Gertrude of Sulzbach
Gertrude of Sulzbach was German queen from 1138 until her death as the second wife of the Hohenstaufen king Conrad III. She was the daughter of the Bavarian count Berengar II of Adelheid of Wolfratshausen; the identity of Gertrude's mother is mentioned in the Kastler Reimchronik, Vers 525. Adelheid of Wolfratshausen is mentioned in various other documents of the 12th century as "Countess of Sulzbach", without mentioning her husband. De Fundatoribus Monasterii Diessenses contains a rather confused genealogy concerning her two most prominent daughters. Otto II, Count of Wolfratshausen, father of Adelheid, is given as father to Richenza of Northeim, "Empress" and "Maria, Empress of the Greeks". Richenza was the wife of Lothair II; the author of the text had confused her with Gertrude von Sulzbach. Maria is a confusion for "Irene", the baptismal name of Gertrude's sister Bertha of Sulzbach, wife of Manuel I Komnenos. Both were children of Count Berengar and Adelheid. At the time of Gertrude's birth, in 1111, Count Berengar II was among the nobles attending the coronation of the last Salian emperor Henry V.
He is mentioned among the sureties of documents related to the coronation. In 1120, Berengar is recorded granting a donation to the Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg, he is mentioned as co-founder of Kastl Abbey about 1103 and as the founder of the Berchtesgaden monastery on behalf of his late mother in 1101/02, as well as of Baumburg Abbey about 1107/09. On 23 December 1122, he was one of the German nobles who signed the Concordat of Worms between Emperor Henry V and Pope Callixtus II. In August 1125, Berengar is mentioned in documents of Henry's successor King Lothair II of Germany. Gertrude married Conrad of Hohenstaufen, son of late Duke Frederick of Swabia, in 1136. While Conrad's elder brother Frederick II had succeeded their father as Duke of Swabia, he himself was elected German anti-king in 1127, but had to witness the coronation of his rival Lothair II as Holy Roman Emperor in 1133. Conrad submitted in 1135; the matrimonial alliance between the House of Hohenstaufen and the Counts of Sulzbach led to close relations between the two families.
After Emperor Lothair II died in 1137, Gertrude's husband Conrad was elected King of the Romans on 7 March 1138, though he had to ward off the claims raised by the rivalling Welf duke Henry X of Bavaria and his sons Henry the Lion and Welf VI. To secure the Hohenstaufen rule, Conrad had the princes elect his son Henry Berengar ten years old, as co-King of Germany at an Imperial diet held in Regensburg on 13 March 1147 At that time, Gertrude had died at Hersfeld Abbey, as she became ill after the birth of her second son Frederick, she was 36 years old, was buried in the church of the former Cistercian monastery of Ebrach, right next to her younger son. Gertrude had two children: Henry Berengar, who in March 1147 was proclaimed co-King by his father, being crowned on 30 March 1147 in Aachen Frederick of Rothenburg, Duke of Swabia from 1152, married 1166 Gertrude of Bavaria, daughter of Henry the Lion, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony. Cawley, Medieval Lands database, Foundation for Medieval Genealogy, Miroslav.
"A listing of descendants of Leopold I, Margrave of Austria". Genealogy. EU
The Alemanni were a confederation of Germanic tribes on the Upper Rhine River. First mentioned by Cassius Dio in the context of the campaign of Caracalla of 213, the Alemanni captured the Agri Decumates in 260, expanded into present-day Alsace, northern Switzerland, leading to the establishment of the Old High German language in those regions, by the eighth century named Alamannia. In 496, the Alemanni were incorporated into his dominions. Mentioned as still pagan allies of the Christian Franks, the Alemanni were Christianized during the seventh century; the Lex Alamannorum is a record of their customary law during this period. Until the eighth century, Frankish suzerainty over Alemannia was nominal. After an uprising by Theudebald, Duke of Alamannia, Carloman executed the Alamannic nobility and installed Frankish dukes. During the and weaker years of the Carolingian Empire, the Alemannic counts became independent, a struggle for supremacy took place between them and the Bishopric of Constance.
