Duluth is a city in Gwinnett County, United States. It is a suburb of Atlanta; as of the 2010 census, Duluth had a population of 26,600, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated the population to be 29,527 as of 2018. Duluth is located north of Interstate 85, it is home to Gwinnett Place Mall, the Gwinnett Civic and Cultural Center, Infinite Energy Center, Hudgens Center for the Arts, the Red Clay Theater. It is home to Gwinnett Medical Center–Duluth, an 81-bed hospital constructed in 2006, as well as GMC's Glancy Campus, a 30-bed facility located near downtown; the agricultural manufacturer AGCO is based in Duluth. Forbes ranked Duluth 26th in "America's Best Places to Move" in 2009, while BusinessWeek named it the "Best Affordable Suburb in Georgia" in 2010. Duluth was Cherokee territory; when Duluth was established in the early 19th century, it was forest land occupied by tribespeople. An Indian trail, called Old Peachtree Road by the settlers, was extended through the area during the War of 1812 to connect Fort Peachtree in present-day Atlanta with Fort Daniel near present-day Dacula.
When Gwinnett County was established in 1818, white settlement of the area accelerated. Cotton merchant Evan Howell constructed a road connecting his cotton gin at the Chattahoochee River with Old Peachtree Road, creating Howell's Cross Roads; the settlement became known as "Howell's Crossing". Howell was the grandfather of Atlanta Mayor Evan P. Howell and great-grandfather of Atlanta Constitution publisher Clark Howell, his descendants continue to live in the area. Howell's Crossing was renamed "Duluth" in 1871 after Congress funded a north-south railroad line into the community, it was named after the city of Minnesota. The Midwestern city had gotten its own railroad connection not long before, which had prompted Rep. J. Proctor Knott, a Kentucky Democrat, to make a speech in Congress mocking the project as wasteful; that speech drew national attention. According to contemporary reports, Evan P. Howell himself jokingly suggested the name change in a speech about the arrival of railroad service in the Georgia town.
The railroad encouraged the growth of Duluth's economy. A schoolhouse was built in 1871 on the site of; the first Methodist church was organized in 1871, the first Baptist congregation formed in 1886. Both churches continue today at new locations along State Route 120; the Bank of Duluth was charted in 1904, followed by the Farmers and Merchants Bank in 1911. Neither survived the Great Depression. In 1922, Duluth elected Alice Harrell Strickland, she donated 1-acre of land for a "community forest" and began efforts to conserve land for public recreation. Duluth grew in the 1970s and 1980s, along with the rest of Gwinnett County. Georgia Governor George Busbee became a resident of Duluth in 1983 after leaving office, moving to the Sweet Bottom Plantation subdivision developed by Scott Hudgens. A major revitalization of the Duluth downtown area was undertaken in the early 21st century. Development along Sugarloaf Parkway has continued with construction of the Gwinnett Arena near the Gwinnett Convention Center.
In much of the 20th century, when Gwinnett County was still rural, Duluth was known in the area as being one of the few small towns with its own hospital, Joan Glancy Memorial Hospital. Many older residents of the area who call other towns home were born in Duluth. Joan Glancy was replaced with Gwinnett Medical Center - Duluth in 2006; the site of the old Joan Glancy hospital is now GMC's Glancy Campus, home to the Glancy Rehabilitation Center, the Duluth location of GMC's Diabetes & Nutrition Education Center and the Duluth location of GMC's Center for Sleep Disorders. The city made national headlines twice in 2005. In March, Fulton County Courthouse shooting suspect Brian Nichols was captured in a Duluth apartment after holding a woman hostage. In April, local resident Jennifer Wilbanks was reported missing a few days before her planned wedding to John Mason, she was found a few days in Albuquerque, New Mexico, where she admitted to having lied about being kidnapped. Duluth is located in the northeastern section of the Atlanta metropolitan area.
