Ontario Highway 6
King's Highway 6 referred to as Highway 6, is a provincially maintained highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. It crosses a distance of 480 km between Port Dover, on the northern shore of Lake Erie, Espanola, on the northern shore of Lake Huron, before ending at the Trans-Canada Highway in McKerrow. Highway 6 was one of several routes established when Ontario first introduced a highway network on February 26, 1920, following several pioneer wagon trails; the original designation, not numbered until 1925, connected Port Dover with Owen Sound via Hamilton and Guelph. When the Department of Highways took over the Department of Northern Development in 1937, Highway 6 was extended north through the Bruce Peninsula to Tobermory. In 1980, the entire length of Highway 68 on Manitoulin Island and north to Highway 17 became a northern extension of Highway 6. Small modifications were made to the route of Highway 6 in 1997, but it was untouched by provincial downloading. Highway 6 is one of two highways in Ontario broken into two segments by a ferry.
The Chi-Cheemaun ferry serves automobile traffic, connecting Tobermory with South Baymouth between May and October. Highway 6 begins at Saint Patrick Street in the community of Port Dover, stretch northward as a two-lane, undivided highway; the road travels into Haldimand County, through communities such as Jarvis and Hagersville, the traffic flow increases. By the time the highway reaches Caledonia, the road bypasses the former Highway 6 section, which passes the town centre of Caledonia. With the newly built bypass, Highway 6 is routed outside the urban centre of Caledonia; the Caledonia Bypass was opened in 1983, is a two-lane undivided freeway. The bypass terminates at Green's Road on the north side of Caledonia and Highway 6 proceeds eastbound on Green's Road for 500 metres to Argyle St North. Highway 6 turns north on a four lane undivided alignment for 5 km. Much of the old alignment north to near Rymal Road remains provincially maintained as unsigned Highway 7273. In Hamilton, Highway 6 now uses a new alignment from Highway 403 to south of the Hamilton Airport, connecting with the southerly leg to Caledonia and Port Dover.
The new alignment opened as an undivided two-lane freeway in November 2004. As the road meets Highway 403, Highway 6 merges with Highway 403, there is a concurrency for 17 kilometres; the concurrency ends at the Highway 6 junction, at the Hamilton/Burlington boundary, near the Royal Botanical Gardens. Though most of the route is five lanes — two travel lanes in each direction, plus one centre lane for left turns — the section in Wellington County from Puslinch to Morriston has remained two lanes because of its route through several small towns and a lack of available property for widening. A new alignment, connecting to the Hanlon Expressway at Highway 401, is being considered to bypass this troubled section; the section where Highway 6 is concurrent with Highway 401 has the highest AADT, at 85,000 automobiles per day in 2002. High travel speeds in the five-lane section, typical flow varies between 100 and 120 km/h; the section of Highway 6 between Highway 403 in Hamilton and Clappison's Corners was converted in 2009 to a controlled access freeway with an interchange at York Road.
The interchange opened on May 23, 2009, the intersection where Northcliffe/Plains Road met Highway 6 was closed permanently. This section of Highway 6 has two southbound lanes and three northbound, the extra lane being for trucks climbing the steep escarpment, as well as high mast lighting and a full concrete median barrier. In Guelph, the road travels along the full length of the Hanlon Expressway - a 4-lane, controlled access and divided highway with signalized level crossings; the Ministry of Transportation is presently investigating the possibility of changing these intersections into grade-separated interchanges. For 4 km Highway 6 is concurrent with Highway 7, from the Wellington Street interchange north to where the Hanlon Expressway ends at Woodlawn Road. At Woodlawn, Highway 7 veers west, Highway 6 continues east. Following Woodlawn, Highway 6 veers north onto Woolwich Street, leaving the city of Guelph; as Highway 6 leaves Guelph and heads northwards through Wellington County, it narrows to two lanes and passes through farmland.