The chief family in Alamannia was that of the counts of Raetia Curiensis, who were sometimes called margraves, one of whom, Burchard II, established the Duchy of Swabia, recognized by Henry the Fowler in 919 and became a stem duchy of the Holy Roman Empire. The area settled by the Alemanni corresponds to the area where Alemannic German dialects remain spoken, including German Swabia and Baden, French Alsace, German-speaking Switzerland and Austrian Vorarlberg; the French language name of Germany, Allemagne, is derived from their name, from Old French aleman, from French loaned into a number of other languages. The Spanish name for Germany is Alemania, Welsh is Yr Almaen. According to Gaius Asinius Quadratus, the name Alamanni means "all men", it indicates. The Romans and the Greeks called them as such mentioned; this derivation was accepted by Edward Gibbon, in his Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and by the anonymous contributor of notes assembled from the papers of Nicolas Fréret, published in 1753.
This etymology has remained the standard derivation of the name. An alternative suggestion proposes derivation from *alah "sanctuary". Walafrid Strabo in the 9th century remarked, in discussing the people of Switzerland and the surrounding regions, that only foreigners called them the Alemanni, but that they gave themselves the name of Suebi; the Suebi are given the alternative name of Ziuwari in an Old High German gloss, interpreted by Jacob Grimm as Martem colentes. The Alemanni were first mentioned by Cassius Dio describing the campaign of Caracalla in 213. At that time, they dwelt in the basin of the Main, to the south of the Chatti. Cassius Dio portrays the Alemanni as victims of this treacherous emperor, they had asked for his help, according to Dio, but instead he colonized their country, changed their place names, executed their warriors under a pretext of coming to their aid. When he became ill, the Alemanni claimed to have put a hex on him. Caracalla, tried to counter this influence by invoking his ancestral spirits.
In retribution, Caracalla led the Legio II Traiana Fortis against the Alemanni, who lost and were pacified for a time. The legion was as a result honored with the name Germanica." The fourth-century fictional Historia Augusta, Life of Antoninus Caracalla, relates that Caracalla assumed the name Alemannicus,"at which Helvius Pertinax jested that he should be called Geticus Maximus," because in the year before he had murdered his brother, Geta. Through much of his short reign, Caracalla was known for unpredictable and arbitrary operations launched by surprise after a pretext of peace negotiations. If he had any reasons of state for such actions, they remained unknown to his contemporaries. Whether or not the Alemanni had been neutral, they were further influenced by Caracalla to become thereafter notoriously implacable enemies of Rome; this mutually antagonistic relationship is the reason why the Roman writers persisted in calling the Alemanni barbari," meaning "savages." The archaeology, shows that they were Romanized, lived in Roman-style houses and used Roman artifacts, the Alemannic women having adopted the Roman fashion of the tunica earlier than the men.
Most of the Alemanni were at the time, in fact, resident in or close to the borders of Germania Superior. Although Dio is the earliest writer to mention them, Ammianus Marcellinus used the name to refer to Germans on the Limes Germanicus in the time of Trajan's governorship of the province shortly after it was formed, around 98-99 AD. At that time, the entire frontier was being fortified for the first time. Trees from the earliest fortifications found in Germania Inferior are dated by dendrochronology to 99-100 AD. Ammianus relates that much the Emperor Julian undertook a punitive expedition against the Alemanni, who by were in Alsace, crossed the Main, entering the forest, where the trails were blocked by felled trees; as winter was upon them, they reoccupied a "fortification, founded on the soil of the Alemanni that Trajan wished to be called with his own name". In this context, the use of Alemanni is an anachronism, but it reveals that Ammianus believed they were the same people, consistent with the location of the Alemanni of Caracalla's campaigns.
Germania by Tacitus in Chapter 42 states that the Hermunduri were a tribe located in the region that became
Liudolf, Duke of Swabia
Liudolf, a member of the Ottonian dynasty, was Duke of Swabia from 950 until 954. His rebellion in 953/54 led to a major crisis of the rising German kingdom. Liudolf was the only son of the Saxon duke Otto the Great and heir of the German king Henry the Fowler, by his first wife Eadgyth, daughter of the English king Edward the Elder. Otto ascended the German throne in 936 and Liudolf, as his designated heir and successor, received a broad education. In 939 his father betrothed him with Ida and heiress of the Conradine duke Herman I of Swabia; the marriage was concluded about 947/948. Liudolf was able to consolidate Ottonian dominance in Swabia. Upon the death of his mother Eadgyth in 946, he and Ida rose to a German crown prince couple; when in November 950 King Lothair II of Italy died, Berengar II usurped the throne and had Lothair's widow Adelaide, a relative of Liudolf's wife Ida, imprisoned. Moreover, as Adelaide was the sister of Otto's ally King Conrad I of Burgundy, the German king prepared for a campaign to Italy.
