Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has 3.3 million inhabitants and a metropolitan area population of 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union, smaller than only London and Berlin, its monocentric metropolitan area is the third-largest in the EU, smaller only than those of London and Paris; the municipality covers 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the Community of Madrid; as the capital city of Spain, seat of government, residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political and cultural centre of the country. The current mayor is Manuela Carmena from the party Ahora Madrid; the Madrid urban agglomeration has the third-largest GDP in the European Union and its influence in politics, entertainment, media, science and the arts all contribute to its status as one of the world's major global cities. Madrid is home to Real Madrid and Atlético Madrid. Due to its economic output, high standard of living, market size, Madrid is considered the leading economic hub of the Iberian Peninsula and of Southern Europe.
It hosts the head offices of the vast majority of major Spanish companies, such as Telefónica, IAG or Repsol. Madrid is the 10th most liveable city in the world according to Monocle magazine, in its 2017 index. Madrid houses the headquarters of the World Tourism Organization, belonging to the United Nations Organization, the Ibero-American General Secretariat, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Public Interest Oversight Board, it hosts major international regulators and promoters of the Spanish language: the Standing Committee of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, headquarters of the Royal Spanish Academy, the Cervantes Institute and the Foundation of Urgent Spanish. Madrid organises fairs such as ARCO, SIMO TCI and the Madrid Fashion Week. While Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets, its landmarks include the Royal Palace of Madrid. Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city.
مجريط Majrīṭ is the first documented reference to the city. It is recorded in Andalusi Arabic during the al-Andalus period; the name Magerit was retained in Medieval Spanish. The most ancient recorded name of the city "Magerit" comes from the name of a fortress built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD, means "Place of abundant water" in Arabic. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins. According to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named "Metragirta" or "Mantua Carpetana". Others contend that the original name of the city was "Ursaria", because of the many bears that were to be found in the nearby forests, together with the strawberry tree, have been the emblem of the city since the Middle Ages, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river; the name of this first village was "Matrice". Following the invasions carried out by the Germanic Sueves and Vandals, as well as the Sarmatic Alans during the 5th century AD, the Roman Empire no longer had the military presence required to defend its territories on the Iberian Peninsula, as a consequence, these territories were soon occupied by the Vandals, who were in turn dispelled by the Visigoths, who ruled Hispania in the name of the Roman emperor taking control of "Matrice".
In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the name changed to "Mayrit", from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra and the Ibero-Roman suffix it that means'place'. The modern "Madrid" evolved from the Mozarabic "Matrit", still in the Madrilenian gentilic. Although the site of modern-day Madrid has been occupied since prehistoric times, there are archaeological remains of Carpetani settlement, Roman villas, a Visigoth basilica near the church of Santa María de la Almudena and three Visigoth necropoleis near Casa de Campo, Tetúan and Vicálvaro, the first historical document about the existence of an established settlement in Madrid dates from the Muslim age. At the second half of the 9th century, Emir Muhammad I of Córdoba built a fortress on a headland near the river Manzanares, as one of the many fortresses he ordered to be built on the border between Al-Andalus and the kingdoms of León and Castile, with the objective of protecting Toledo from the Christian invasions and as a starting point for Muslim offensives.
After the disintegration of t
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain. Toledo was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986 for its extensive monumental and cultural heritage. Toledo is known as the "Imperial City" for having been the main venue of the court of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, as the "City of the Three Cultures" for the cultural influences of Christians and Jews reflected in its history, it was the capital from 542 to 725 AD of the ancient Visigothic kingdom, which followed the fall of the Roman Empire, the location of historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo. Toledo has a long history in the production of bladed weapons, which are now common souvenirs from the city. People who were born or have lived in Toledo include Brunhilda of Austrasia, Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X, Israeli ben Joseph, El Greco; as of 2015, the city had a population of 83,226 and an area of 232.1 km2. The town was granted arms in the 16th century, which by special royal privilege was based on the royal of arms of Spain.