The route meanders northward for 17 kilometres before entering Fergus, where it meets County Road 18 and County Road 19. North of Fergus, Highway 6 winds northwest for another 17 kilometres into Arthur meeting County Road 109 just south of the town. After exiting Arthur, the route continues northwest for 22 kilometres before entering Mount Forest and meeting an intersection with Highway 89; the route enters Grey County as it meanders northward into farmland. It progresses north for another 22 kilometres to Durham, where it intersects Highway 4, it continues for another 31 kilometres to Chatsworth, where it meets Highway 10 and travels northward concurrent with for 13 kilometres into Owen Sound. There it encounters an intersection. Highway 6 turns west onto Highway 21; the two routes pas
Southwestern Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. It occupies most of the Ontario Peninsula bounded by Lake Huron, including Georgian Bay, to the north and northwest. To the east, on land, Southwestern Ontario is bounded by the Golden Horseshoe; the region had a population of 2,583,544 in 2016. The largest cities in Southwestern Ontario, in order of population, are: London, Windsor, Cambridge, Brantford, Stratford, St. Thomas. Chatham is a major population centre, but is not an independent municipality and is part of Chatham-Kent. Cities within Southwestern Ontario located on or near the Grand River, such as Kitchener, Cambridge and Brantford, are considered to be part of the Greater Golden Horseshoe region that surrounds western Lake Ontario. Southwestern Ontario was first settled by Europeans in the early 18th century, when it was part of the Royal Province of New France. One of the oldest continuous settlements in the region is Windsor, which originated as a southerly extension of the settlement of Fort Detroit in 1701.
With the transfer of New France to British control in 1763, the region was part of the British Province of Quebec, 1774 to 1791. During the 19th century and early 20th century, the largest city in Southwestern Ontario was Windsor. Late in the 20th century the Kitchener–Cambridge–Waterloo metropolitan area became the most populous metropolitan area in southwestern Ontario surpassing the London-St. Thomas metropolitan area. Southwestern Ontario is a prosperous agricultural region whose chief crops are tobacco, sweet corn, winter wheat and tomatoes. Dairy and beef farming and training of standardbred horses and wine growing and production are important industries, its climate is among the mildest in Canada. Although brief periods of winter can be severe, summers are hot and humid with a longer growing season than in most of the country. A large section of Southwestern Ontario was part of the Talbot Settlement, the region has benefited from the settlement’s facilitation of agriculture and of trade in general.
Its economy is tied in with that of the midwestern United States, in particular the border state of Michigan. Auto manufacturing and parts, agriculture and hi-tech industries are key components of the region’s economy; the region provides important transportation routes for commercial trucking and tanker shipping from Detroit-Windsor and Port Huron, Michigan-Sarnia linking Canada with major markets in the eastern and midwestern United States. Like other parts of southern Canada, the region brings warm or hot summers with normal thunderstorm occurrences; some of these storms are severe, with damaging winds and tornadoes all possible during peak season, May through September. The most areas for these kinds of weather events is within the Windsor - London corridor and north up to about Huron County. Winters are cold with less snowfall in the south towards Essex County and higher amounts north towards Bruce County. London receives 30% more snowfall than Windsor, owing to its relative position to Lake Huron and the resulting snowbelt in Bruce and Middlesex counties.
Under the Köppen climate classification, much of this area has a humid continental climate. The accent in the region, Southwestern Ontario English is distinct, bearing similarity to the Midwestern USA accent for the areas adjacent to the Great Lakes. County of Brant Chatham-Kent Haldimand County Norfolk County City of Brantford City of Guelph City of London Pelee Township City of Sarnia Town of St. Marys City of St. Thomas City of Stratford City of Windsor City of Woodstock Oxford County Waterloo Region Bruce County Dufferin County Elgin County Essex County Grey County Huron County Lambton County Middlesex County Perth County Wellington County
Bathurst Street (Toronto)
Bathurst Street is a main north-south thoroughfare in Toronto, Canada. It begins at an intersection of the Queens Quay roadway, just north of the Lake Ontario shoreline, it continues north through Toronto to the Toronto boundary at Steeles Avenue. It is a four-lane thoroughfare throughout Toronto; the roadway continues north into York Region where it is known as York Regional Road 38. Bathurst Street begins in the south at the intersection with Queens Quay; the southernmost part of Bathurst, south of the Gardiner Expressway, was industrialized until the 1970s. These factories are now gone; the former Omni Television headquarters are in this area, before they relocated in October 2008 but Rogers Media still owns the building. South of the intersection, Eireann Quay, which used to be a section of Bathurst Street, runs south to the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport ferry dock and the Western Gap channel which separates the Toronto Islands from the Toronto mainland. North of the Gardiner is Fort York on the western side.