20 mi from Downtown Atlanta, the city lies in the west-central section of Gwinnett County, bounded to the north by the Chattahoochee River, northeast by Suwanee, south by unincorporated land, west by Berkeley Lake. Unincorporated portions of Forsyth County use a Duluth ZIP code despite being outside Duluth city limits in a different county. A significant part of the nearby city of Johns Creek in Fulton County shares at least one ZIP code with Duluth; as of the census of 2010, there were 26,600 people, 10,555 households, 6,872 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,620 people per square mile. There were 11,313 housing units at an average density of 1,114 per square mile; the racial makeup of the city was 48.7% White, 20.2% African American, 0.4% Native American, 22.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 5.2% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.0% of the population. There were 10,555 households out of which 33.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families.
28.4% of all households were made up o
The Mobile User Objective System is a narrowband military communications satellite system that supports a worldwide, multi-Service population of users in the ultra high frequency band. The system provides increased communications capabilities to newer, smaller terminals while still supporting interoperability with legacy terminals. MUOS is designed to support users who require greater mobility, higher bit rates and improved operational availability; the Mobile User Objective System is an Ultra High Frequency SATCOM system serving the United States Department of Defense. International allies use is under consideration; the MUOS will replace the legacy UHF Follow-On system before that system reaches its end of life to provide users with new capabilities and enhanced mobility, access and quality of service. Intended for mobile users, MUOS will extend users' voice and video communications beyond their lines-of-sight. MUOS is an array of geosynchronous satellites that will provide global satellite communications narrowband connectivity for communications use by the United States at data rates up to 384kbit/s.
The program will deliver five satellites, four ground stations, a terrestrial transport network at a cost of US$7.34 billion. The Navy's Communications Satellite Program Office of the Program Executive Office for Space Systems in San Diego is lead developer for the MUOS Program. Lockheed Martin is the Prime System Contractor and satellite designer for MUOS under U. S Navy Contract N00039-04-C-2009, announced September 24, 2004. Key subcontractors include General Dynamics Mission Systems and Harris. Full on-orbit capability is expected by 2015; the MUOS operates as a global cellular service provider to support the war fighter with modern cell phone-like capabilities, such as multimedia. It converts a commercial third generation Wideband Code Division Multiple Access cellular phone system to a military UHF SATCOM radio system using geosynchronous satellites in place of cell towers. By operating in the UHF frequency band, a lower frequency band than that used by conventional terrestrial cellular networks, the MUOS provides warfighters with the tactical ability to communicate in "disadvantaged" environments, such as forested regions where higher frequency signals would be unacceptably attenuated by the forest canopy.
The MUOS constellation will consist of one on-orbit spare. MUOS will provide military point-to-point and netted communication users with precedence-based and pre-emptive access to voice, video, or a mixture of voice and data services that span the globe. Connections may be set up on demand by users in the field, within seconds, released just as freeing resources for other users. In alignment with more traditional military communications methods, pre-planned networks can be established either permanently or per specific schedule using the MUOS' ground-based Network Management Center. In addition to the cellular MUOS WCDMA payload, a capable and separate UFO legacy payload is incorporated into each satellite; the "Legacy" payload extends the useful life of legacy UHF SATCOM terminals and enables a smoother transition to MUOS. After several range weather delays, the first MUOS satellite, MUOS-1, launched into space on February 24, 2012, carried by an Atlas V rocket flying in its 551 configuration.
MUOS-2 launched on schedule on July 19, 2013, at 13:00 UTC aboard an Atlas V 551. MUOS-3 was launched on board a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket on January 20, 2015, from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. MUOS-4 arrived at Cape Canaveral July 31, 2015. Weather conditions pushed back the launch, scheduled for August 31, 2015, at 10:07 UTC; the launch took place September 2, 2015, at 10:18 UTC. MUOS-5 arrived at Cape Canaveral on March 9, 2016. Launch was scheduled for May 5, 2016, but due to an internal investigation into an Atlas V fuel system problem during the Cygnus OA-6 launch on March 22, the scheduled date was pushed back; the launch took place on June 24, 2016, at 14:30 UTC. An "anomaly" aboard the satellite occurred a few days however, when it was still in a Geostationary Transfer Orbit, leaving it "Reconfigured into Safe Intermediate Orbit", or stranded in GTO. Amateur observers tracked it in an orbit of 15,240 × 35,700 km since July 3, 2016. On November 3, 2016 the Navy announced that the satellite has reached operational orbit.