Liudolf forestalled his father's plans and in early 951 led a Swabian army across the Alps and invaded Lombardy. His father was displeased and foiled his plans, supported by his brother Duke Henry I of Bavaria, who considered Liudolf's campaign a violation of his interests in Northern Italy; the Swabian duke received little support by the Italian nobility and had to follow the approaching forces of his father, leaving him without much gain. When King Otto married Adelaide, the heiress to Italy, Liudolf felt, he underlined his right of succession by lavishly celebrating Christmas 951 like a king at the Kaiserpfalz in Saalfeld and forged an alliance with his brother-in-law Duke Conrad of Lorraine. After Adelheid gave birth to a son, Liudolf raised the flag of revolt in 953. Though he had the support of his Swabians, his ally Duke Conrad the Red was opposed by his own subjects in Lorraine; the Bavarians of Duke Henry I, Liudolf's uncle, supported Liudolf, but Henry and Otto together put down the rebellion.
In 954, he was deprived of his duchy and, though reconciled with his father, he did not regain it. He invaded Italy for a second time in 957 and many cities capitulated before him and Berengar fled, he died unexpectedly of fever amidst his victorious campaign at Pombia, near Novara, on September 6 and was buried in St. Alban's Abbey, Mainz, his son by Ida, was duke of Bavaria and Swabia, his daughter Mathilde, abbess of the Essen Abbey. He founded the city of Stuttgart in southern Germany. Barraclough, Geoffrey, ed.. Studies in Mediaeval History:Mediaeval Germany. Vol. II. Essays. Basil Blackwell. Schutz, Herbert; the Medieval Empire in Central Europe: Dynastic Continuity in the Post-Carolingian Frankish Realm, 900-1300. Cambridge University Scholars
The Ottonian dynasty was a Saxon dynasty of German monarchs, named after three of its kings and Holy Roman Emperors named Otto its first Emperor Otto I. It is known as the Saxon dynasty after the family's origin in the German stem duchy of Saxony; the family itself is sometimes known as the Liudolfings, after its earliest known member Count Liudolf and one of its primary leading-names. The Ottonian rulers were successors of the Germanic king Conrad I, the only Germanic king to rule in East Francia after the Carolingian dynasty and before this dynasty. In the 9th century, the Saxon count Liudolf held large estates on the Leine river west of the Harz mountain range and in the adjacent Eichsfeld territory of Thuringia, his ancestors acted as ministeriales in the Saxon stem duchy, incorporated into the Carolingian Empire after the Saxon Wars of Charlemagne. Liudolf married a member of the Frankish House of Billung. About 852 the couple together with Bishop Altfrid of Hildesheim founded Brunshausen Abbey, relocated to Gandersheim, rose to a family monastery and burial ground.
Liudolf held the high social position of a Saxon dux, documented by the marriage of his daughter Liutgard with Louis the Younger, son of the Carolingian king Louis the German in 869. Liudolf's sons Bruno and Otto the Illustrious ruled over large parts of Saxon Eastphalia, Otto acted as lay abbot of the Imperial abbey of Hersfeld with large estates in Thuringia, he married a daughter of the Babenberg duke Henry of Franconia. Otto accompanied King Arnulf on his 894 campaign to Italy. According to the Saxon chronicler Widukind of Corvey, Otto upon the death of the last Carolingian king Louis the Child in 911 was a candidate for the East Frankish crown, which however passed to the Franconian duke Conrad I. Upon Otto's death in 912, his son Henry. Henry had married Matilda of Ringelheim, a descendant of the legendary Saxon ruler Widukind and heiress to extended estates in Westphalia; the Ottonian rulers of East Francia, the German kingdom and the Holy Roman Empire were: Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony from 912, King of East Francia from 919 until 936 Otto I, the Great, Duke of Saxony and King of East Francia from 936, King of Italy from 951, Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until 973 Otto II, co-ruler from 961, Holy Roman Emperor from 967, sole ruler from 973 until 983 Otto III, King of the Romans from 983, Holy Roman Emperor from 996 until 1002 Henry II, the Saint, Duke of Bavaria from 995, King of the Romans from 1002, King of Italy from 1004, Holy Roman Emperor from 1014 until 1024 Although never Emperor, Henry the Fowler was arguably the founder of the imperial dynasty.