The Sir Isaac Brock Bridge connects the section south of Fort York to the section north of the railways. The bridge was relocated here in 1916, it had been used as a railway bridge over the Humber River. North of the tracks, the area is a mix of small commercial and residential buildings on the western fringe of downtown. North of Queen Street, the eastern side of Bathurst is the edge of the Alexandria Park cluster of housing projects, while to the west is Trinity–Bellwoods. North of Dundas Street, Bathurst is dominated by Toronto Western Hospital; this part of the street continues to be a mix of small commercial establishments and residential housing rental apartments. North of College Street, Bathurst becomes more residential, with the exception of certain areas, chiefly around the intersections with Bloor Street, St. Clair Avenue, Eglinton Avenue; the portion of Bathurst Street north of Bloor Street is the western boundary of The Annex neighbourhood. The University segment of Toronto Transit Commission Line 1 Yonge–University crosses underneath Bathurst north of St. Clair, with the St. Clair West station at St. Clair just east of Bathurst.
North of Eglinton, the street continues as a four-lane arterial road into the former borough of North York. The street has lay-bys for TTC buses and turning lanes at intersections, expanding its width. Development along both sides of the road is both residential and commercial, with shopping plazas at many intersections; the West Branch of the Don River crosses Bathurst Street north of Sheppard and Bathurst Park is on the east side of Bathurst Street. North of Steeles Avenue, Bathurst runs through York Region, is referred to as York Regional Road 38. From Steeles north, the road is a six-lane arterial road, it serves many residential sub-divisions on either side. It serves as the boundary between Vaughan and Richmond Hill north of Highway 407, between King Township and Newmarket and Aurora. Bathurst Street ends at the Holland Marsh, between Holland Landing and Bradford, with the section north of Queensville Sideroad being maintained by the Town of East Gwillimbury, it was interrupted for 500 m due to rugged terrain north of Morning Sideroad, north of Newmarket, but the gap was closed in 2016 when a new link was completed, allowing traffic to access York Regional Road 1 from the sousecth.
Beyond a marina on the Holland River, it continues as a private driveway to a property along the Holland Marsh. Old Bathurst Street runs north of St John's Sideroad to 19th Sideroad where Bathurst Street was re-routed. Another un-signed road continues east from 19th Sideroad into Koffler Scientific Reserve and intersects with the current section of Bathurst south of Sykes Road; the street was named for Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst, who organized migration from the British Isles to Canada after the War of 1812, granted the charter to King's College, never visited Canada. The original Bathurst Street was between Government Wharf and Queen Street, the section to the north was called Crookshank's Lane, a semi-private lane named after George Crookshank. In 1870, Crookshank's Lane was renamed "Bathurst Street". North of Bloor, Bathurst Street was a muddy trail. Bathurst Street has finished in the top 10 in Canadian Automobile Association's "Ontario's Worst Roads" poll in every year from 2004 to 2007.
Bathurst Street has been the heart of the Jewish community of Toronto for decades. From the early part of the twentieth century, many Jews lived around Bathurst Street south of Bloor Street east to Spadina Avenue and west to past Christie Pits. After World War II, as the community became more middle class, it moved north along Bathurst Street, with wealthier members of the community moving to Forest Hill; the poorer members moved to the area around Bathurst and St. Clair Avenue or Bathurst and Eglinton Avenue; the community continued to move north along Bathurst and today, much of the Jewish community resides along the street from north of St. Clair Avenue and, in higher concentrations just south of Lawrence Avenue to beyond the city limits at Steeles Avenue, extending further until about Elgin Mills Road in Richmond Hill. Many synagogues and other Jewish community institutions are on Bathurst: The northern stretch of Bathurst, north of Sheppard Avenue West, has become one of the centres of Toronto's Russian community.