The four operational MUOS satellites are stationed at longitude 177° W. They have a 5° orbital inclination. In the first few months after launch, the satellites were temporarily parked in a check-out position at longitude 172° W; the MUOS will include four ground station facilities. Site selections were completed in 2007 with the signing of a Memorandum of Agreement between the U. S. Navy and the Australian Department of Defence; the four ground stations, each of which serves one of the four active satellites of the MUOS constellation will be located at: the Australian Defence Satellite Communications Station at Kojarena about 30 km east of Geraldton, Western Australia.
The standard Safe Practices for Motor Vehicle Operations, ANSI/ASSE Z15.1, defines defensive driving skills as "driving to save lives and money, in spite of the conditions around you and the actions of others." This definition is taken from the National Safety Council's Defensive Driving Course. It is a form of training for motor vehicle drivers that goes beyond mastery of the rules of the road and the basic mechanics of driving, its aim is to reduce the risk of collision by anticipating dangerous situations, despite adverse conditions or the mistakes of others. This can be achieved through adherence to a variety of general guidelines, such as following the assured clear distance ahead and two second rules, as well as the practice of specific driving techniques; some motorists describe defensive driving as "driving as if everyone else on the road were drunk." A driver safety program called the Driver Example Program was developed in 1964 by Chris Imhoff of the National Safety Council. The program instituted a Defensive Driving Course.
Defensive Driving Courses, along with Instructor Development Courses were offered beginning 1964 and 1965 through corporate sponsorships. Driving defensively includes: General principles: Controlling your speed. Looking ahead and expecting the unexpected. Being alert and distraction free. Regarding other participants in traffic: Preparedness for all sorts of actions and reactions of other drivers and pedestrians. Not expecting the other drivers to do what you would ordinarily do. Watching and respecting other drivers. Regarding your own vehicle: Maintaining a safe following distance. Driving safely considering weather and/or road conditions. Adjusting your speed before entering a bend, in order to avoid applying the brakes in the middle of a bend. Several government agencies, non profit organizations, private schools have launched specialty courses that improve the public's driving skills. In the United States a few of the familiar courses in defensive driving include Alive at 25, DDC or Defensive Driving Course, Coaching the Mature Driver, Attitudinal Dynamics of Driving, Professional Truck Driving, DDC for Instructors.
In relation to this, the government has launched active air bag and seat belt safety campaigns that encourage high visibility enforcement. In addition to improving one's own driving skills, many U. S. states provide an incentive to complete an approved defensive driving course by offering mandated insurance discounts or a way to mask a traffic ticket from one's driving record. In some instances these courses are referred to a defensive driving school. States with the biggest incentives include Arizona, Florida, New Jersey, New York, Texas. A number of private providers offer a variety of courses; the methods and styles of the courses vary. Advanced driving test Assured Clear Distance Ahead Automobile safety Impact Teen Drivers National Safety Council National Teen Driver Safety Week Roadcraft Road-traffic safety Situation awareness World Health Organization Report on road traffic injury prevention
Edvard Petersen was a Danish painter. He designed the Stork Fountain on Amagertorv in Copenhagen From 1851 he attended the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts. In the 1860s and 1870s he painted romantic landscape paintings under influence of Vilhelm Kyhn, he was a close friend of fellow painter Theodor Philipsen and together they went on several travels, including two stays in Italy between 1875 and 1880 and a visit to France. The friendship did not seem to influence Petersen's rather conservative style of painting and his works from the times abroad are traditional paintings of local life. In the 1880s Petersen painted a number of figure paintings of street life in Copenhagen under influence of French Realism, his most famous paintings are Emigrants on Larsens Plads and A Return, the America Liner at Larsens Plads. With his Stork Fountain proposal, Petersen won the competition for the design of a new fountain on Amagertorv in Copenhagen in 1888; the sculptor Vilhelm Bissen moulded the birds and the fountain was inaugurated in 1904.