Toledo is mentioned by the Roman historian Livy as sed loco munita. Roman general Marcus Fulvius Nobilior fought a battle near the city in 193 BC against a confederation of Celtic tribes including the Vaccaei and Celtiberi, defeating them and capturing a king called Hilermus. At that time, Toletum was a city of the Carpetani tribe, part of the region of Carpetania, it was incorporated into the Roman Empire as a civitas stipendiaria, that is, a tributary city of non-citizens, by Flavian times it had achieved the status of municipium. With this status, city officials of Carpetani origin, obtained Roman citizenship for public service, the forms of Roman law and politics were adopted. At this time, a Roman circus, city walls, public baths, a municipal water supply and storage system were constructed in Toletum The Roman circus in Toledo was one of the largest in Hispania, at 423 metres long and 100 metres wide, with a track dimension of 408 metres long and 86 metres wide. Chariot races were held on special holidays and were commissioned by private citizens to celebrate career achievements.
A fragmentary stone inscription records circus games paid for by a citizen of unknown name to celebrate his achieving the sevirate, a kind of priesthood conferring high status. Archaeologists have identified portions of a special seat of the sort used by the city elites to attend circus games, called a sella curulis; the circus could hold up to 15000 spectators. During Roman times, Toledo was never a provincial capital nor a conventus iuridicus, but it started to gain importance in late antiquity. There are indications that large private houses within the city walls were enlarged, while several large villas were built north of the city through the third and fourth centuries. Games were held in the circus into the late fourth and early fifth centuries C. E. an indication of active city life and ongoing patronage by wealthy elites. A church council was held in Toledo in the year 400 to discuss the conflict with Priscillianism. A second council of Toledo was held in 527; the Visigothic king Theudis was in Toledo in 546.
This is strong though not certain evidence. King Athanagild died in Toledo in 568. Although Theudis and Athangild based themselves in Toledo, Toledo was not yet the capital city of the Iberian peninsula, as Theudis and Athangild's power was limited in extent, the Suevi ruling Galicia and local elites dominating Lusitania and Cantabria; this changed with Liuvigild. The Visigoths ruled from Toledo until the Moors conquered the Iberian peninsula in the early years of 8th century. Today in the historic center basements, wells and ancient water pipes are preserved that since Roman times have been used in the city. A series of church councils was held in Toledo under the Visigoths. A synod of Arian bishops was held in 580 to discuss theological reconciliation with Nicene Christianity. Liuvigild's successor, hosted the third council of Toledo, at which the Visigothic kings abandoned Arianism and reconciled with the existing Hispano-Roman episcopate. A synod held in 610 transferred the metropolitanate of the old province of Carthaginensis from Cartagena to Toledo.
At that time, Cartagena was ruled by the Byzantines, this move ensured a closer relation between the bishops of Spain and the Visigothic kings. King Sisebut forced Jews in the Visigothic kingdom to convert to Christianity; the Fifth and Sixth Councils of Toledo placed church sanctions on anyone who would challenge the Visigothic kings. The Seventh Council of Toledo instituted a requirement that all bishops in the area of a royal city, that is, of Toledo, must reside for one month per year in Toledo; this was a stage in "the elevation of Toledo as the primatial see of the whole church of the Visgothic kingdom". In addition, the seventh council declared that any clergy fleeing the kingdom, assisting conspirators against the king, or aiding conspirators, would be excommunicated and no one should remove this sentence; the ban on lifing these sentences of excommunication was lifted at the Eighth Council of Toledo in 653, at which, for the first time, decisions were signed by palace officials as well as bishops.
The eighth council
The bombard is a contemporary conical-bore double-reed instrument used to play traditional Breton music. The bombard is a woodwind instrument, a member of the shawm family. Like most shawms, it has a broad and powerful sound, vaguely resembling a trumpet, it is played. The second octave is'over-blown', it plays a diatonic scale of up to two octaves, although contemporary instruments have added keywork permitting some degree of chromaticism. A bombard player is known as a talabarder after'talabard', the older Breton name for the bombard. Traditional Breton musicians are referred to as Sonneurs. Musicians playing in pairs are referred to as "sonneurs de couple". While'Soner' referred only to the bombard player, the meaning long ago expanded to include other traditional musicians. Call-and-response remains a central aspect of Breton music regardless of the instruments used; the paired kan ha diskan vocal tradition, which remains vitally active today formed the original basis for all other pairings of Breton musicians.