Many Russian Jewish immigrants began to settle in the area's apartment buildings, starting from early 1970s to get easier access to services p
Thames River (Ontario)
The Thames River is located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The Thames flows west 273 kilometres through southwestern Ontario, from the Town of Tavistock westward through the cities of Woodstock and Chatham to Lighthouse Cove on Lake St. Clair, its drainage basin is 5,825 square kilometres. Known as Deshkan Ziibi in Anishnaabemowin, the Ojibwe language spoken by Anishnaabe peoples, who together with the Neutrals have lived in the area since before Europeans arrived. In 1793, the river was renamed after the River Thames in England by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe. Much of the Thames is surrounded by deciduous Carolinian forests, although much of this forest has been removed to permit agriculture and other forms of development. There are three rivers in the watershed with Thames in the name—the Thames River itself, North Thames River, Middle Thames River; these are known locally as South Branch, North Branch, Middle Branch. The South Branch is the main stem Thames River and carries the Thames River name.
The Thames River and North Thames River on the upper part of the watershed flow through valleys created during the retreat of the glaciers during the last ice age. The Thames River and North Thames River meet in central London at the "Forks"; the Middle Thames River runs north of the Thames River joining it west of Ingersoll. Downriver from London, the lower part of the river flows through a shallow plain of sand and clay, with an average depth of 4 feet; the lower Thames River flows through Delaware, Thamesville, as well as Chippewa and Oneida First Nations settlements. Tributaries of the Thames include the Avon River, Dingman Creek, Jeanettes Creek, McGregor Creek, Medway Creek, Pottersburg Creek, Stoney Creek, Trout Creek and Waubuno Creek. Three separate dams are used to control seasonal flooding in the watershed: Wildwood Dam, located on Trout Creek which flows into the North Thames River. A fourth dam at Springbank Park, downstream from the Forks, controlled water levels in central London from the 1870s until 2005 when it was closed for rehabilitation.
One of the Springbank Dam's gates failed in 2008, causing the dam to be locked in the open position, rehabilitation was delayed pending litigation between an engineering firm and the City of London. On January 9, 2018, London's civic works committee voted to decommission the Springbank Dam permanently; the river was the location of an important battle of the War of 1812. The Battle of the Thames was fought on October 5, 1813, between American General William Henry Harrison and British General Henry Proctor, along with Proctor's ally Tecumseh. Chief Tecumseh was killed in the battle. On May 25, 1881, the river steamer ` Victoria' sank killing 182 passengers. After the disaster all ferries could only carry their maximum capacity. In the early morning hours of July 11, 1883, London flooded from heavy rainfall; the ferry "Princess Louise" was forced over Waterworks Dam and capsized killing 7. On August 25, 1899, the propeller-boat "Thames" was set on fire and sunk only feet from Waterworks Dam. On April 27, 1937, the Thames River reached an all-time high of 21.5 feet above normal flow resulting in 5 deaths and over 1000 homes being damaged.
On August 13, 1950, a launch killed four passengers. On August 14, 2000, the Thames River was designated a Canadian Heritage River. During the weekend of February 24-25, 2018, abnormally persistent rains caused significant flooding along the banks of the river. Extensive property damage was observed in nearby Thamesville. Upper Thames River Conservation Authority Lower Thames Valley Conservation Authority City of London Web site Thames River, Natural Resources Canada, Geographical Names Board of Canada http://www4.rncan.gc.ca/search-place-names/unique/FCVOV
Ontario Highway 2
King's Highway 2 referred to as Highway 2, is the lowest-numbered provincially maintained highway in the Canadian province of Ontario and was part of a series of identically numbered highways in multiple provinces which together joined Windsor, Ontario to Halifax, Nova Scotia. Once the primary east–west route across the southern portion of Ontario, most of Highway 2 in Ontario was bypassed by Ontario Highway 401, completed in 1968; the August 1997 completion of Highway 403 bypassed one final section through Brantford. Most of the 837.4 km length of Highway 2 was deemed a local route and removed from the provincial highway system on January 1, 1998, with the exception of a 1-kilometre section east of Gananoque. The entire route remains driveable, but as County Highway 2 in most regions. In Toronto, "Highway 2" shields are still found along Lake Shore Kingston Road. Highway 2 is a stub of its former self. At just over 1 kilometre in length, it is one of the shortest provincial highways in Ontario.
