Dungeons & Dragons is a fantasy tabletop role-playing game designed by Gary Gygax and Dave Arneson. It was first published in 1974 by Tactical Studies Rules, Inc.. The game has been published by Wizards of the Coast since 1997, it was derived from miniature wargames, with a variation of the 1971 game Chainmail serving as the initial rule system. D&D's publication is recognized as the beginning of modern role-playing games and the role-playing game industry. D&D departs from traditional wargaming by allowing each player to create their own character to play instead of a military formation; these characters embark upon imaginary adventures within a fantasy setting. A Dungeon Master serves as the game's referee and storyteller, while maintaining the setting in which the adventures occur, playing the role of the inhabitants of the game world; the characters form a party and they interact with the setting's inhabitants and each other. Together they solve dilemmas, engage in battles, gather treasure and knowledge.
In the process, the characters earn experience points in order to rise in levels, become powerful over a series of separate gaming sessions. The early success of D&D led to a proliferation of similar game systems. Despite the competition, D&D has remained as the market leader in the role-playing game industry. In 1977, the game was split into two branches: the rules-light game system of basic Dungeons & Dragons, the more structured, rules-heavy game system of Advanced Dungeons & Dragons. AD&D 2nd Edition was published in 1989. In 2000, a new system was released as D&D 3rd edition, continuing the edition numbering from AD&D; these 3rd edition rules formed the basis of the d20 System, available under the Open Game License for use by other publishers. D&D 4th edition was released in June 2008; the 5th edition of D&D, the most recent, was released during the second half of 2014. In 2004, D&D remained the best-known, best-selling, role-playing game in the US, with an estimated 20 million people having played the game, more than US$1 billion in book and equipment sales worldwide.
2017 had "the most number of players in its history — 12 million to 15 million in North America alone". D&D 5th edition sales "were up 41 percent in 2017 from the year before, soared another 52 percent in 2018, the game’s biggest sales year yet"; the game has been supplemented by many pre-made adventures, as well as commercial campaign settings suitable for use by regular gaming groups. D&D is known beyond the game itself for other D&D-branded products, references in popular culture, some of the controversies that have surrounded it a moral panic in the 1980s falsely linking it to Satanism and suicide; the game has been translated into many languages. Dungeons & Dragons is a open-ended role-playing game, it is played indoors with the participants seated around a tabletop. Each player controls only a single character, which represents an individual in a fictional setting; when working together as a group, these player characters are described as a "party" of adventurers, with each member having their own area of specialty which contributes to the success of the whole.
During the course of play, each player directs the actions of their character and their interactions with other characters in the game. This activity is performed through the verbal impersonation of the characters by the players, while employing a variety of social and other useful cognitive skills, such as logic, basic mathematics and imagination. A game continues over a series of meetings to complete a single adventure, longer into a series of related gaming adventures, called a "campaign"; the results of the party's choices and the overall storyline for the game are determined by the Dungeon Master according to the rules of the game and the DM's interpretation of those rules. The DM selects and describes the various non-player characters that the party encounters, the settings in which these interactions occur, the outcomes of those encounters based on the players' choices and actions. Encounters take the form of battles with "monsters" – a generic term used in D&D to describe hostile beings such as animals, aberrant beings, or mythical creatures.
The game's extensive rules – which cover diverse subjects such as social interactions, magic use and the effect of the environment on PCs – help the DM to make these decisions. The DM may choose to deviate from the published rules or make up new ones if they feel it is necessary; the most recent versions of the game's rules are detailed in three core rulebooks: The Player's Handbook, the Dungeon Master's Guide and the Monster Manual. The only items required to play the game are the rulebooks, a character sheet for each player, a number of polyhedral dice. Many players use miniature figures on a grid map as a visual aid during combat; some editions of the game presume such usage. Many optional accessories are available to enhance the game, such as expansion rulebooks, pre-designed adventures and various campaign settings. Before the game begins, each player creates their player character and records the details on a character sheet. First, a player determines their character's ability scores, which consist of Strength, Dexterity, Intelligence and Charisma.
Each edition of the game has offered differing methods of determining these statistics. The player chooses a race such as human or elf, a character class such as fighter or wizar
Jason Washburn is a Bulgarian-American professional basketball player who plays for the Yokohama B-Corsairs. He played college basketball for the University of Utah. Washburn attended his hometown's Battle Creek Central High School, leading the team to the district championship and regional finals as a senior and district championships as a junior; as a junior, he averaged 17 points, eight rebounds and five blocked shots per game while averaging a double-double as a senior, with at least two triple-doubles. He became the all-time blocks leader at BCC and set a new school record for blocks in a season and blocks in a game; as a four-year player at Utah, Washburn appeared in 123 games with 70 starts and averaged 8.7 points, 5.0 rebounds and 1.3 blocks in 22.4 minutes per game, finishing as the Utes' leading scorer and shot blocker as a junior in 2011–12. On June 12, 2013, Washburn signed with Cherkaski Mavpy of the Ukrainian Basketball SuperLeague for the 2013–14 season. After averaging 14.1 points and 6.3 rebounds per game, he left Cherkaski on February 27, 2014.