While East Francia under the rule of the last Carolingian kings was ravaged by Hungarian invasions, he was chosen to be primus inter pares among the German dukes. Elected Rex Francorum in May 919, Henry abandoned the claim to dominate the whole disintegrating Carolingian Empire and, unlike his predecessor Conrad I, succeeded in gaining the support of the Franconian, Bavarian and Lotharingian dukes. In 933 he led a German army to victory over the Hungarian forces at the Battle of Riade and campaigned both the land of the Polabian Slavs and the Duchy of Bohemia; because he had assimilated so much power through his conquest, he was able to transfer power to his second son Otto I. Otto I, Duke of Saxony upon the death of his father in 936, was elected king within a few weeks, he continued the work of unifying all of the German tribes into a single kingdom expanding the powers of the king at the expense of the aristocracy. Through strategic marriages and personal appointments, he installed members of his own family to the kingdom's most important duchies.
This, did not prevent his relatives from entering into civil war: both Otto's brother Duke Henry of Bavaria and his son Duke Liudolf of Swabia revolted against his rule. Otto was able to suppress their uprisings, in consequence, the various dukes, co-equals with the king, were reduced into royal subjects under the king's authority, his decisive victory over the Magyars at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955 ended the Hungarian invasions of Europe and secured his hold over his kingdom. The defeat of the pagan Magyars earned King Otto the reputation as the savior of Christendom and the epithet "the Great", he transformed the Church in Germany into a kind of proprietary church and major royal power base to which he donated charity and for the creation of which his family was responsible. By 961, Otto had conquered the Kingdom of Italy, a troublesome inheritance that none wanted, extended his kingdom's borders to the north and south. In control of much of central and southern Europe, the patronage of Otto and his immediate successors caused a limited cultural renaissance of the arts and architecture.
He confirmed the 754 Donation of Pepin and, with recourse to the concept of translatio imperii in succession of Charlemagne, proceeded to Rome to have himself crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope John XII in 962. He reached a settlement with the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes by marrying his son and heir Otto II to John's niece Theophanu. In 968 he established the Archbishopric of Magdeburg at his long-time residence. Co-ruler with his father since 961 and crowned emperor in 967, Otto II ascended the throne at the age of 18. By excluding the Bavarian line of Ottonians from the line of succession, he strengthened Imperial authority and secured his own son's
Rudolf of Rheinfelden
Rudolf of Rheinfelden was Duke of Swabia from 1057 to 1079. A follower of his brother-in-law, the Salian emperor Henry IV, his election as German anti-king in 1077 marked the outbreak of the Great Saxon Revolt and the first phase of open conflict in the Investiture Controversy between Emperor and Papacy. After a series of armed conflicts, Rudolf succumbed to his injuries after his forces defeated Henry's in the Battle on the Elster. Rudolf was the son of the Swabian count Kuno of Rheinfelden, he was first mentioned in a 1048 deed issued by the Salian emperor Henry III as a count in the Swabian Sisgau on the High Rhine, an estate held by the Prince-Bishopric of Basel. Rudolf's family had large possessions up to Sankt Blasien Abbey in the Black Forest and down to the Aargau beyond the border with the Kingdom of Burgundy, he was related to King Rudolph II of Burgundy, the Dukes of Lorraine and the Ottonian dynasty. When Duke Otto III of Swabia died without male heirs in 1057, Empress Agnes, consort of late Henry III, appointed him Swabian duke and administrator of Burgundy.
Rivalling with the Zähringen count Berthold, Rudolf according to Frutolf of Michelsberg had taken advantage of the minority of Agnes' son Henry IV, elected King of the Romans, by kidnapping his sister Matilda of Swabia. Rudolf demanded, received, Matilda's hand in marriage. In 1061 Berthold received the Duchy of Carinthia instead; when Matilda died in 1060, Rudolf subsequently, in 1066, married Adelaide of Savoy, a daughter of Count Otto of Savoy and Adelaide of Susa. When Adelaide's sister Bertha of Savoy married Henry IV in 1066, Rudolf became brother-in-law to the king twice over. During Agnes' regency, the Princes of the Holy Roman Empire could further strengthen their position against the Imperial authority. In the 1062 Coup of Kaiserswerth, several princes led by Archbishop Anno II of Cologne abducted the minor king to enforce the surrender of the Imperial Regalia; when Henry came of age in 1065, he continued the policies of his father against the reluctant Saxon nobility, sparking the Saxon Rebellion in 1073.