Its nominal purpose is to provide a provincial route between westbound Thousand Islands Parkway and eastbound Highway 401. Highway 2 begins at the eastern town limits of Gananoque, travels east a short distance before curving northward, it interchanges with the Thousand Islands Parkway, once referred to as "Highway 2S" prior to becoming a temporary part of the 401 in 1952, ends at the westbound 401 offramp. The roadway continues as County Road 2 along the former provincial route to Quebec. Numerous connecting links existed along urban sections of the former route of Highway 2; these sections were downloaded to the municipalities in which they reside before 1998. As such, when the Ministry of Transportation shortened Highway 2 on January 1, 1998, many signs along these connecting routes were not removed except in places where 2 was renumbered as a county road; these signs are still posted in places such as Windsor, London and Toronto, as well as along the urbanized corridor between the last two cities, where it followed Lakeshore Road.
In parts of Toronto, markers direct drivers along the different roads the highway followed: Lake Shore Boulevard, the Gardiner Expressway, Coxwell Avenue, Kingston Road. Before the deletion of Highway 2, most of which took place on January 1, 1998, it was a continuous road from Highway 3 in Windsor to the Quebec border, at one time connecting with the like-numbered Quebec Route 2. East of the province, the route continued as Quebec Route 2, New Brunswick Route 2 and Nova Scotia Trunk 2 to end in Halifax. Like in Ontario, much of that road renumbered; the Quebec portion was renumbered. New Brunswick assigned the old Hamilton to a new freeway which between Fredericton and Moncton differs from the original route. Nova Scotia kept its portion of Highway 2 intact, numbering its bypass as Highways 102 and 104. In 1972, the Ontario and Quebec governments designated Route 2 from Windsor to Rivière-du-Loup as the Heritage Highway, a signed route which continued eastward to the Gaspé Peninsula on what is now Quebec Route 132.
This tourist route included various side trips, such as highways to Niagara Falls. While this signage is maintained in some counties, much of the route is part of local itineraries such as a former Apple Route, an Arts Route and the Chemin du Roy; as all of the highway remains drivable and is maintained. All section have been renamed; the sections now has the following designations: Highway 2 was the first roadway assumed under the maintenance of the Department of Highways. The 73.5-kilometre section from the Rouge River to Smith's Creek, now Port Hope, was inaugurated on August 21, 1917, as The Provincial Highway. On June 7, 1918, the designation was extended east to the Quebec border; the forerunners to Highway 2 are numerous paths constructed during the colonization of Ontario. While some portions may have existed as trails created by Indigenous peoples for hundreds of years, the first recorded construction along what would become Highway 2 was in late October 1793, when Captain Smith and 100 Queen's Rangers returned from carving The Governor's Road 20 miles through the thick forests between Dundas and the present location of Paris.
John Graves Simcoe was given the task of defending Upper Canada from the United States following the revolution and with opening the virgin territory to settlement. After establishing a "temporary" capital at York, Simcoe ordered an inland route constructed between Cootes Paradise at the tip of Lake Ontario and his proposed capital of London. By the spring of 1794, the road was extended as far as La Tranche, now the Thames River, in London. In 1795, the path was connected with York. Asa Danforth Jr. immigrated from the United States, was awarded the task, for which he would be compensated $90 per mile. Beginning on June 5, 1799, the road was extended eastwards. Danforth was hired once more, tasked with clearing a 10-metre road east from York through the bush, with 5 metres cut to the ground, it was carved as far as Port Hope by December, to the Trent River soon after. Danf
Queen Street (Toronto)
Queen Street is a major east-west thoroughfare in Toronto, Canada. It extends from King Street in the west to Victoria Park Avenue in the east. Queen Street was the cartographic baseline for the original east-west avenues of Toronto's and York County's grid pattern of major roads; the western section of Queen is a centre for Canadian broadcasting, fashion and the visual arts. Over the past twenty-five years, Queen West has become an international arts centre and a tourist attraction in Toronto. Since the original survey in 1793 by Sir Alexander Aitkin, commissioned by Lieutenant Governor John Graves Simcoe, Queen Street has had many names. For its first sixty years, many sections were referred to as Lot Street, section west of Spadina was named Egremont Street until about 1837. East of the Don River to near Coxwell Avenue it was called Kingston Road, but not be mistaken for Kingston Road, a continuation of King Street and Eastern Avenue; the first park lots laid out in the new city of York were given to loyal officials who were willing to give up the amenities of modern cities such as Kingston to take up residence in the forests north of Lot Street.