Four days he signed a one-month deal with Tsmoki-Minsk of the Belarusian Premier League. On May 20, 2014, Washburn signed with Basic-Fit Brussels of the Belgian Ethias League, that offseason, he joined the Utah Jazz for the 2014 Las Vegas Summer League. During the 2014–15 season, he played 27 games with the Belgian outfit, starting six and posting averages of 8.9 points, 3.9 rebounds and 0.8 blocks in 18.7 minutes per game. On September 15, 2015, Washburn signed with the Charlotte Hornets. However, he was waived on October 23 after appearing in four preseason games. On November 3, he signed with Sigal Prishtina of the Kosovo Basketball Superleague. In August 2016 Washburn signed with the Yokohama B-Corsairs for the inaugural season of the Japanese B. League, he was missed most of the year. On August 21, 2018, Washburn signed with the Romanian club U BT Cluj-Napoca. Washburn majored in Mass Communication. Utah bio RealGM profile USBasket profile DraftExpress profile
David Rappaport was an American fashion manufacturer and painter. David Rappaport was born in Harlem as the son of Russian-born Jewish clothing cutter, Joseph Rappaport, his wife Sophie. Growing up on the Lower East Side, his family struggled to survive during the strike of Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America, his father was accompanied by his son. Though he aspired to become a medical doctor, David Rappaport began to work to support his younger siblings. At age seventeen, he was hired by a friend of the family at a necktie manufacturing company, he was hired as a packer of neckwear collections in the Midwestern sales division. At night, he attended the Fashion Institute of Technology high school of textile design. In 1934, aged 20, David Rappaport borrowed $700 and with his brother, founded his own company, Staple Neckwear Co. which he described as "the smallest neckwear firm in the United States". Selling modest designs and "solid color and classic striped" ties, the company shipped $17,000 worth of neckwear in the first year and annually increased the output by 20%.
In 1937 the company changed its name to David Creations but after legal threats by the John David chain, they adopted the name Damon Creations, Inc. a loose conjunction of their first names. Since 1937, Rappaport designed a group of English striped repps combining three colours in eighteen different combinations, he began matching gold in stripe patterns. In 1942, the Rappaports introduced knitted ties to his brand. In 1961, the ladies' knitwear division Francesca of Damon was founded under the creative control of David Rappaport's wife Francesca. Damon Creations went public in 1967. Damon's first TV commercial was released in 1968, the same year the company released two new lines of men's apparel. By 1969, the full product line of the company included neckwear, knitted Italian and Domestic shirts and jackets; the merchandise featured an Milano collar with a wide stay, antique leather and wool knit jackets. The company's volume rose from 8.7 million in 1964 to 25 million in 1973. Having manufactured in Italy, Damon acquired domestic plants and subsidiaries in the United States, opened a distribution center in North Bergen, New Jersey and moved into a larger plant in Long Island City.
By 1973, Damon Creations had 23 showrooms in 14 cities with 4,500 sales accounts. Each color pattern was entered into a computer database that did an analysis of its popularity and gave a sales projection based upon past records. Michael Rappaport, David's son, became President of Damon Creations and his father remained Chairman of the Board. In 1988, after 54 years, David Rappaport sold his interest in the business; the company was merged with Enro Industries. In 1956, David Rappaport was named an honorary alumni of Brandeis University. In 1969, he was awarded the Order of the Star of Italian Solidarity with the title Commendatore for strengthening commercial relations between the United States and Italy. In 1972, Rappaport was honoured by the Brotherhood Award for Distinguished Service in the Field of Human Relations, presented by the National Conference of Christians and Jews, by the Order of the Palmetto, by Governor John C. West of South Carolina, the 25th State of Israel Anniversary Award for his bond donations to the foundation of Israel.
In 1976, he was voted "Man of the Year" by the Associated Men's Wear Retailers of New York for his philanthropic work, which included support for the United Jewish Appeal, the Association for the Help of Retarded Children, the National Jewish Hospital, the Federation of Jewish Philanthropies, the City of Hope, B'nai B'rith, Anti-Defamation League, Boys Town of Italy. He helped found Temple Sholom of New Milfold and the University of Haifa. In 1977, Rappaport received the Annual Achievement Award of the Textile Veterans Association for his work in civic and philanthropic endeavors. After his retirement from business in 1988, Rappaport dedicated himself full-time to painting, his work combines patterns and fabric and uses offset geometric units that involve color schemes. Rappaport has been described as the "master of hues and tones" and as "having an impeccable taste and eye for design". Rappaport stated: "You must be creative, understand color and how one color affects another color."In 1997, aged 83, Rappaport was discovered as a painter when Tom Kalenderian of Barneys New York visited Rappaport's studio to shop his neckwear line.
