Safford is a city in Graham County, United States. According to the 2010 Census, the population of the city is 9,566; the city is the county seat of Graham County. Safford is the principal city of the Safford Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Graham county. Safford is located at 32°49′24″N 109°42′53″W; the Pinaleno Mountains sit prominently to the southwest of town. The Pinalenos have the greatest vertical relief of any mountain range in Arizona. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 8.6 square miles, of which, 8.6 square miles of it is land and 0.03 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 9,566 people, 3,385 households, 2,358 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,112.3 people per square mile. There were 3,908 housing units at an average density of 454.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.4% White, 1.2% Black or African American, 1.6% Native American, 0.9% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 11.1% from other races, 3.7% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 43.6% of the population. There were 3,385 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.0% were married couples living together, 17.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.3% were non-families. 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.75 and the average family size was 3.31. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.0% under the age of 18, 10.8% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31.6 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.2 males. The median income for a household in the city from 2000 census was $29,899, the median income for a family was $36,696. Males had a median income of $35,915 versus $20,138 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,052.
About 13.9% of families and 17.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 10.5% of those age 65 or over. The climate is cold semi-arid softened by the plateau rise, it is much hotter than most places in eastern Arizona due to its low elevation of 2,953 feet at the Agricultural Center where records are kept, reaches temperatures as hot as found in Phoenix. In January, the average high temperature is 60 °F or 15.6 °C with a low of 29 °F or −1.7 °C. In July, the average high temperature is 98 °F or 36.7 °C with a low of 68 °F or 20 °C. Annual precipitation averages around 9.8 inches, snowfall is exceptionally rare: the mean is around 0.8 inches but the median is zero. Monastery of St. Paisius, Safford is an Orthodox women's coenobitic community in Safford, Arizona which follows the traditional rule of monastic life; the monastery, under the jurisdiction of the Serbian Orthodox Church, is situated in the High Sonoran Desert at the base of Mount Graham.
Safford was founded by Joshua Eaton Bailey, Hiram Kennedy, Edward Tuttle, who came from Gila Bend, in southwestern Arizona. They left Gila Bend in the winter of 1873-74. Upon arrival early in 1874, the villagers laid out the town site, including a few crude buildings; the town is named after Arizona Territorial Governor Anson P. K. Safford; the Town of Safford was incorporated October 10, 1901, changed to City of Safford in 1955. The city's largest employers are Freeport-McMoRan Copper and Gold, Safford Unified Schools, DRG Technologies Inc, Bowman Consulting Group, Open Loop Energy and Walmart. Freeport-McMoRan opened two mining facilities just north of the city that make up the largest new mining operation in North America. Arizona State Prison Complex - Safford employs many residents, as does the Federal Correctional Institution, Safford. Agriculture is considered to be a main economic product with cotton fields and a gin located in the city. A billboard along US Highway 70 announces "Safford....
Copper, Cattle & Cotton". The community is served by a freight rail line, the Arizona Eastern Railway, hosts an air facility, Safford Regional Airport. Additionally the Arizona Department of Transportation is upgrading U. S. Route 191 from Interstate 10 into a full four-lane highway. ADOT is considering putting a U. S. Route 70 loop south of the city that would run from Swift Trail Junction to Thatcher; the Safford Unified School District serves the entire city of some minor outlying areas. The nearby Eastern Arizona College provides higher education services, a University of Arizona agricultural extension is located to the east of the city. Legislation has been suggested in state committee to transform the nearby Eastern Arizona College from its present status as a two-year community college into a full four-year educational institution. Safford is home to the Eastern Arizona College's Discovery Park Campus, a unique public educational destination facility that provides tours of the world-class telescopes at the Mt. Graham International Observatory, a public access observatory with a research grade 20" Cassagrain telescope, the World's largest permanent mount "Camera Obscura", a full motion Shuttle simulator that takes you on an exciting ride through the Milky Way galaxy, galleries of historical artifacts from Graham County and the "History of Astronomy" Gallery, as well as a beautifully restored Sonoran riparia
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the federal judiciary of the United States. Established pursuant to Article III of the U. S. Constitution in 1789, it has original jurisdiction over a narrow range of cases, including suits between two or more states and those involving ambassadors, it has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all federal court and state court cases that involve a point of federal constitutional or statutory law. The Court has the power of judicial review, the ability to invalidate a statute for violating a provision of the Constitution or an executive act for being unlawful. However, it may act only within the context of a case in an area of law over which it has jurisdiction; the court may decide cases having political overtones, but it has ruled that it does not have power to decide nonjusticiable political questions. Each year it agrees to hear about one hundred to one hundred fifty of the more than seven thousand cases that it is asked to review.