These 40 hectares lots were placed along the south side of the first east–west road laid in York, Lot Street. In 1837 Lot Street was renamed in honour of Queen Victoria."Queen West" is local vernacular which refers to the collection of neighbourhoods that have developed along and around the thoroughfare. Many of these were ethnically-based neighbourhoods; the earliest example from the mid-19th century was Claretown, an Irish immigrant enclave in the area of Queen Street West and Bathurst Street. From the 1890s to the 1930s, Jewish immigrants coalesced in the neighbourhood known as "the Ward", for which Queen Street between Yonge and University served as the southern boundary; the intersection of Queen and Bay Streets served as the southern end of a thriving Chinatown in the 1930s. From the 1920s to the 1950s, the area was the heart of Toronto's Polish and Ukrainian communities. From the 1950s through the 1970s, many immigrants from Portugal settled in the area. Gentrification over the past twenty years has caused most recent immigrants to move to more affordable areas of the city as desirability of the area drives up prices.
Like other gentrified areas of Toronto, the original "Queen West" —the stretch between University Avenue and Spadina Avenue — is now lined with upscale boutiques, chain stores, tattoo parlours and hair salons. The best-known landmark on this section of Queen West is the broadcast hub at 299 Queen Street West the headquarters of Citytv and MuchMusic and earlier the site of the Ryerson Press, now housing the broadcast operations of a number of television outlets owned by Bell Media. Queen Street East, though not as famous as Queen Street West, is known for its shopping in nearby neighbourhoods; until the 1940s and 50's Queen Street extended west along what is today The Queensway, with the name changed through the westernmost segment though the former Etobicoke in 1947 to avoid confusion due to the break. The other sections were a stub of the street continuing west of Roncesvalles and ending at Colborne Lodge Drive by High Park, a short side street in Swansea running west from Ellis Avenue; when The Queensway was extended east in the 1950s, the latter two section where absorbed into it, rather than having the name "Queen Street" restored to the now-continuous street due to the Borough of Etobicoke desiring a counterpart to another street called The Kingsway.
The commercial district of Queen Street East lies at the heart of The Beaches community. It is characterized by a large number of independent specialty stores; the stores along Queen are known to change tenants quite causing the streetscape to change from year to year, sometimes drastically. Before Woodbine, Queen street has less traffic and is reduced to one lane each way; the centre lanes are used by the 501 streetcar, causing slight delays at streetcar stops and traffic lights. From Fallingbrook to Victoria Park Avenue, Queen Street East is located in Scarborough, the easternmost part of Toronto. Around the intersection with Vicotoria Park, the south side of the street is beside the R. C. Harris Water Treatment Plant, a crucial water treatment plant for both Toronto and York Region. From Woodbine to Coxwell, the queen is in parts of two neighbourhoods, Upper Beaches and The Beaches. From Woodbine to Kingston Road, there's a mix of newer commercial/residential buildings; the northern half is coved with various modern looking stores, with the southern half covered by retail development by The Behar Group, consist of 5 residential condos, with ground floor retail spaces.
The section of Kingston to Coxwell is similar in design, but without the retail development on the southern side, there is the Alliance Cinemas The Beach location. A little to east of the Queen/Eastern/Kingston intersection there is the northern border of Woodbine Park, a park used for outdoor events; the area from Greenwood to Logan is known as Leslieville. Queen passes underneath the elevated CN railway tracks, this marks the border of Leslieville. Queen Street East is the commercial hub Leslieville. In Leslieville, Queen is home to restaurants. From Greenwood to Woodfield, the northern side of the street is beside the Ashbridge Estate, a large historic estate; the Russell Carhouse is on this stretch of Queen Street. The place between Logan and the Don River is c
Ontario Highway 407
King's Highway 407 is a tolled 400-series highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. Comprising a leased segment as well as a publicly owned segment, the route spans the entire Greater Toronto Area around the city of Toronto, travelling through the suburbs of Burlington, Mississauga, Vaughan, Pickering and Oshawa before ending in Clarington, north of Bowmanville; the segment between Burlington and Brougham in Pickering is leased to and operated by the 407 ETR Concession Company Limited and is known as the 407 Express Toll Route. It begins at the junction of the Queen Elizabeth Way and Highway 403 in Burlington, travels 107.9 km across the GTA to Brock Road in Pickering. East of Brock Road, the tollway continues east as Highway 407, a toll route operated by the provincial government, for 30.8 km to Taunton Road in Clarington. Major interchanges along the route include the QEW, Highway 403, Highway 401, Highway 410, Highway 427, Highway 400, Highway 404, Highway 412. Highway 407 is the first electronically operated toll highway opened in the world.