Kalenderian suggested showing them to Barney's Creative Director. Three months sixteen of his paintings were displayed along with designer men's fashions. In 2002, Rappaport's exhibit "Not For Sale" opened at the Taller Boricua Gallery, which showcased over eighty pieces completed since 1989, including work he had done after his stroke. From September 2003 to June 2004, Rappaport's work was exhibited in conjunction with the exhibition The Art of Aging at the Hebrew Union College. One of Rappaport's paintings was featured in the book The Art of Aging, published upon the launch of the gallery showing by the United Jewish Communities. Official website obituary
The 1985 NCAA Division I Men's Tennis Championships were the 39th annual championships to determine the national champions of NCAA Division I men's singles and team collegiate tennis in the United States. This year's tournaments were played in Athens, hosted by the University of Georgia; the men's team championship was won by their first team national title. The Bulldogs defeated defending national champion UCLA in the final round, 5–1; the men's singles title was retained by Mikael Pernfors from Georgia. Pernfors became the first person to win back-to-back single's titles since Dennis Ralston in 1963 and 1964; the men's doubles title was won by Carlos DiLaura from Pepperdine. It was Jones' second consecutive double's title, the first player to do this since Mel Purcell and Rodney Harmon in 1980 and 1981; the tournaments were played at the Dan Magill Tennis Complex at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia. The men's and women's tournaments would not be held at the same venue until 2006. NCAA Division II Tennis Championships NCAA Division III Tennis Championships List of NCAA Men's Tennis Champions
The Rostroconchia is a class of extinct molluscs dating from the early Cambrian to the Late Permian. They were thought to be bivalves, but were given their own class, they have a single shell in their larval stage, the adult has a single, pseudo-bivalved shell enclosing the mantle and muscular foot. The anterior part of the shell pointed downward and had a gap from which the foot could emerge. Rostroconchs lived a sedentary semi-infaunal lifestyle. There were more than 1,000 species of members of this class. 3 dozen genera and an greater number of species have been described. Rostroconchs are small, less than two centimeters in length, but larger forms, found in United States Devonian limestones, can grow to a length of 15 cm. Externally, rostroconchs look much like bivalves and rostroconchs had an extendable muscular foot, indicated by a prominent anterior gape in the rostroconch's shell, it seems, that the internal anatomy and morphology of the foot were closer to that of the scaphopods. Rostroconchs began their life as a small, bilaterally symmetrical, univalved protoconch planktonic larva.
The bilateral shell grew into two valves. Adult rostroconchs differ from bivalves. Unlike the shell of a bivalve, able to move or articulate, the shell layers of a rostroconch — the layers of rigid calcite— continue across the whole dorsal area of the rostroconch; the two valves would have been rigidly fixed in place, would have to have been broken periodically to allow the rostroconch shell to grow. The posterior of the shell contains a flattened tube, called the rostrum; the rostroconch burrowed itself into sediment, anterior first, leaving the rostrum above the sediment to be used as a water filtration system. Heraultipegma is the earliest primitive, rostroconch genus dating from the Late Terreneuvian. True Rostroconchs appeared during the Ordovician competing with the bivalves until their decline in the end-early Ordovician turnover. Early, primitive rostroconchs such as Ribeiroia had a hinge in which all shell layers covered the dorsal region resulting in a rigid shell. In Conocardium, a more advanced rostroconch, the outer shell layers do not cross the entire margin, suggesting independent steps towards the bivalve flexible hinge.
Some evidence suggests. PALAEOS, 2002, Rostroconchia. URL: https://web.archive.org/web/20090302181354/http://www.palaeos.com/Invertebrates/Molluscs/BasalMollusca/Rostroconchia/Rostroconchia.html. Accessed November 16, 2008
The 1998–99 Auburn Tigers men's basketball team represented Auburn University in the 1998–99 college basketball season. The team's head coach was Cliff Ellis, in his fifth season at Auburn; the team played their home games at Beard -- Eaves -- Memorial Coliseum in Alabama. They finished the season 14 -- 2 in SEC play to win the SEC regular season championship, they defeated Alabama to advance to the semifinals of the SEC Tournament where they lost to Kentucky. They received an at-large bid to the NCAA Tournament where they defeated Winthrop and Oklahoma State to advance to the Sweet Sixteen where they lost to Ohio State