In some parts of Brittany from the late 19th century onwards, the most popular'sonneurs de couple' were the paired treujenn gaol clarinet and accompanying button accordion. Bombards in their most traditional setting are accompanied by a bagpipe called a biniou kozh, which plays an octave above the bombard; the bombard calls, the biniou responds. The bombard requires so much lip pressure and breath support that a talabarder can play a sustained melody line; the biniou plays the melody continuously, while the bombard takes breaks, establishing the call-and-response pattern. Prior to World War I, a given pair of Soners would cover all of the weddings and other social occasions within a given territory, which would be jealously guarded from other performers; this duet of bombard and pipes occasionally accompanied by a drummer in past centuries, has been practiced for at least 500 years in Brittany in an unbroken tradition and must be considered the heart and soul of this instrument's place in Breton culture.
In the first part of the twentieth century, the number of players of bombards and biniou kozh decreased significantly. In the late'40s, the creation of the Bagad, a Breton ensemble of bagpipes and drums, by figures such as Polig Monjarret and the organization Bodadeg ar Sonerion, offered a new role to the bombard. Now most towns in Brittany have one or several Bagadoù, they continually compete with each other in a series of annual tournaments and festivals; as the bagad is a Breton take on the Scottish pipe band concept, the music performed was martial in character. Now the Bagadoù play traditional melodies and new compositions; the large number of bombard players in the Bagadoù has been a key factor in the successful popularization of the instrument. Another key factor has been the revitalization of the traditional pairing of the bombard and biniou in the 1970s with the Breton cultural revival, thanks to the success of Alan Stivell and the development of "Fest Noz" dances and traditional music competitions.
"Essentially a shawm or oboe--that is, a pipe with a conical bore, a double reed, finger-holes...traditional Breton bombardoù are very close to the original progenitor of the oboe family." The bombard is an instrument, in constant evolution, with many different keys developed as well as sophisticated silver key-work enabling chromatic possibilities. Milder versions in lower ranges such as Youenn Le Bihan's "piston" have been developed for use in mixed ensembles. A class of professional musicians and instrument makers has emerged, as well as standardized reeds and available tutorial materials. Today, both the biniou and bombard are played in combination with an unlimited number of instruments in fest-noz and ensembles of all styles - from classical to folk, pop, metal - in arrangements of traditional Breton dance tunes or in new compositions; some sonerien: Gildas Moal Christian Faucheur Georges Epinette André Le Meut.. Jorj Botuha Christophe Caron Sabine Le Coadou Cyrille Bonneau David Pasquet Josick Allot Eric Beaumin Jean Baron Mathieu Sérot Stéphane Hardy Serge Riou Yann Kermabon Youenn Le Bihan Ivonig Le Mestre Erwan Hamon Daniel Feon Jil Lehart Some instrument makers: Hervieux & Glet Jorj Botuha Youenn Le Bihan Axone Yvon Le Coant Jil Lehart Christian Besrechel Éric Ollu Rudy Le Doyen Dorig Le Voyer Some recordings: "Evit Dañsal" Jil Lehart and Daniel Féon "An disput" Gildas Moal and René Chaplain "Plijadur" Jorj Botuha, with Pascal Guingo, Philippe Quillay, Pascal Marsault "Kerzh Ba'n Dañs" Skolvan Of Pipers and Wrens.
