Herbert, New Zealand
The small town of Herbert, formerly Otepopo, lies in North Otago, New Zealand,91 kilometres north of Dunedin and 22 kilometres south-west of Oamaru. It lies on the edge of the Herbert Forest, Herbert consists of a group of houses and 3 churches clustered around State Highway 1. A service station is the postal agency, two main industries operate in Herbert, an agricultural and forestry helicopter base and a poultry unit. Surrounding the settlement is rolling and fertile pastureland, the poultry farm, Craigs Poultry, was a finalist for the 2007 Otago Ballance Farm Environment Awards. On a north-facing site 300 metres from the town was the Otepopo School and this was a primary school for children from 5 to about 13 years old. Thereafter, the children went to Oamaru for further education, Otepopo school was closed in September 2010, due to a rapid decline in the school roll. From 22 pupils in 2009, its roll had dropped to 4 before its closure, some five kilometres south of Herbert is the farming settlement of Waianakarua.
The old stone bridge at Waianakarua is the oldest that is used by the New Zealand State Highway network. This bridge was dismantled stone by stone in 2004, and rebuilt 2 metres wider, in 2005 it was reopened as part of the State Highway network again. Alongside this bridge is an example of a flourmill and 3 km upstream from the bridge is an historical site of another early flourmill. Among Waianakaruas more well-known landmarks is The Big Chicken, a bird standing several metres tall. The son of Burt Munro, portrayed by Anthony Hopkins in the film The Worlds Fastest Indian, pig hunting and sea and river fishing are some of the activities available in the Herbert and Waianakarua district
Lake Ohau is a glacial lake in the Mackenzie Basin of New Zealands South Island. It is fed by the Hopkins and Dobson rivers, which have their headwaters in the Southern Alps, and has its outflow in the Ohau River, Ohau is the smallest of three roughly parallel lakes running north-south along the northern edge of the Mackenzie Basin. The Ohau ski field is located close to the shore of the lake. The lake forms part of the boundary between Otago and Canterbury regions, Otagos northernmost point being the headwaters of the Hopkins River. Officially the lake lies in the part of the Waitaki District within the southern part of the Canterbury region. Lake Ohau will be on the route of the Alps to Ocean Cycle Trail, media related to Lake Ohau at Wikimedia Commons Ski Ohau Pictures of Ohau
The Waitaki district, in the Canterbury and Otago regions of New Zealand, straddles the traditional border between the two regions, the Waitaki River. It has an area of 7,151.94 km². It is the district in the South Island that lies in two regions. A major reason for this split was the governance of the Waitaki River which forms a boundary between Canterbury and Otago. With major hydro schemes on this river it was decided to place the entire catchment in one administrative region, some people who fall into the Canterbury Region of Waitaki District still regard themselves as part of Otago, and attempts have been made in the past to change the boundary. The district, which is agricultural by nature, comprises the wide alluvial fan of the river, and runs inland along the banks of the river, the Waitaki Districts population is 22,100. Of this,13,850 live in Oamaru, the district seat, the Waitaki District is made up of the former Waitaki County, Waihemo County and Oamaru Borough, which were amalgamated in 1989.
It is governed by the Waitaki District Council, a relatively sparsely settled area, the District does have a wide number of farms. Waitaki District Council Information about Waitaki District Waitaki Development Board
Moeraki is a small fishing village on the east coast of the South Island of New Zealand. It was once the location of a whaling station, in the 1870s, local interests believed it could become the main port for the north Otago area and a railway line, the Moeraki Branch, was built to the settlement and opened in 1877. The village is best known for the nearby Moeraki Boulders, Moeraki is usually translated as sleepy sky. There are other places with the name or versions of it, all along the path from the Polynesian homeland. Gavin McLean tentatively linked its occupants to Waitaha, conventionally the third iwi, or tribe, to arrive in southern New Zealand, after Kahui Tipua and Te Rapuwai. However, as McLean notes, Waitaha is a name used to designate all the peoples preceding Kati Mamoe. It is safe to say Waimatatai is a Waitaha site in that broad sense, the Moeraki peninsula terminates to the south in Kartigi Point where there was a pā of the Classic period of Māori culture. Its traditional name was Te Raka-a-hineatua, according to tradition it was built by Taoka, a well known fighting chief of the late 17th to early 18th centuries, who built fortresses at the Ashburton River and near Timaru.
