Dunstable Swan Jewel

The Dunstable Swan Jewel is a gold and enamel brooch in the form of a swan made in England or France in about 1400 and now in the British Museum, where it is on display in Room 40. It was excavated in 1965 on the site of Dunstable Friary, is presumed to have been intended as a livery badge given by an important figure to his supporters; the jewel is a rare medieval example of the recently developed and fashionable white opaque enamel used in en ronde bosse to totally encase an underlying gold form. It is invariably compared to the white hart badges worn by King Richard II and the angels surrounding the Virgin Mary in the painted Wilton Diptych of around the same date, where the chains hang down; the jewel is formed as a standing or walking mute swan "gorged" with a gold collar in the form of a royal crown with six fleur-de-lys tines. There is a gold chain terminating in a ring attached to the crown, the swan has a pin and catch on its right side for fastening the brooch to clothes or a hat.

The swan is 3.2 cm high and 2.5 cm wide, the length of the chain is 8.2 cm. The swan's body is in white enamel, its eyes are of black enamel, which once covered the legs and feet, where only traces now remain. Tiny fragments of pink or red enamel remain on the beak; the jewel is a unique survival of the most expensive form of livery badge, otherwise only known from inventories and representations in paintings. These were badges in various forms made for a leading figure bearing his personal device, given to others who would demonstrate by wearing them that they were in some way his employees, allies or supporters, they were common in England in the age of "bastard feudalism" from the mid-fourteenth century until about the end of the fifteenth century, a period of intense factional conflict which saw the deposition of Richard II and the Wars of the Roses. A lavish badge like the jewel would only have been worn by the person whose device was represented, members of his family or important supporters, servants who were in regular close contact with him.

However the jewel lacks the ultimate luxury of being set with gems, for example ruby eyes, like the gems on the lion pendants worn by Sir John Donne and his wife in their portraits by Hans Memling, now in the National Gallery and several examples listed on the 1397 treasure roll of Richard II. In the Wilton Diptych, Richard's own badge has pearls on the antler tips, which the angels' badges lack; the white hart in the badge on the Treasury Roll, which the painted one may have copied, had pearls and sat on a grass bed made of emeralds, a hart badge of Richard's inventoried in the possession of Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy in 1435 was set with 22 pearls, two spinels, two sapphires, a ruby and a huge diamond. Cheaper forms of badge were more distributed, sometimes freely indeed, rather as modern political campaign buttons and tee-shirts are, though as in some modern countries wearing the wrong badge in the wrong place could lead to personal danger. In 1483 King Richard III ordered 13,000 fustian badges with his emblem of a boar for the investiture of his son Edward as Prince of Wales, a huge number given the population at the time.

Other grades of boar badges that have survived are in lead and gilded copper high relief, the last found at Richard's home of Middleham Castle in Yorkshire, likely worn by one of his household when he was Duke of Gloucester. The British Museum has a flat lead swan badge with low relief, typical of the cheap metal badges which were similar to the pilgrim badges that were common in the period. In 1377, when the young Richard II's unpopular uncle, John of Gaunt, was Regent, one of his more than 200 retainers, Sir John Swinton, unwisely rode through London wearing Gaunt's badge on a livery collar; the mob attacked him, pulling him off his horse and the badge off him, he had to be rescued by the mayor from suffering serious harm. Over twenty years after Gaunt's son Henry IV had deposed Richard, one of Richard's servants was imprisoned by Henry for continuing to wear Richard's livery badge. Many of the large number of badges of various liveries recovered from the Thames in London were discarded hurriedly by retainers who found themselves impoliticly dressed at various times.

Beginning harmlessly under Edward III in a context of tournaments and courtly celebrations, by the reign of his grandson, Richard II, the badges had become seen as a social menace, were "one of the most protracted controversies of Richard's reign", as they were used to denote the small private armies of retainers kept by lords for the purpose of enforcing their lord's will on the less powerful in his area. Though they were a symptom rather than a cause of both local baronial bullying and the disputes between the king and his uncles and other lords, Parliament tried to curb the use of livery badges; the issuing of badges by lords was attacked in the Parliament of 1384, in 1388 they made the startling request that "all liveries called badges, as well of our lord the king as of other lords... shall be abolished", because "those who wear them are flown with such insolent arrogance that they do not shrink from practising with reckless effrontery various kinds of extortion in the surrounding countryside... and it is the boldness inspired by these badges that makes them unafraid to do these things".

Richard offered to give up his own badges, to the delight of the House of Commons of England, but the House of Lords refused to give up theirs, the matter was

Charles Rich (U.S. Representative)

Charles Rich was an American lawyer and politician. He served as a Democratic-Republican United States Representative from Vermont. Rich was born in Massachusetts to Thomas Rich and Millicent Conant, he received a limited education. He moved to Shoreham, Vermont in 1787, worked on the family farm, he served as a member of the Vermont House of Representatives from 1800 to 1811. He was a county judge in Vermont for six years. Rich was elected as a Democratic-Republican to the 13th United States Congress, serving from March 4, 1813, to March 3, 1815, he was elected to the 15th United States Congress, 16th United States Congress, 17th United States Congress and the 18th United States Congress, serving from March 4, 1817, until his death on October 15, 1824. Rich died in Shoreham, is interred in the family vault on his farm there. Rich married Molly Watts in 1791, they had the following children: Clark Rich, b. 17 March 1792, Addison, Vt. Davis Rich, b. 17 February 1794, Addison, Vt. d. 23 March 1879, Addison, Vt.