Produced and directed by Gei Zantzinger, in collaboration with Dastum. Lois V. Kuter, ethnomusicological consultant. Devault, Pennsylvania: Constant Spring Productions. Free method for self-learning the Breton Bombard
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag. The Scottish Great Highland bagpipes are the best known in the Anglophone world; the term bagpipe is correct in the singular or plural, though pipers refer to the bagpipes as "the pipes", "a set of pipes" or "a stand of pipes". A set of bagpipes minimally consists of an air supply, a bag, a chanter, at least one drone. Many bagpipes have more than one drone in various combinations, held in place in stocks—sockets that fasten the various pipes to the bag; the most common method of supplying air to the bag is through blowing into a blowstick. In some pipes the player must cover the tip of the blowpipe with their tongue while inhaling, but most blowpipes have a non-return valve that eliminates this need. In recent times, there are many instruments that assist in creating a clean air flow to the pipes and assist the collection of condensation. An innovation, dating from the 16th or 17th century, is the use of a bellows to supply air.
In these pipes, sometimes called "cauld wind pipes", air is not heated or moistened by the player's breathing, so bellows-driven bagpipes can use more refined or delicate reeds. Such pipes include the Irish uilleann pipes; the bag is an airtight reservoir that holds air and regulates its flow via arm pressure, allowing the player to maintain continuous sound. The player keeps the bag inflated by blowing air into it through a blowpipe or pumping air into it with a bellows. Materials used for bags vary but the most common are the skins of local animals such as goats, dogs and cows. More bags made of synthetic materials including Gore-Tex have become much more common. A drawback of the synthetic bag is the potential for fungal spores to colonise the bag because of a reduction in necessary cleaning, with the associated danger of lung infection. An advantage of a synthetic bag is that it has a zip which allows the user to fit a more effective moisture trap to the inside of the bag. Bags cut from larger materials are saddle-stitched with an extra strip folded over the seam and stitched or glued to reduce leaks.
Holes are cut to accommodate the stocks. In the case of bags made from intact animal skins, the stocks are tied into the points where the limbs and the head joined the body of the whole animal, a construction technique common in Central Europe; the chanter is the melody pipe, played with two hands. All bagpipes have at least one chanter. A chanter can be bored internally so that the inside walls are parallel for its full length, or it can be bored in a conical shape; the chanter is open-ended, so there is no easy way for the player to stop the pipe from sounding. Thus most bagpipes share a legato sound where there are no rests in the music; because of this inability to stop playing, technical movements are used to break up notes and to create the illusion of articulation and accents. Because of their importance, these embellishments are highly technical systems specific to each bagpipe, take many years of study to master. A few bagpipes have closed ends or stop the end on the player's leg, so that when the player "closes" the chanter becomes silent.
A practice chanter is a chanter without bag or drones, allowing a player to practice the instrument and with no variables other than playing the chanter. The term chanter is derived from the Latin cantare, or "to sing", much like the modern French word chanteur; the note from the chanter is produced by a reed installed at its top. The reed may be a double reed. Double reeds are used with both conical- and parallel-bored chanters while single reeds are limited to parallel-bored chanters. In general, double-reed chanters are found in pipes of Western Europe while single-reed chanters appear in most other regions. Most bagpipes have at least one drone: a pipe, not fingered but rather produces a constant harmonizing note throughout play. Exceptions are those pipes which have a double-chanter instead. A drone is most a cylindrically-bored tube with a single reed, although drones with double reeds exist; the drone is designed in two or more parts with a sliding joint so that the pitch of the drone can be adjusted.
Depending on the type of pipes, the drones may lie over the shoulder, across the arm opposite the bag, or may run parallel to the chanter. Some drones have a tuning screw, which alters the length of the drone by opening a hole, allowing the drone to be tuned to two or more distinct pitches; the tuning screw may shut off the drone altogether. In most types of pipes, where there is one drone it is pitched two octaves below the tonic of the chanter. Additional drones add the octave below and a drone consonant with the fifth
The suona called laba or haidi, is a Chinese sorna. It has a distinctively loud and high-pitched sound, is used in Chinese traditional music ensembles those that perform outdoors, it is an important instrument in the folk music of northern China the provinces of Shandong and Henan, where it has long been used for festival and military purposes. It is still used, in combination with sheng mouth organs, gongs and sometimes other instruments, in wedding and funeral processions; such wind and percussion ensembles are called chuida or guchui. Stephen Jones has written extensively on its use in ritual music of Shanxi province, it is common in the ritual music of Southeast China. In Taiwan, it forms an essential element of ritual music that accompanies Daoist performances of both auspicious and inauspicious rites, i.e. those for both the living and the dead. The suona as used in China has a conical wooden body, similar to that of the gyaling horn used by the Tibetan ethnic group, both of which uses a metal a tubular brass or copper bocal to which a small double reed is affixed, possesses a detachable metal bell at its end.
