavonia, Joachim Gutkeled turned against Stephen V and kidnapped Ladislaus in the summer of 1272. Gutkeled held Ladislaus in captivity in the fortress of Koprivnica in Slavonia. Historian Pál Engel suggests that Joachim Gutkeled planned to force Stephen V to divide Hungary with Ladislaus. Stephen V could not take it. Stephen fell ill and died on 6 August. Joachim Gutkeled departed for Székesfehérvár as soon as he was informed of Stephen V's death, because he wanted to arrange the boy–king's coronation. Ladislaus's mother joined him, infuriating Stephen V's partisans who accused her of having conspired against her husband. Stephen V's master of the treasury, Egyed Monoszló, laid siege to her palace in Székesfehérvár, but Gutkeled's supporters routed him. Monoszló fled to Pressburg. Archbishop Philip of Esztergom crowned Ladislaus king in Székesfehérvár on about 3 September.
In theory, the 10-year-old Ladislaus ruled under his mother's regency, but in fact, baronial parties administered the kingdom. In November of that year, Henry Kőszegi returned from Bohemia and assassinated Ladislaus's cousin, Béla of Macsó. Duke Béla's extensive domains, which were located along the southern borders, were divided among Henry Kőszegi and his supporters. In retaliation for Hungarian incursions into Austria and Moravia and Moravian troops invaded the borderlands of Hungary in April 1273, they captured Szombathely, plundering the western counties. Joachim Gutkeled recaptured the two forts two months but Ottokar II of Bohemia invaded Hungary and seized many fortresses, including Győr and Sopron in the autumn. Peter Csák and his allies removed Joachim Gutkeled and Henry Kőszegi from power, but Gutkeled and Kőszegi seized Ladislaus and his mother in June 1274. Although Peter Csák liberated the king and his mother, Gutkeled and Kőszegi captured Ladislaus's younger brother and took him to Slavonia.
They demanded Slavonia in Duke Andrew's name, but Peter Csák defeated their united forces
Andrew III of Hungary
Andrew III the Venetian was King of Hungary and Croatia between 1290 and 1301. His father, Stephen the Posthumous, was the posthumous son of Andrew II of Hungary although Stephen's brothers considered him a bastard. Andrew grew up in Venice, first arrived in Hungary upon the invitation of a rebellious baron, Ivan Kőszegi, in 1278. Kőszegi tried to play Andrew off against Ladislaus IV of Hungary, but the conspiracy collapsed and Andrew returned to Venice. Being the last male member of the House of Árpád, Andrew was elected king after the death of King Ladislaus IV in 1290, he was the first Hungarian monarch to issue a coronation diploma confirming the privileges of the noblemen and the clergy. At least three pretenders—Albert of Austria, Mary of Hungary, an adventurer—challenged his claim to the throne. Andrew expelled the adventurer from Hungary and forced Albert of Austria to conclude a peace within a year, but Mary of Hungary and her descendants did not renounce their claim; the Hungarian bishops and Andrew's maternal family from Venice were his principal supporters, but the leading Croatian and Slavonian lords were opposed to his rule.
Hungary was in a state of constant anarchy during Andrew's reign. The Kőszegis, the Csáks, other powerful families autonomously governed their domains, rising up nearly every year in open rebellion against Andrew. With Andrew's death, the House of Árpád became extinct. A civil war ensued which lasted for more than two decades and ended with the victory of Mary of Hungary's grandson, Charles Robert. Andrew was the son of Stephen the Posthumous, the self-styled Duke of Slavonia, his second wife, Tomasina Morosini. Andrew's father was born to Beatrice D'Este, the third wife of Andrew II of Hungary, after the king's death. However, Andrew II's two elder sons, Béla IV of Hungary and Coloman of Halych, accused Beatrice D'Este of adultery and refused to acknowledge Stephen the Posthumous as their legitimate brother. Andrew's mother, Tomasina Morosini, was the daughter of wealthy Venetian patrician Michele Morosini; the exact date of Andrew's birth is unknown. According to historians Tibor Almási, Gyula Kristó, Attila Zsoldos, he was born in about 1265.
Stephen the Posthumous nominated his wife's two kinsmen, including her brother Albertino Morosini, as Andrew's guardians before his death in 1272. Andrew came to Hungary for the first time in 1278 at the invitation of a powerful lord, Ivan Kőszegi. Kőszegi wanted to play Andrew off against Ladislaus IV of Hungary. Andrew, the only male member of the royal family besides the king, adopted the title of "Duke of Slavonia and Croatia" and marched as far as Lake Balaton. Andrew achieved nothing and went back to Venice in autumn. Andrew returned to Hungary at the beginning of 1290. On this occasion, Archbishop of Esztergom urged him to come, since the archbishop wanted to dethrone the excommunicated Ladislaus IV with the assistance of Ivan Kőszegi. Before Andrew was successful, Arnold Hahót, an enemy of the Kőszegis, invited him to the fort of Štrigova and captured him. Hahót sent Andrew to Vienna, where Duke of Austria, held him in captivity. Three Cuman assassins murdered Ladislaus IV on 10 July 1290, Archbishop Lodomer subsequently dispatched two monks to Vienna to inform Andrew of the king's death.
With the monks' assistance, Andrew hastened to Hungary. Upon Andrew's arrival, his opponents tried to bribe Theodor, Prior of the Székesfehérvár Chapter, not to hand over the Holy Crown of Hungary to the soon-to-be-king, but the prior refused them. Archbishop Lodomer crowned Andrew king in Székesfehérvár on 23 July; the lords and prelates swore loyalty to Andrew only after he issued a charter promising the restoration of internal peace and respect for the privileges of the nobility and the clergymen. He appointed the most powerful noblemen, who had for years administered their domains independently of the monarch, to the highest offices. Amadeus Aba, who dominated the northeastern parts of the kingdom, was made palatine, Ivan Kőszegi, the lord of the western parts of Transdanubia, became master of the treasury, Roland Borsa remained the voivode of Transylvania. Andrew held a diet before 1 September. To put an end to anarchy, the "prelates and noblemen" ordered the destruction of castles, erected without royal permission and the restoration of estates, unlawfully seized to their rightful owners.
Andrew promised. There were several other challengers to Andrew's claim to the throne. Rudolf I of Germany claimed that Hungary escheated to him after Ladislaus IV's childless death, because Ladislaus IV's grandfather, Béla IV of Hungary, had sworn fidelity to Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor during the Mongol invasion of Hungary. Although Pope Innocent IV had years before freed Béla IV of his oath, Rudolf I of Germany attempted to bestow Hungary on his own son, Albert of Austria, on 31 August; the self-declared "Andrew, Duke of Slavonia"—an adventurer who claimed to be identical to Ladislaus IV's dead younger brother—also challenged King Andrew's right to the crown and stormed into Hungary from Poland. He was shortly thereafter forced to return to Poland. Andrew married Fenenna, the daughter of Ziemomysł of Kuyavia, before the end of 1290. Andrew held a general assembly for the barons and the noblemen of five counties to the east of the river Tisza—Bihar, Szabolcs, Szatmár, Szolnok—at Nagyvárad in early 1291.
The assembly outlawed Stephen Balogsemjén, a staunch supporter of the late Ladislaus IV, for major trespass. From the assembly, Andrew went to Gyulafehérvár (Alba