According to federal statute, the court consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, all of whom are nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Once appointed, justices have lifetime tenure unless they resign, retire, or are removed from office; each justice has a single vote in deciding. When the chief justice is in the majority, he decides. In modern discourse, justices are categorized as having conservative, moderate, or liberal philosophies of law and of judicial interpretation. While a far greater number of cases in recent history have been decided unanimously, decisions in cases of the highest profile have come down to just one single vote, exemplifying the justices' alignment according to these categories; the Court meets in the Supreme Court Building in Washington, D. C, its law enforcement arm is the Supreme Court of the United States Police. It was while debating the division of powers between the legislative and executive departments that delegates to the 1787 Constitutional Convention established the parameters for the national judiciary.
Creating a "third branch" of government was a novel idea. Early on, some delegates argued that national laws could be enforced by state courts, while others, including James Madison, advocated for a national judicial authority consisting of various tribunals chosen by the national legislature, it was proposed that the judiciary should have a role in checking the executive power to veto or revise laws. In the end, the Framers compromised by sketching only a general outline of the judiciary, vesting federal judicial power in "one supreme Court, in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish", they delineated neither the exact powers and prerogatives of the Supreme Court nor the organization of the Template:Judicial branch as a whole. The 1st United States Congress provided the detailed organization of a federal judiciary through the Judiciary Act of 1789; the Supreme Court, the country's highest judicial tribunal, was to sit in the nation's Capital and would be composed of a chief justice and five associate justices.
The act divided the country into judicial districts, which were in turn organized into circuits. Justices were required to "ride circuit" and hold circuit court twice a year in their assigned judicial district. After signing the act into law, President George Washington nominated the following people to serve on the court: John Jay for chief justice and John Rutledge, William Cushing, Robert H. Harrison, James Wilson, John Blair Jr. as associate justices. All six were confirmed by the Senate on September 26, 1789. Harrison, declined to serve. In his place, Washington nominated James Iredell; the Supreme Court held its inaugural session from February 2 through February 10, 1790, at the Royal Exchange in New York City the U. S. capital. A second session was held there in August 1790; the earliest sessions of the court were devoted to organizational proceedings, as the first cases did not reach it until 1791. When the national capital moved to Philadelphia in 1790, the Supreme Court did so as well.
After meeting at Independence Hall, the Court established its chambers at City Hall. Under Chief Justices Jay and Ellsworth, the Court heard few cases; as the Court had only six members, every decision that it made by a majority was made by two-thirds. However, Congress has always allowed less than the court's full membership to make decisions, starting with a quorum of four justices in 1789; the court lacked a home of its own and had little prestige, a situation not helped by the era's highest-profile case, Chisholm v. Georgia, reversed within two years by the adoption of the Eleventh Amendment; the court's power and prestige grew during the Marshall Court. Under Marshall, the court established the power of judicial review over acts of Congress, including specifying itself as the supreme expositor of the Constitution and making several important constitutional rulings that gave shape and substance to the balance of power between the federal government and states; the Marshall Court ended the practice of each justice issuin
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
Clifton is a town in and the county seat of Greenlee County, United States, along the San Francisco River. The population of the town was 3,311 at the 2010 census, with a 2017 population estimate of 4,870 by the Arizona Office of Economic Opportunity, it was a site of the Arizona copper mine strike of 1983. Clifton and Morenci are considered to be an economic unit by the Arizona Department of Commerce. Clifton is located at 33°2′26″N 109°18′3″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 14.8 square miles, of which 14.6 square miles is land and 0.23 square miles, or 1.46%, is water. Clifton has a hot semi-arid climate that borders on both the hot desert climate and the cool semi-arid climate. There is a large degree of diurnal temperature variation. Summers are hot and sometimes humid, with most rainfall coming from the monsoon between July and October; the wettest year was 2004 with 28.49 inches including 6.97 inches in August, whilst the driest year with a full record was 1924 with only 4.85 inches including a mere 1.98 inches between July and October.