Distances are calculated automatically using transponders or licence plates, which are scanned at entrance and exit points. Highway 407 was planned in the late 1950s as a freeway bypassing the Toronto segment of Highway 401, the busiest highway in the world. However, construction did not begin until 1987. During the early 1990s, the provincial government proposed tolling the highway to alleviate a revenue shortfall; the central sections of Highway 407 opened in 1997, the remaining sections were built over the following four years, with the final segment opening in mid-2001. Despite being included in the 400-series network, the Highway 407 ETR section is not considered part of the provincial highway network due to it now being operated; the segment is operated under a 99-year lease agreement with the provincial government, sold in 1998 for about C$3.1 billion to a consortium of Canadian and Spanish investors operating under the name 407 International Inc. The privatization of the Highway 407 ETR section has been the source of significant criticism regarding the increases in tolls, plate denial, false charges.
In addition, the safety of segments constructed following the sale of the freeway has been called into question. Many have come to regard Highway 407 ETR as a luxury, as opposed to the bypass of Highway 401 it was conceived to be; the first phase of a provincially-owned and tolled extension of the route, known as Highway 407, opened to traffic from Brock Road in Pickering to Harmony Road in Oshawa on June 20, 2016. Included as part of this extension was construction of a tolled north-south link between Highways 401 and 407 known as Highway 412. Construction is underway to extend the provincially owned portion of Highway 407 easterly to Highway 35 / Highway 115 in Clarington; this construction is being completed in two stages, with the first phase opening on January 2, 2018 as a 9.6 km extension to Taunton Road, the second phase opening in 2020. This construction includes an additional link to Highway 401 east of Oshawa that will be known as Highway 418. Though the highway does not enter Toronto city proper, Toronto is used as a control city for Highway 407 in Halton and Durham Regions due to the similar sizes of the suburban municipalities the highway passes through.
Highway 407 is a 138.7-kilometre controlled-access highway that encircles the GTA, passing through Burlington, Mississauga, Vaughan, Pickering, Whitby and Clarington, as well as travelling north of Toronto. Although the general public felt that tolling made the highway a luxury rather than its original purpose of relieving traffic on Highway 401, Highway 407 ETR has had average daily trip counts of over 350,000 vehicles in June 2014; the 407 ETR is contractually responsible for maintaining high traffic levels as justification for increasing tolls, but conduct their own traffic studies. Despite increased usage, parallel roads that Highway 407 was intended to supplement continue to grow congested, forcing the MTO to revisit costly widening projects of Highway 401 and the QEW. Highway 407 has been designed with aesthetics and environmental concerns in mind by featuring landscaped embankments, 79 storm drainage ponds, as well as a curb and gutter system. Unlike most other Ontario highways, it features concrete pavement as opposed to top-coated asphalt.
Because of this, the high-mast lighting along the urban portions of the route feature fewer luminaires than asphalt-surfaced freeways. Highway 407 begins in Burlington within Halton Region at the Freeman Interchange between Highway 403 and the QEW, from which it branches off northward; the six-lane route passes under Brant Street, Upper Middle Road, Guelph Line before it interchanges with Dundas Street. It enters greenspace as it curves to the northeast, avoiding the nearby Niagara Escarpment; the route is crossed by Walkers Line, east of which residential subdivisions line the south side and greenspace lines the north. At an interchange with Appleby Line, the highway straightens and travels parallel to Dundas Street before passing over Bronte Creek and under the Canadian National Railway's Halwest Subdivision. East of Bronte Creek, Highway 407 enters an agricultural area, interspersed with woodlots, it enters Oakville at the Tremaine Road (Halton Regional