The double-reed gives the instrument a sound similar to that of the modern oboe. The instrument is made in several sizes. Since the mid-20th century, "modernized" versions of the suona have been developed in China. There is now a family of such instruments, including the zhongyin suona, cizhongyin suona, diyin suona; these instruments are used in the woodwind sections of modern large Chinese traditional instrument orchestras in China and Singapore, though most folk ensembles prefer to use the traditional version of the instrument. It has been used in modern music arrangements as well, including in the works of Chinese rock musician Cui Jian, featuring a modernized suona-play in his song "Nothing To My Name"; the nazi, a related instrument, most used in northern China, consists of a suona reed, played melodically, the pitches changed by the mouth and hands.video Sometimes the nazi is played into a large metal horn for additional volume. Ranges of the orchestral "suona": Piccolo in G and F Sopranino suona in D and C Soprano suona in A and G Alto suona in D Tenor suona in G Bass suona in various keys The tenor and bass varieties are keyed.
The highest varieties are not keyed. Although the origins of the suona is unclear, with some text attributing the use of the suona dating as far back as the Jin dynasty, there is a consensus that the suona came from origins outside of the domains of ancient Chinese kingdoms having been developed from Central Asian instruments such as the sorna, surnay, or zurna, from which its Chinese name may have been derived from. Other sources state the origins of the suona to be India; the European Shawm is derived from this ancient instrument. A musician playing an instrument similar to a suona is shown on a drawing on a Silk Road religious monument in western Xinjiang province dated to the 3rd to 5th centuries, depictions dating to this period found in Shandong and other regions of northern China depict it being played in military processions, sometimes on horseback, it was not mentioned in Chinese literature until the Ming Dynasty, but by this time the suona was established in northern China. In Korea, a similar instrument is called taepyeongso, in Vietnam similar oboes are called kèn.
In Japan, a similar instrument is called charumera. This instrument's name is derived from the Portuguese word for shawm, its sound is well known throughout Japan, as it is used by street vendors selling ramen. A similar instrument, the zurna, is played during ceremonial occasions and folk music in the Balkans, India and Turkey; the suona is used as a traditional instrument in Cuba, having been introduced by Chinese immigrants during the colonial era. It is used in some forms of son and carnival music; the American jazz saxophonist Dewey Redman played the suona in his performances, calling it a "musette." Bassist and saxophonist, the late Mick Karn used the instrument crediting it as a dida. Liu Qi-Chao Liu Ying Liu Yuan, saxophonist with Cui Jian's band, who trained on the suona at the Beijing Art School, who used the instrument on Cui's 1994 album Balls Under the Red Flag Song Baocai Wu Zhongxi Zhou Dongchao Jin Shiye Guo Yazhi Kot Kai-lik Xia Boyan Law Hang-leung Li Ching-fong Liu Hai Lee Yiu-cheung Lin Ziyou Traditional Chinese musical instruments Guan Lingm Zurna Piccolo oboe Rhaita Kangling Sopila Shehnai Wang, Min.