Winters are mild and dry, with snow only recorded in fourteen years since 1892. As of the census of 2000, there were 2,596 people, 919 households, 685 families residing in the town; the population density was 174.8 people per square mile. There were 1,087 housing units at an average density of 73.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 67.10% White, 0.96% Black or African American, 2.27% Native American, 0.04% Asian, 26.73% from other races, 2.89% from two or more races. 55.86% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 919 households out of which 41.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.3% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.4% were non-families. 22.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.80 and the average family size was 3.27. In the town, the population was spread out with 32.3% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, 10.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 109.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $39,786, the median income for a family was $41,820. Males had a median income of $39,813 versus $19,485 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,313. About 8.1% of families and 11.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.4% of those under age 18 and 10.3% of those age 65 or over. The town of Clifton operates under a council-manager form of government with seven elected council members, including a mayor and vice-mayor, a town manager appointed by the council; each council member is elected to a four-year term. The Mayor is Felix Callicotte and the Town Manager is Ian McGaughey. Clifton is served by U. S. Route 191, Greenlee County Airport, the Arizona Eastern Railway. Media related to Clifton, Arizona at Wikimedia Commons Clifton at Western Mining History, includes photo gallery
The Mexican Cession is the region in the modern-day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U. S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 after the Mexican–American War. This region had not been part of the areas east of the Rio Grande, claimed by the Republic of Texas, though the Texas annexation resolution two years earlier had not specified the southern and western boundary of the new State of Texas; the Mexican Cession was the third largest acquisition of territory in US history. The largest was the Louisiana Purchase, with some 827,000 sq. miles, followed by the acquisition of Alaska. Most of the area had been the Mexican territory of Alta California, while a southeastern strip on the Rio Grande had been part of Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico, most of whose area and population were east of the Rio Grande on land, claimed by the Republic of Texas since 1835, but never controlled or approached aside from the Texan Santa Fe Expedition. Mexico controlled the territory known as the Mexican Cession, with considerable local autonomy punctuated by several revolts and few troops sent from central Mexico, in the period from 1821–22 after independence from Spain up through 1846 when U.
S. military forces seized control of California and New Mexico on the outbreak of the Mexican–American War. The northern boundary of the 42nd parallel north was set by the Adams–Onís Treaty signed by the United States and Spain in 1821 and ratified by Mexico in 1831 in the Treaty of Limits; the eastern boundary of the Mexican Cession was the Texas claim at the Rio Grande and extending north from the headwaters of the Rio Grande, not corresponding to Mexican territorial boundaries. The southern boundary was set by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which followed the Mexican boundaries between Alta California and Baja California and Sonora; the United States paid Mexico $15 million for the land. Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico were captured soon after the start of the war and the last resistance there was subdued in January 1847, but Mexico would not accept the loss of territory. Therefore, during 1847, troops from the United States invaded central Mexico and occupied the Mexican capital of Mexico City, but still no Mexican government was willing to ratify transfer of the northern territories to the U.
S. It was uncertain. There was an All of Mexico Movement proposing complete annexation of Mexico among Eastern Democrats, but opposed by Southerners like John C. Calhoun who wanted additional territory for their crops but not the large population of central Mexico. Nicholas Trist forced the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, explicitly redefining the border between Mexico and the United States in early 1848 after President Polk had attempted to recall him from Mexico as a failure. Although Mexico did not overtly cede any land under the treaty, the redefined border had the effect of transferring Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico to the control of the United States. Important, the new border acknowledged Mexico's loss of Texas, both the core eastern portion and the western claims, neither of, formally recognized by Mexico until that time; the U. S. Senate approved the treaty, rejecting amendments from both Jefferson Davis to annex most of northeastern Mexico and Daniel Webster not to take Alta California and Santa Fe de Nuevo Mexico.
The United States paid $15,000,000 for the land, agreed to assume $3.25 million in debts to US citizens. While technically the territory was purchased by the United States, the $15 million payment was credited against Mexico's debt to the U. S. at that time. The Mexican Cession as ordinarily understood amounted to 525,000 square miles, or 14.9% of the total area of the current United States. If the disputed western Texas claims are included, that amounts to a total of 750,000 square miles. If all of Texas had been seized, since Mexico had not acknowledged the loss of any part of Texas, the total area ceded under this treaty comes to 915,000 square miles. Considering the seizures, including all of Texas, Mexico lost 54% of its pre-1836 territory in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. For only fifteen years from 1821 and the Texan Revolt in 1836, the Mexican Cession formed 42% of the country of Mexico. Beginning in the early seventeenth century, a chain of Roman Catholic missions and settlements extended into the New Mexico region following the course of the Rio Grande from the El Paso area to Santa Fe.