Ludwig Rottenberg was an Austrian/German composer and conductor. Rottenberg came from a German-speaking Jewish family in Czernowitz, the then-capital of Bukovina, which at the time was part of the Austrian-Hungarian Monarchy, he studied music in his birthplace, at the Vienna Conservatory. During his studies he worked as a Lieder accompanist, he started his professional conducting career at the Brno opera house. In 1892 he succeeded Felix Dessoff as Erster Kapellmeister at the Frankfurt Opera, he was recommended for the position by Johannes Brahms and Hans von Bülow, being preferred to two other famous applicants, Richard Strauss and Felix Mottl. He held this position until 1926. During his tenure he worked with six different artistic directors, helped establish the Frankfurt Opera as one of the leading opera houses of its time. Numerous contemporary operas were staged there during this period, among others the world premiere performances of Der ferne Klang, Die Gezeichneten and Der Schatzgräber by Franz Schreker.
Other important performances German premieres, included Hans Pfitzner's Der arme Heinrich, Claude Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande, Richard Strauss’ Elektra and further operas by Ferruccio Busoni, Leoš Janáček, Béla Bartók and Paul Hindemith. One of his own works was premiered at the Frankfurt Opera in 1915: his one-act opera Die Geschwister, composed in 1913 after a poem by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Apart from that, Rottenberg composed Lieder and piano works, his daughter Gertrud married the composer Paul Hindemith in 1924. Rottenberg died in Frankfurt am Main in 1932
Rabbi Yosef ben Moshe Mammon Maravi is the spiritual leader credited with helping strengthen religious observance and introducing the Sephardic liturgy to the Bukharian Jewish community. The title Maaravi signifies his North African ancestry. Born in either Tetouan or Meknes in Morocco, Rabbi Mammon made aliyah to teach in a yeshiva in the city of Safed. Like most yeshivas at the time, Maimon's yeshiva relied on donations from the diaspora communities, it was during his search for funds in 1793 that Rabbi Mammon arrived in Bukhara, chose to stay, in order to strengthen Judaism within the local Jewish population. At the time, the region was under the control of Muslim fundamentalists, who pressured the local Jews to convert to Islam; the community's physical isolation from major centers of Jewish learning was a result of the Bukhara Emirate's policy of closed borders, intended to avoid involvement in the Great Game. For the local Jews, this meant less opportunities to connect with the larger Jewish community.
He established yeshivas, his children continued his work. He founded Hibbat Zion, a precursor to Zionism, encouraged aliyah to Palestine. Early 19th travelers to Bukhara, including missionary Joseph Wolff, a Jewish apostate, described in detail the impact of Yosef Mammon on the culture and religion of the Bukharian Jews. Yosef Mammon died in Bukhara. One of his descendants was Rabbi Shimon Hakham. Another descendant was the wife of Shlomo Moussaieff. Moussaieff's and Gaonoff's grandson is Shlomo Moussaieff and their great grandchildren are author Jeffrey Moussaieff Masson and First Lady of Iceland Dorrit Moussaieff, his distant grandson Iosef Yusupov, has worked as an artistic director and conceptual designer for the 2014 Winter Olympics opening ceremony in Sochi, Russia. Moshavi, B.: "R'Yosef ben Moshe Mammon, sheliah Tzefat beBukhara." In Talpiot, Vol.9, No. 3-4, pp. 873–886, 1970. Wolff, J. Researches and Missionary Labours among the Jews, other Sects. London, 1835