While other princes like the Carinthian duke Berthold of Zähringen or Duke Welf of Bavaria distanced themselves, Rudolf supported Henry's campaigns in Thuringia, when he was a primary force in the 1075 Battle of Langensalza against the insurgents. However, after the joint victory, Rudolf became estranged to the king and rumours occurred that he was involved in adversarial conspiracies. Empress Agnes had to arbitrate between the parties; when the Investiture Controversy broke out and King Henry was excommunicated by Pope Gregory VII in February 1076, Duke Rudolf met with Berthold and several other princes in Trebur in order to decide on a course of action and to arrange a new election. Henry, observing the proceedings from his camp in Oppenheim on the other side of the Rhine, had to face a massive loss of support among the German nobles and realized that he had to achieve the lifting of his ban. Pope Gregory agreed to meet with the princes at Augsburg in February 1077. In January, Henry hastened to see the pope on his way to the Empire from Rome.
Duke Rudolf attempted to have the Alpine passes closed the king through wintry weather made his Walk to Canossa, where Gregory, fearing an armed attack by Henry's forces, had found refuge with Matilda of Tuscany. By doing penance, Henry managed to achieve absolution, buying time at the price of his reputation and secular authority; the rebels continued with their plans. Rudolf was elected anti-king on 15 March 1077 at the Kaiserpfalz in Forchheim, where Louis the Child and Conrad I of Germany had been crowned; the first anti-king in the history of the Empire, he promised to respect the investiture according to canon law, as well as the concept of the elective monarchy. Further claims raised by the princes were rejected as simony by the attendant papal legates. Rudolf was supported by the Archbishops of Mainz and Magdeburg as well as by the Dukes of Carinthia and Bavaria, the Saxon rebel Otto of Nordheim and also by Duke Magnus of Saxony, he proceeded to Mainz, where on 25 May he was crowned by Archbishop Siegfried I, but soon after was forced to flee to Saxony, when the Mainz citizens revolted.
This presented a problem, since the Saxon duchy was cut off from his Swabian homelands by the king's Salian territory. Moreover, the pope adopted a waiting attitude. Rudolf was accused of greed and usurpation by Henry's liensmen, while his own support crumbled. Rudolf gave Swabia to his son Berthold and attempted to rectify his situation by stalking Henry's forces near Würzburg, but to little effect. Meanwhile, he was deprived of Swabia by the Hoftag diet at Ulm in May, the king gave the duchy to Frederick of Büren, the first Hohenstaufen ruler; the next year Henry waged a successful campaign to Bavaria, while Pope Gregory rejected to excommunicate Rudolf. The Battle of Mellrichstadt on 7 August 1078 proved indecisive: though the opposition forces under Otto of Nordheim were victorious, the troops of Berthold and Welf were stuck in a peasants' revolt. Rudolf found it difficult to convince the Saxons to fight beyond their borders, he was frustrated by the apparent reluctance of the pope to recognize his cause.
In order to gain and maintain supporters, he was forced to grant large parts of the crown lands, as well as those of the church, to his followers. Things seemed to be improving in 1080; the battle of Flarchheim went well in his favor. On 7 March, the pope recognized Rudolf as king. Emboldened, Rudolf's fo
Conrad, called the Younger or the Boy, but known by the diminutive Conradin, was the Duke of Swabia, King of Jerusalem, King of Sicily. Conradin was born in Bavaria, to Conrad IV of Germany and Elisabeth of Bavaria, he is sometimes known as Conrad V of Germany. Though he never succeeded his father in Germany, he was recognized as king of the Germans and Jerusalem by German supporters of the Hohenstaufens in 1254. Having lost his father in 1254, he grew up at the court of his uncle and guardian, Louis II, Duke of Bavaria, his guardians were able to hold Swabia for him. Jerusalem was held by a relative from the royal house of Cyprus as regent. In Sicily, his father's half-brother Manfred continued as regent, but began to develop plans to usurp the kingship. Little is known of his appearance and character except that he was as "beautiful as Absalom, spoke good Latin". Although his father had entrusted him to the guardianship of the church, Pope Innocent IV pursued Conradin with the same relentless hatred he had for his grandfather Frederick II, attempted to bestow the kingdom of Sicily on a foreign prince.