Shortly after it was built it was attacked by a party from Kaikoura who were repulsed by Taoka in the battle known as Te Hakopa. Taoka was in battle with chiefs further south at Huriawa, taokas principal opponent was Te Wera. Jill Hamel has reported there were terraces, the best developed of any southern pā, radio carbon dating has confirmed it was occupied in the 18th century. It used to be said Moeraki, like other places on the east coast, was not a site of permanent occupation in pre-European times. Moeraki was traversed during the Sealers War, known as the War of the Shirt, according to the Creed manuscript, discovered in 2003, they camped for the night by their boat at the Bluff eight miles from Moeraki to the north. However they were observed and attacked by Māori, two of the sealers escaped and fled to Bobbys Head and Goodwood, south of Moeraki, taking two days to get there and where they were killed and eaten. They will have passed Moeraki going north and fleeing south, john Hughes, accompanied by W.
I Haberfield and other men from the Weller brothers Otago whaling station, established a whaling station in Moeraki Bay, Onekakara, on Boxing Day, December 26,1836. Since that time European occupation has been continuous, when Hughes and his men arrived there were only nine Māori living in the area, under Takatahara. In 1838 a large group arrived under Matiaha Tiramorehu and settled, many of the latter married Māori women. Haberfield maintained alcohol was absent at Moeraki, in striking contrast to more southerly stations, after 1839 whaling dwindled and ceased by the late 1840s, although there was a brief revival
Main South Line
It is one of the most important railway lines in New Zealand and was one of the first to be built, with construction commencing in the 1860s. At Christchurch it connects with the Main North Line to Picton, construction of the first section of the line began in 1865 and the whole line was completed on 22 January 1879. The Canterbury provincial government built and opened the first public railway in New Zealand, a line south to connect with major South Canterbury centres, northern Otago and Dunedin was desired, and on 24 May 1865 construction of what was termed the Canterbury Great South Railway began. The Canterbury Provincial Railways were broad gauge,1,600 mm, the first section of the line was opened to Rolleston on 13 October 1866. Beyond Rolleston, three routes south were considered, A route well inland to cross rivers in narrower places. A coastal line through fertile country, a compromise between the two, following the most direct route and crossing major rivers at more reasonable places than the coastal route.
The third option was chosen and the line was built through an at times relatively barren part of the Canterbury Plains towards Rakaia. By the time the line reached Selwyn in October 1867,35 km from central Christchurch the provincial government was so short of finances that construction was temporarily halted. In 1870 Julius Vogel announced his Great Public Works Policy and placed a priority on the completion of a line between Christchurch and Dunedin. Soon after this, the government recognised the need to conform with the uniform gauge. Construction not only progressed south from the Christchurch end and north from Dunedin, construction was swift through the 1870s, and on 4 February 1876, Christchurch was linked with Timaru. Just under a later, on 1 February 1877, the line was complete all the way from Christchurch to Oamaru in north Otago. At the southern end, the Dunedin and Port Chalmers Railway opened on 1 January 1873, most of this line became part of the Main South Line, with construction progressing north from a junction at Sawyers Bay, leaving the final two kilometres to become the Port Chalmers Branch.
A difficult hillside climb out of Dunedin was encountered, with taking a significant length of time. The construction south from Oamaru included the creation of two branch lines along the way, the Moeraki Branch and the Shag Point Branch. On 7 September 1878 the route from Christchurch to Dunedin was opened in its entirety, in 1871, the Dunedin and Clutha Railway was one of the first authorised railways under Vogels Great Public Works Policy, and construction was rapid. This was the first major line constructed to 1,067 mm gauge, on 1 September 1875 the line opened to Balclutha, the major town of the lower Clutha River region,84 kilometres from Dunedin. At the Invercargill end, construction was swift, and Gore was reached on 30 August 1875, from here, undulating countryside necessitated heavier earthworks to Balclutha, completing the route from Dunedin to Invercargill, and construction was completed on 22 January 1879
The small town of Kakanui lies on the coast of Otago, in New Zealand, fourteen kilometres to the south of Oamaru. The Kakanui River and its estuary divide the township in two, the part of the settlement south of the river, known as Kakanui South, formerly Campbells Bay, was developed as a collection of cribs. A recent increase in the development of subdivisions have increased the density of dwellings within South Kakanui, the population was 414 people in the 2006 census, unchanged from 2001. The Kakanui River reaches the sea near the town, and the low known as the Kakanui Mountains stretch inland from south of Oamaru towards the Maniototo. Kai Tahu used to temporarily occupy Kakanui as they travelled north and south, the area around Kakanui has a reputation for its limestone formations, and produces many fossils. The rich and fertile soil of the area around the river has physical properties make it perfect for use in sports grounds. Many of New Zealandss top cricket venues use Kakanui soil on their wicket blocks, kakanuis main beach, south of the main headland, is known as Campbells Bay.