Soon after the war started and long before negotiation of the new Mexico–United States border, the question of slavery in the territories to be acquired polarized the Northern and Southern United States in the bitterest sectional conflict up to this time, which lasted for a deadlock of four years during which the Second Party System broke up, Mormon pioneers settled Utah, the California Gold Rush settled California, New Mexico under a federal military U. S government turned back Texas's attempt to assert control over territory Texas claimed as far west as the Rio Grande; the Compromise of 1850 preserved the Union, but only for another decade. Proposals included: The Wilmot Proviso, created by Congressman David Wilmot, banning slavery in any new territory to be acquired from Mexico, no
Arizona is a state in the southwestern region of the United States. It is part of the Western and the Mountain states, it is the 14th most populous of the 50 states. Its capital and largest city is Phoenix. Arizona shares the Four Corners region with Utah and New Mexico. Arizona is the 48th state and last of the contiguous states to be admitted to the Union, achieving statehood on February 14, 1912, coinciding with Valentine's Day. Part of the territory of Alta California in New Spain, it became part of independent Mexico in 1821. After being defeated in the Mexican–American War, Mexico ceded much of this territory to the United States in 1848; the southernmost portion of the state was acquired in 1853 through the Gadsden Purchase. Southern Arizona is known for its desert climate, with hot summers and mild winters. Northern Arizona features forests of pine, Douglas fir, spruce trees. There are ski resorts in the areas of Flagstaff and Tucson. In addition to the Grand Canyon National Park, there are several national forests, national parks, national monuments.
About one-quarter of the state is made up of Indian reservations that serve as the home of 27 federally recognized Native American tribes, including the Navajo Nation, the largest in the state and the United States, with more than 300,000 citizens. Although federal law gave all Native Americans the right to vote in 1924, Arizona excluded those living on reservations in the state from voting until the state Supreme Court ruled in favor of Native American plaintiffs in Trujillo v. Garley; the state's name appears to originate from an earlier Spanish name, derived from the O'odham name alĭ ṣonak, meaning "small spring", which applied only to an area near the silver mining camp of Planchas de Plata, Sonora. To the European settlers, their pronunciation sounded like "Arissona"; the area is still known as alĭ ṣonak in the O'odham language. Another possible origin is the Basque phrase haritz ona, as there were numerous Basque sheepherders in the area. A native Mexican of Basque heritage established the ranchería of Arizona between 1734 and 1736 in the current Mexican state of Sonora, which became notable after a significant discovery of silver there, c.
1737. There is a misconception. For thousands of years before the modern era, Arizona was home to numerous Native American tribes. Hohokam and Ancestral Puebloan cultures were among the many that flourished throughout the state. Many of their pueblos, cliffside dwellings, rock paintings and other prehistoric treasures have survived, attracting thousands of tourists each year; the first European contact by native peoples was with Marcos de Niza, a Spanish Franciscan, in 1539. He explored parts of the present state and made contact with native inhabitants the Sobaipuri; the expedition of Spanish explorer Coronado entered the area in 1540–1542 during its search for Cíbola. Few Spanish settlers migrated to Arizona. One of the first settlers in Arizona was José Romo de Vivar. Father Kino was the next European in the region. A member of the Society of Jesus, he led the development of a chain of missions in the region, he converted many of the Indians to Christianity in the Pimería Alta in the 1690s and early 18th century.
Spain founded presidios at Tubac in 1752 and Tucson in 1775. When Mexico achieved its independence from the Kingdom of Spain and its Spanish Empire in 1821, what is now Arizona became part of its Territory of Nueva California known as Alta California. Descendants of ethnic Spanish and mestizo settlers from the colonial years still lived in the area at the time of the arrival of European-American migrants from the United States. During the Mexican–American War, the U. S. Army occupied the national capital of Mexico City and pursued its claim to much of northern Mexico, including what became Arizona Territory in 1863 and the State of Arizona in 1912; the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo specified that, in addition to language and cultural rights of the existing inhabitants of former Mexican citizens being considered as inviolable, the sum of US$15 million dollars in compensation be paid to the Republic of Mexico. In 1853, the U. S. acquired the land south below the Gila River from Mexico in the Gadsden Purchase along the southern border area as encompassing the best future southern route for a transcontinental railway.
What is now known as the state of Arizona was administered by the United States government as part of the Territory of New Mexico until the southern part of that region seceded from the Union to form the Territory of Arizona. This newly established territory was formally organized by the Confederate States government on Saturday, January 18, 1862, when President Jefferson Davis approved and signed An Act to Organize the Territory of Arizona, marking the first official use of the name "Territory of Arizona"; the Southern territory supplied the Confederate government with men and equipment. Formed in 1862, Arizona scout companies served with the Confederate States Army duri