Innocent's successor, Pope Alexander IV, continuing this policy, offered the Hohenstaufen lands in Germany to King Alfonso X of Castile and forbade Conradin's election as king of the Romans. Having assumed the title of King of Jerusalem and Sicily, Conradin took possession of the Duchy of Swabia in 1262, remained for some time in his duchy. Conradin's first invitation to Italy came from the Guelphs of Florence: they asked him to take arms against Manfred, crowned king of Sicily in 1258 on a false rumor of Conradin's death. Louis refused this invitation on his nephew's behalf. In 1266 the count Charles I of Anjou, called by the new pope Clement IV, defeated and killed Manfred at Benevento, taking possession of southern Italy: envoys from the Ghibelline cities went to Bavaria and urged Conradin to come and free Italy. Count Guido de Montefeltro representing Henry of Castile, Senator of Rome, offered him the support of the eternal city. Pledging his lands, Conradin crossed the Alps and issued a manifesto at Verona setting forth his claim on Sicily.
Notwithstanding the defection of his uncle Louis and of other companions who returned to Germany, the threats of Clement IV, a lack of funds, his cause seemed to prosper. Proclaiming him King of Sicily, his partisans, among them Prince Henry of Castile, both in the north and south of Italy took up arms. In September 1267 a Spanish fleet under Frederick of Castile, a number of knights from Pisa, Spanish knights soldiering from Tunis, disembarked in the Sicilian city of Sciacca, most of the island rebelled against the Angevin rule. Only Palermo and Messina remained loyal to Charles; the revolt spread to Apulia. In November of the same year the Church excommunicated him. Having strengthened his forces, he marched towards Lucera to join the Saracen troops settled there since the time of his grandfather. On 23 August 1268 his multi-national army of Italian, Roman and German troops encountered that of Charles at Tagliacozzo, in a hilly area of central Italy; the eagerness of Conradin's Spanish knights under Infante Henry of Castile in the most successful first charge, the error of obtaining plunder in the enemy's camp after that momentary victorious assault gave the final victory to the reinforced French.
Escaping from the field of battle, Conradin reached Rome, but acting on advice to leave the city he proceeded to Astura in an attempt to sail for Sicily: but here he was arrested and handed over to Charles, who imprisoned him in the Castel dell'Ovo in Naples, together with the inseparable Frederick of Baden. He was tried as a traitor, on 29 October 1268 he and Frederick were beheaded. With Conradin's death at 16, the legitimate Hohenstaufen line became extinct, his remains, with those of Frederick of Baden, lie in the church of the monastery of Our Lady of Mt. Carmel at Naples, founded by his mother for the good of his soul. In the 14th-century Codex Manesse, a collection of medieval German lyrics, preserved at Heidelberg, there appear two songs written by Conradin, his fate has formed the subject of several dramas, his hereditary Kingdom of Jerusalem passed to the heirs of his great-great-grandmother Isabella I of Jerusalem, among whom a succession dispute arose. The senior heir in primogeniture was Hugh of Brienne, a second cousin of Conradin's father, but another second cousin Hugh III of Cyprus held the office of regent and managed to keep the kingdom as Hugh I of Jerusalem.
Conradin's grandmother's first cousin Mary of Antioch staked her claim on basis of proximity of blood, which she sold to Conradin's executioner Charles of Anjou. The general heiress of his Kingdom of Sicily and the Duchy of Swabia was his aunt Margaret, half-sister of his father Conrad IV and married with Albert, Landgrave of Thuringia since 1255, their son Frederick claimed Swabia on her right. However, these claims met with little favor. Swabia, pawned by Conradin before his last expedition, was disintegrating as a territorial unit, he went unrecognized in Outremer, Charles of Anjou was entrenched in
Duchy of Swabia
The Duchy of Swabia was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German kingdom. It arose in the 10th century in the southwestern area, settled by Alemanni tribes in Late Antiquity. While the historic region of Swabia takes its name from the ancient Suebi, dwelling in the angle formed by the Rhine and the Danube, the stem duchy comprised a much larger territory, stretching from the Alsatian Vosges mountain range in the west to the right bank of the river Lech in the east and up to Chiavenna and Gotthard Pass in the south; the name of the larger stem duchy was used interchangeably with Alamannia during the High Middle Ages, until about the 11th century, when the form Swabia began to prevail. The Duchy of Swabia was proclaimed by the Ahalolfing count palatine Erchanger in 915, he had allied himself with his Hunfriding rival Burchard II and defeated King Conrad I of Germany in a battle at Wahlwies. The most notable family to hold Swabia were the Hohenstaufen, who held it, with a brief interruption, from 1079 until 1268.