The Musical and Cultural Meanings of Shandong Guchuiyue from the People's Republic of China. Ph. D. dissertation. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University. New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, second edition, edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell. Jones, Stephen. Ritual and Music of North China: Shawm Bands in Shanxi Province. SOAS Musicology Series. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing. Suona website Suona and Bagpipe Duet - Unique Public Performance, Zhongzi Wu & Dave All, Vancouver, B. C. Oct.21, 2010. Http://music.cn.yahoo.com/search?pid=ysearch&source=ysearch_music_result_topsearch&p=%DF%EF%C4%C5&mimetype=all Click the image of the hea
The zurna, is a wind instrument played in central Eurasia, western Asia and parts of North Africa. It is accompanied by a davul in Anatolian and Assyrian folk music; the zurna, like the kaval, is a woodwind instrument used to play folk music. The zurna is made from the hard wood of fruit trees such as plum or apricot. There are several different types of zurnas; the longest is the kaba zurna, used in western Turkey and Bulgaria, the shortest, which can be made of bone, is the zurna played in Messolonghi and other villages of Aetolia-Acarnania region in Greece. The zurna, a relative of oboe, is found everywhere where the common reed grows because it uses a short cylindrical reed, tied to a conical brass tube on one end, flattened to a narrow slit on the other end as source of sound, it requires high pressure to give any tone at all and when it does, it is constantly loud, high pitched and piercing. The need for high pressure makes it suitable for playing without stop using circular breathing. A small pacifier style disk that the lips may lean on helps the lip muscles that hold the high pressure air and recover during long non stop playing sessions.
The combination of constant volume and non stop playing makes zurna not suitable to emphasize rhythm. It has therefore been played invariably along with big drums that both provide the rhythm and the lower frequencies that bear further away than Zurnas loud high pitched sound, it has a cylindrical bore, a bell opening out in a parabolic curve, thus adapted to reflect the sound straight ahead. Because of its loud and directional sound as well as accompaniment by big drums, it has been played outdoors, during festive events such as weddings and public celebrations, it has been used to gather crowds in order to make official announcements. This use of zurna as a symbol of ruler power, developed to Janissary bands, to military music. Seven holes on the front, one thumb hole, provide a range of over one octave including some transposition, it is similar to the mizmar. Zurnas are used in the folk music of many countries in Iran, Azerbaijan, Iraq, Turkey, Bulgaria, Republic of Macedonia, Serbia, Bosnia and the other Caucasian countries, have now spread throughout India and Eastern Europe.
In the Slavic nations of the Balkans it is called zurla. The zurna is most the immediate predecessor of the European shawm, is related to the Chinese suona still used today in weddings and funeral music; the Japanese charumera, or charamera, traditionally associated with itinerant noodle vendors is a small zurna, its name derived from the Portuguese chirimiya. Few, if any, noodle vendors continue this tradition, those who do would use a loudspeaker playing a recorded charumera. Turkish lore says that Adam, moulded from clay, had no soul, it is said. According to a Turkmen legend, the devil played the main role in tuiduk invention. Borrowed from an unknown Proto-Indo-European source of Luwian, Sanskrit शृङ्, Latin cornū, English horn. By folk etymology, the name is derived from Persian "سرنای", composed of "سور" meaning "banquet, feast", نای meaning "reed, pipe"; the term is attested in the oldest Turkic records, as "suruna" in the 12th and 13th century Codex Cumanicus. Pku Zhaleika Duduk Ney Sorna Rhaita Suona Kangling Sopila Piffero Armenian Zurna, Duduk.com Janitschareninstrumente und Europa.
Memo G. Schachiner, MusicalConfrontations.com Zurna FAQ at wayback machine. Http://www.fromnorway.net/yaylas/zurna/zurna_faq.htm, Satilmis Yayla, 1996 Oslo, Norway
Province of Cuenca
Cuenca is one of the five provinces of the autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha. It is cover over 17.141 square km. It has a population of 203.841 inhabitants- the least populated of its autonomous community. Its capital city is Cuenca and the province is compounded of 238 municipalities; the province is bordered by the provinces of Valencia, Ciudad Real, Madrid and Teruel. The northeastern side of the province is in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area. 211,375 people live in the province. Its capital is Cuenca, some 52,980 people. There are 238 municipalities in Cuenca. Other populous towns and municipalities include Tarancón, San Clemente, Quintanar del Rey, Villanueva de la Jara, Motilla del Palancar, Mota del Cuervo, La Almarcha and Las Pedroñeras. In 1851 Cuenca lost Requena-Utiel to the neighbouring Valencia Province with which it was developing commercial ties. Requena-Utiel remained Spanish-speaking, while the loss of its most dynamic region left the province of Cuenca underdeveloped economically