Dulwich College is a 2–19 independent and boarding school for boys in Dulwich, England. It was founded in 1619 by Edward Alleyn, an Elizabethan actor, with the original purpose of educating 12 poor scholars as the foundation of'God's Gift'. Admission by examination is into years 3, 7, 9, 12 to the Junior, Lower and Upper Schools into which the college is divided, it is a member of Headmistresses' Conference and the Eton Group. Founder's Day at Dulwich College is celebrated at the end of the Summer Term to commemorate the signing of the letters patent by James I on 21 June 1619 authorising Edward Alleyn to establish a college in Dulwich to be called'the College of God's Gift, in Dulwich in Surrey'; the term "Dulwich College" was used colloquially from that date, such as in 1675 when John Evelyn described his visit to Dulwich College in his Diary. However, for at least 263 years this colloquialism was incorrect as the school was part of the overall charitable Foundation. Edward Alleyn, as well as being a famous Elizabethan actor, for whom Christopher Marlowe wrote his title roles, performed at the Rose Theatre, was a man of great property and wealth, derived from places of entertainment including theatres and bear-gardens.
There is no documentary evidence for the legend. He was'Chief Maister and Overseer of games of Beares, Mastiff Dogs and Mastiff Bitches'. Rumours that Alleyn turned his attention towards charitable pursuits out of fear for his moral well-being have been traced to the journalist George Sala and questioned though never answered in the negative. Since 1605, Alleyn had owned the manorial estate of Dulwich, it may have been around this time that he first had the idea of establishing a college or hospital for poor people and the education of poor boys; the building on Dulwich Green of a chapel, a schoolhouse and twelve almshouses, began in 1613 and was completed in the autumn of 1616. On 1 September 1616 the chapel was consecrated by the Archbishop of Canterbury who became the official Visitor. However, Edward Alleyn faced objections from Francis Bacon, the Lord Chancellor, in getting the patent of incorporation, necessary to secure the Foundation's status as a college, it was Alleyn's persistence that led to the foundation being endowed by James I's signing of the letters patent.
The charity consisted of a Master, four fellows, six poor brothers, six poor sisters and twelve poor scholars, who became the joint legal owners of Alleyn's endowment of the manor and lands of Dulwich, collectively known as the Members of the College. The poor brothers and sisters and scholars were to be drawn from the four parishes that were most tied to Alleyn; the business of the charity was conducted in the name of these thirty members by the Master and four Fellows. Alleyn drew upon the experience of other similar establishments in order to formulate the statutes and ordinances of the college, including drawing on the statutes of the ancient Winchester College and visiting the more contemporary establishments of Sutton's Hospital and Croydon's Hospital. Among the many statutes and ordinances signed by Alleyn that pertained to the charitable scheme were provisions that the scholars were entitled to stay until they were eighteen, and to be taught in good and sound learning’…’that they might be prepared for university or for good and sweet trades and occupations.
Another stipulation was that the Master and Warden should always be unmarried and of Alleyn's blood, surname, if the former was impossible at least of Alleyn's surname. Alleyn made provision that the people of Dulwich should be able to have their men children instructed at the school for a fee as well as children from outside Dulwich for a separate fee; the next two centuries were beset by both external difficulties such as diminishing financial fortunes and failing buildings as well as internal strife between the various Members of the College. The Official Visitor, the Archbishop of Canterbury, whose function was to ensure that the statutes were obeyed, was called in many times; the lack of a disinterested body of governors and of any official connection to the Universities of Oxford or Cambridge contributed to the school failing to fulfill Alleyn's vision in its first two centuries. Some notable Masters did preside over the college during this time, including James Allen, who in 1741 made over to the college six houses in Kensington, the rents of which were to be used in the establishment of two small schools in Dulwich, one for boys from the village, the other for girls to read and sew, out of which James Allen's Girls' School arose.