It provides the first surfable break and the first safe swimming beach south of Banks Peninsula, the beach has a length of approximately two kilometres, and the southern end, known as All Day Bay, offers more shelter than the northern end, but with less surf. The sandy beach below the shingle spit north of the river mouth stretching toward Oamaru is safely swimmable, the beaches south of the main headland feature orange sand. The northern beach has white sand, kakanuis rich volcanic soil suits intensive horticulture. The township contains a number of glasshouses, primarily used for growing tomatoes, land surrounding the settlement features market gardens growing a wide range of vegetables. Kakanui has a reputation for its new-season potatoes, which sell throughout all New Zealand. Kakanui was once a port on the northern side of the river, with a hotel, meat works. Kakanuis commerce declined after the railway was built inland, going through Maheno, Kakanui is often named on maps as Taranui. However, this name is not in use locally, nor is it evident on road signs, Taranui may be a naming error from early maps referring to a station farm of that name, located slightly inland from Kakanui
Territorial authorities of New Zealand
Territorial authorities are the second tier of local government in New Zealand, below regional councils. There are 67 territorial authorities,12 city councils,53 district councils, Auckland Council, six territorial authorities perform the functions of a regional council and thus are unitary authorities. A unitary authority may have local boards, currently only Auckland Council has them, territorial authority districts are not subdivisions of regions, and some of them fall within more than one region. Taupo District has the distinction of straddling the boundaries of four different regions, Regional council areas are based on water catchment areas, whereas territorial authorities are based on community of interest and road access. Some activities are delegated to council-controlled organisations, the boundaries of councils tended to follow the edge of the built-up area, so little distinction was made between the urban area and the local government area. Regional councils were reduced in number from 20 to 13, territorial authorities from 200 to 75, the new district and city councils were generally much larger and most covered substantial areas of both urban and rural land.
Many places that once had a city council were now being administered by a district council, as a result, the term city began to take on two meanings. The word city came to be used in a formal sense to describe major urban areas independent of local body boundaries. This informal usage is jealously guarded, for example, adamantly described itself as the first city in the world to see the new millennium. Gisborne is administered by a council, but its status as a city is not generally disputed. Under the current law the minimum population for a new city is 50,000, since the 1989 reorganisations, there have been few major reorganisations or status changes in local government. Incomplete list,1991, Invercargill re-proclaimed a city,1992, Nelson-Marlborough Regional Council abolished by a Local Government Amendment Act. Of its territorial authorities, Kaikoura District was transferred to the Canterbury Region,2004, Tauranga became a city again on 1 March. 2006, Banks Peninsula District merged into Christchurch City as a result of 2005 referendum,2010, Auckland Council, a unitary authority, replaced seven local councils and the regional council.
Reports on completed reorganisation proposals since 1999 are available on the Local Government Commissions site, the split areas as well as the current North Shore City would form a Waitemata local council. Waitakere local council would consist of the current Waitakere City as well as the Avondale area, tamaki Makaurau would consist of the current Auckland City and Otahuhu Manukau local council would consist of the urban parts of the current Manukau City and of the Papakura District. Hunua local council would consist of the entire Franklin District, much of which is currently in the Waikato Region, along with areas of the current Papakura District. The entire Papakura District would be dissolved between urban and rural councils, the National-led Government responded within about a week
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, known as tracks. It is referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a flat surface. Tracks usually consist of rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger. The operation is carried out by a company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway system or produce their own power. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system, Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC, with Periander, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Rail transport blossomed after the British development of the steam locomotive as a viable source of power in the 19th centuries.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships. The change from canals to railways allowed for markets in which prices varied very little from city to city. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and the first tramways, starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan, other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. The history of the growth and restoration to use of transport can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used.
The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre Diolkos wagonway, trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element. The Diolkos operated for over 600 years, Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany
A branch line is a secondary railway line which branches off a more important through route, usually a main line. A very short branch line may be called a spur line, david Blyth Hanna, the first president of the Canadian National Railway, said that although most branch lines cannot pay for themselves, they are essential to make main lines pay. Many British branch lines were closed as a result of the Beeching Axe in the 1960s, the smallest branch line that is still in operation in the UK is the Stourbridge Town Branch Line from Stourbridge Junction going to Stourbridge Town. Operating on a track, the journey is 0.8 miles long. Examples of spur lines in Singapore include, Changi Extension Line, examples of spur lines in Hong Kong include, Lok Ma Chau Spur Line, South Tseung Kwan O Spur Line, Racecourse Spur Line. In North America, little-used branch lines are sold by large railroads to become new common carrier short-line railroads of their own. They were typically built to standards, utilizing lighter rail.