For much of this period, the Hohenstaufen were Holy Roman Emperors. After a centuries-long struggle with the House of Zähringen, the Margraviate of Baden detached itself from the Swabian duchy in the 12th century; the remaining duchy persisted until 1268, ending with the execution of the last Hohenstaufen duke Conradin. Count Rudolf of Habsburg, elected King of the Romans in 1273, attempted to revive the Swabian ducal title, bestowing it on his youngest son, the Duke Rudolf II of Austria, who passed it to his son John Parricida. John died in 1312 or 1313, marking the end of the "revived" title. In 496 the Alamanni tribes were defeated by King Clovis I, incorporated into Francia, governed by several duces who were dependent on the Frankish kings. In the 7th century the people converted to Christianity, bishoprics were founded at Augsburg and Constance, in the 8th century notable abbeys at Reichenau Island and Saint Gall; the Alamanni in the 7th century retained much of their former independence, Frankish rule being nominal, but in 709, Pepin of Herstal conquered the territory and in 730 his son Charles Martel again reduced them to dependence.
The so-called Blood Court at Cannstatt in 746 marked the end of the old stem duchy, the Alamanni now came under Frankish administration. Charles' son Pepin the Short abolished the tribal duke and ruled Alamannia by counts palatine, or Kammerboten. King Charlemagne married the Alamannian princess Hildegard of the Vinzgau in 771. At this time the duchy, divided into numerous Gaue, took the shape which it retained throughout the Middle Ages, it stretched south of Frankish Austrasia along the Upper Rhine, Lake Constance, up the High Rhine, down the Danube to the Lech tributary. The Lech, separating Alamannia from the Duchy of Bavaria in the east, did not form, either ethnologically or geographically, a strong boundary, there was a good deal of intercommunion between the two peoples. By the 843 Treaty of Verdun, Alamannia fell to East Francia. During the and weaker years of the Carolingian Empire the counts became independent, a struggle for supremacy took place between them and the Bishops of Constance.
From about 900, two chief dynasties emerged: the Hunfriding counts in Raetia Curiensis and the Ahalolfings ruling the Baar estates around the upper Neckar and Danube rivers. Their members were sometimes called margraves and sometimes, as in the case of Rudolf of Rhaetia, dukes; the Hunfriding count Burchard I was called dux of Alamannia. However, he was killed in 911, for which two Swabian counts palatine and Erchanger, were accused of treason. Erchanger proclaimed himself duke in 915, but was put to death by order of the German king Conrad I two years later. Upon Erchanger's execution, Burchard II, son of the late Burchard I and count in Raetia Curiensis, took the title of duke. Burchard secured his rule by defended the Thurgau region against the claims of King Rudolph II of Burgundy in the 919 Battle of Winterthur. Rudolph II had attempted to expand his Upper Burgundian territory up to Lake Constance by capitalising on the feud between the Ahalolfing and Hunfriding dynasties, he marched into the Thurgau from there.
He was defeated by Burchard near Winterthur and was forced to abandon Zürich, retreating beyond the Reuss. Duke Burchard's rule subsequently was acknowledged as such by the newly elected king Henry the Fowler. Burchard's position was independent, when he died in 926 he was succeeded by Hermann, a Franconian noble, who married his widow; when Hermann died in 948 Otto the Great gave the duchy to his own son Liudolf, who had married Hermann's daughter Ida. Liudolf revolted, was deposed, other dukes followed in quick succession. Burchard III, son of Burchard II, ruled from 954 to 973, when he was succeeded by Liudolf's son, afterwards duke of Bavaria, to 982, Conrad I, a relative of Duke Hermann I, until 997. Hermann II a son of Conrad, and, dying in 1003, was followed by his son Hermann III. During these years the Swabians were loyal to the kings of the Saxon house owing to the influence of the bishops. Hermann III had no children, the succession passed to Ernest II, son of his eldest sister Gisela and Ernest I, Margrave of Austria.
Ernest I held the duchy for his son until his own death in 1015, when Gisela undertook the government, was married a second time, to Conrad, duke of Franconia, afterwards the German king Conrad II. When Ernest came of age he quarrelled with his step-father, who deposed him and, i