Dr John Allen of Holland House was a most learned and influential man, but neglected the education of the Poor Scholars. Having obtained an Act in 1805 allowing them to enclose and develop 130 acres of common land within the manor, the college was granted the power by the 1808 Dulwich College Building Act to extend the period over which leases ran, from twenty-one years as laid down by Alleyn, to eighty-four years, thus attracting richer tenants and bringing in large sums of money; the increased wealth of the college resulted in the Charity
Johann Michael Graff, was a German Rococo sculptor and plasterer. Among his most celebrated decorations are those at Schönhausen Palace and Rundāle Palace, Latvia. Johann Michael Graff came from a family of stucco decorators from Bavaria; the family had been members of the so-called Wessobrunner School. Johann Michael Graff however seems to have moved to Brandenburg at some point and was influenced by the decorative style predominant in and around Berlin at the time, he probably made decorations for Schönhausen Palace before being hired by the Duke of Courland, Peter von Biron, to decorate his residences in present-day Latvia. He is known to have decorated Rundāle Palace for the Duke, he made lavish stucco decorations for Põltsamaa Castle in present-day Estonia, as well as in Kabala Manor in the same country
Goychay is a region of Azerbaijan located in the central part of the country. The region is famous for its pomegranate growing industry, for its pomegranate festival. Goychay region is located at the footsteps of Greater Caucasus mountain range, it stretches for about 25 km from north to south and 40 km from east to west, making up 726 km2 in total. The capital of the district Goychay lies on the 216th km of Baku-Qazakh Highway and 18 km away from Ujar railway station, it borders Ismayilli region on the northeast, Kürdəmir on the southeast, Ujar on the south and Agdash on the west. Geographically, the region is divided into mountainous terrain and lowlands. Bozdag Qaramaryam mountain range makes up the mountainous part; the distance between Goychay region and capital Baku is 226 km. The region consists of 55 villages; the biggest populated settlements include Bığır, Ləkçılpaq, İncə villages. Goychay and Yukhari Shirvan rivers pass through the region which contributes to raw materials used for products used for construction.
Goychay is rich with river rocks and soft sand, the clay deposits found in the vicinity of Qarabaqqal village are used for brick production. The geographical location of the region has been affected the climate of Goychay district as its territory is located in the semi-desert and the mountainous areas. Due to above geographical conditions, the climate of region has its own attributes. In the territory of the district the dominant climate is the mild hot semi-arid and dry subtropical climate; this climate type is characterized by dry and warm summer. In the Goychay region, the climate can be classified in 2 categories; because of moderate and humid air conditions in north foothills as well as in the eastern warmer part, the region has huge potential for agriculture. The rest of the region is cold in the winter and hot in the summer which requires the usage of irrigation; the existing river network in the Goychay region flows from the Greater Caucasus to the Kur-Araz lowland. The inland waters of the district are included in the hydrologic basin of Shirvan region.
The rivers are fed by snow and ground water. The main river in the district is Goychay River that belongs to basin the southern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains, as well as the Kur, it is considered as transit river in Shirvan plain. The total length of Goychay river is 115 km and the catchment area is 1770 km2; the average water flow rate in the river is 12.5 m / sec, the maximum speed is 70m / s. Goychay river is fed by 12% of snow, 28% rainfall and 60% underground waters. Average annual water consumption of the river is 12kub m / sec, of which 30-35% is in spring, 20-25% in summer, 18-22% in fall, 15-17% occurs in winter. Nohurqıslaq water reservoir built in the Gabala district supplies water to the river in summer when there is a decrease in its flow; the second long river in the area of district is the Arvan River. The Arvan river flows from Arvan Mountain, located 12 km away from the city, it caused floods in spring in the past. In order to prevent this, the dam was built between 1972 and 1980 and the direction of its water changed to the Goychay River.
The Arvan River dries up during the hot months of the year. Shilian River is another river in the region, a branch of the Goychay River; the name of the region was taken from Goychay River which means "Blue River" in Azerbaijani language due to clean nature and transparency of the river and light blue color of the water. Due to a 1859 earthquake in Shamakhi, many of its residents moved to west establishing a village of Goychay; because of demographic growth, the Russian Imperial government created Goychay Uyezd within Baku Governorate during its administrative reforms in December 1867. The region was established as an administrative unit of Azerbaijan SSR on 8 August 1930; the economy Goychay district is based on industry agriculture, consumer market and communication. The total value of goods produced by various enterprises and individuals operating in the region was 248,331.0 thousand AZN according to the statistics of 2016. The share of industry in economy was 32077,6 thousand AZN or 12,9% of the total output, 88641,4 thousand AZN or 35,7% in agriculture, 27019,9 thousand AZN or 10,9% in construction, 4719,9 thousand AZN or 1,9 percent in transportation, 805.2 thousand AZN or 0.3 percent in communication, 95067.0 thousand AZN or 38.3 percent in trade and services.
Goychay is famous for its wine-making industry which started growing in the 1970s. In the 1970s and 1980s, pomegranate refining factory, cotton factory, milk production plant, bread making plant, grape products refinery plants were built. Economic sector of the region is agriculture; this sector is based upon grain-growing, cattle-breeding, silkworm-breeding and fruit growing. The region's industry was represented by food, non-metallic mineral products and distribution gas and water; the region has great potential for the production of vine and cognac due to development on productivity of viticulture. In 2016, the total production by industrial enterprises of the region as well local private firms was worth around 32077.6 thousand AZN at actual prices and the volume of industrial production increased by 26.9% compared to 2015. The share of total industrial output was 17% in the state sector and 83.0% in non-state sector, respectively. The major agricultural outputs of region are grain, fruits and dairy products related to livestock.