In the United States, abandonment of branch lines was a byproduct of deregulation of the rail industry through the Staggers Act. The Princeton Branch is a rail line and service owned and operated by New Jersey Transit in the U. S. state of New Jersey. The line is a branch of the Northeast Corridor Line. Also known as the Dinky Line, at 2.9 mi it is the shortest scheduled commuter rail line in the United States. The run takes 4 minutes,47 seconds, New Zealand once had a very extensive network of branch lines, especially in the South Island regions of Canterbury and Southland. Many were built in the late 19th century to open up inland regions for farming, many of the branch lines have been closed, including almost all of the general-purpose country lines. Those that remain serve ports or industries far from main lines such as mines, logging operations, large dairying factories. In Auckland and Wellington, two lines in each city exist solely for commuter passenger trains. For more, see the list of New Zealand railway lines
Lindis Pass is located in the South Island of New Zealand. It lies between the towns of Cromwell in Central Otago and Omarama in North Otago, on the inland route to the Mackenzie Basin in the Canterbury Region. The pass lies between the valleys of the Lindis and Ahuriri Rivers, state Highway 8 transverses the pass on its route from the Mackenzie Basin to Central Otago. The pass is the highest point on the South Islands state highway network, despite this, it is not considered one of the alpine passes as it located in the dry interior of the South Island. Media related to Lindis Pass at Wikimedia Commons
Kurow is a small town in the Waitaki District, New Zealand. It is located on the bank of the Waitaki River,60 kilometres northwest of Oamaru. At the 2013 Census, the town had a population of 312 people, the name is an Anglicised form of the name of the nearby mountain Te Kohurau. In the 1920s the town was the base for the building of the nearby Waitaki Dam, examples of pre-European Māori cave paintings are close to the small settlement of Duntroon. The land around the town includes summerfruit orchards, and increasing amounts of Pinot noir are being planted in the limestone soils. The town was the terminus of the Kurow Branch railway, opened in 1881 to Hakataramea, across the Waitaki River and it closed in 1983, the line can be traced on the ground, and the station still building stands on Liverpool St. From 1928 until 1937, a line owned by the Public Works Department ran from Kurow to the hydroelectric project 6.4 km to the west, notable people from Kurow include All Black captain Richie McCaw, All Black and rugby administrator Charles Saxton and mathematician Roy Kerr.
From 1929 to 1934, Dr Gervan McMillan and his wife Ethel were residents of Kurow, with Dr McMillan running a medical practice
Ranfurly, New Zealand
Ranfurly is the largest settlement in the Maniototo district of Otago, New Zealand. Located 110 kilometres north of Dunedin, it lies in dry rough country at a high altitude close to a small tributary of the Taieri River. It operates as a town for the local farming community. The town was known as Eweburn, one of the farmyard names bestowed by former Otago Chief Surveyor John Turnbull Thomson on many small streams. The modern name honours the Fifth Earl of Ranfurly, who served as Governor of New Zealand at the time of the extension of the Otago Central Railway to the area, under the Köppen climate classification Ranfurly has an oceanic climate. Central Otago in general, and the Maniototo in particular, has one of New Zealands very few zones influenced by continental-climates, with large daily and seasonal temperature extremes. Average highs in summer are around 22 °C, with days as warm as 30 °C, average winter highs are around 7 °C. The lowest temperature on record in New Zealand was recorded at Ranfurly in 1903, heavy frosts are common throughout winter.
The town is sheltered from the rain patterns by the mountains to the west. The Norwester foehn wind is thus a frequent weather pattern, after the gold-rush faded Ranfurly grew at the expense of Naseby, spurred by the arrival of the railway in 1898. The rail line was closed in 1989 and the track removed, but its course became a walking and cycling route, the Otago Central Rail Trail. The former railway station now serves as a museum and display centre, the town became an important service-centre for the rural community, experiencing a building boom in the 1930s. It is recognised for the proportion of rural Art Deco buildings which have been preserved from that time. An annual festival commemorating Ranfurlys Art Deco heritage takes place held each February, as of 2013 Ranfurly has a population of around 1000. The nearby Ida Valley functioned as one of the locations for Peter Jacksons 2001–2003 Lord of the Rings film trilogy, surprisingly for such a small town, Ranfurly has been the birthplace of several recent members of the New Zealand womens hockey team