Polly Rich, b. 15 June 1796, Addison, Vt. Hiram Rich, b. 15 September 1798, Addison, Vt. d. 2 March 1859, Brandon, VT. John Thurman Rich, b. 12 October 1800, Addison, Vt, d. 12 October 1846, Addison, Vt. Charles Rich, b. 30 July 1802, Addison, Vt. d. 16 July 1872, Lapeer, Mi. Quintus Cincinnatus Rich, b. 18 September 1804, Addison, Vt. d. 4 November 1879, Addison, Vt. Clarissa Rich, b. 1806, Addison, Vt. Virtulon Rich, b. 1809, Addison, Vt, d. 10 May 1891, Addison, Vt. Gasca Rich, b. 13 October 1811, Addison, Vt. d. 18 December 1894, Addison, Vt. Catherine Rich, b. 1813, Addison, Vt. Charles Rich Jr. served on the Michigan Board of Agriculture, as a county court judge, in other offices. John W. Rich's son John Tyler Rich, was a United States Representative from Michigan and the 23rd Governor of Michigan. Davis Rich fathered Lucina Artemesia Rich who married Archibald Dewey of Burlington, Vt, their sons included the famous philosopher and educator John Dewey and the MIT economics professor Davis Dewey.

List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "Charles Rich". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress; the Political Graveyard: Rich family of Michigan Charles Rich at Find a Grave


Xango, LLC, was a owned Lehi, Utah-based multilevel marketing company founded in 2002. It was acquired by Zija International in May 2017; the company marketed and distributed Xango juice, a blended juice product consisting of mangosteen and other juices, skin care, personal care, energy supplement and nutritional supplement products. The company was warned in 2006 by the FDA for illegally marketing more than 20 human health benefits for Xango juice. Gary Hollister, Chairman Emeritus, former Chief Executive, former Chairman of the Board Aaron Garrity, Chairman of the Board, CEO, former President Joe Morton, Board of Directors Gordon Morton, Board of Directors Kent Wood, Board of Directors Xango was a held company and as such did not publicly disclose its financial statements. Company press releases in 2005-2006 stated that sales totaled $40 million in 2003 and $150 million in 2004, that 2005 sales were more than twice those of 2004. In October 2007 the company said that cumulative sales since its inception five years earlier were over $1 billion and by November 2008 had exceeded $1.5 billion.

In December 2012, Direct Selling News reported that Xango concluded its first ten years of operation in November 2012 with sales operations in 43 countries, 27 office locations, 49 distribution centers, more than two million distributors, about $2 billion in cumulative revenues. Xango's revenues and annual reports have fueled much public and legal speculation that it is a pyramid scheme. In November 2006, Xango, LLC, became the official corporate jersey-front sponsor of Real Salt Lake, a MLS soccer team based in Salt Lake City, for four years, at a cost of between $500,000 and $1 million per year. Xango's contract with Real Salt Lake ended after the 2013 season. In 2006, the company made a 5-year, $1 million grant to an Orem, Utah arts council for naming rights to what is now called the "Xango Grand Theater". Xango, LLC, has been the top contributor to the political campaign of Utah Senator Orrin Hatch, contributing $47,200 in 2008 and $46,700 in 2006, according to the Center for Responsive Politics.

Xango is the common name of XanGo LLC, as well as its first and flagship juice product. It has other products in the personal care and wellness industry. Xango Juice is sold in the U. S. and exported to Australia, Germany, Malaysia, Singapore and the United Kingdom. The company began operating in Taiwan as of October 2007; the company's business model is direct sales via multi-level marketing rather than retail sales using a nine-level multi-level marketing structure. In June 2006, the company said. In July, the company told the Federal Trade Commission that there were "roughly 500,000 distributors worldwide", in November, it reported having more than 600 employees at its Lehi headquarters and more than 500,000 independent distributors in 15 international markets. In July 2007, it said it had about 700,000 distributors, of whom an estimated 70 percent use their status to buy the juice at the discounted membership price. In October 2008, it said that it operated in 24 countries and had more than 1 million independent distributors.

As of 2013, the company stated. In the United States, Xango Juice sells for a retail price of $37.50 for a 750 ml bottle. Purchasing through Xango's distributor group and other products can be bought at wholesale prices. Xango sells Reserve, a more expensive version of its original juice product with a higher mangosteen content. In 2009, Xango launched products made using undefined quantities of mangosteen; the Glimpse product line includes Luminescence Collection, Mineral Treatment, Mangosteen Oils. The company's Juni line of personal care products includes shampoos, skin lotion and body soaps. Xango sells various dietary supplements including 3SIXTY5 and 3SIXTY5 for Kids multivitamins. Xango Juice is a blend of mangosteen aril and pericarp purée with juice concentrates of eight other fruits: apple, grape, raspberry, strawberry and cherry. Other ingredients include citric acid, natural flavor, xanthan gum, sodium benzoate, potassium sorbate. Xango claims. Associated Press commissioned the Linus Pauling Institute to measure the in vitro antioxidant strength of Xango Juice against retail fruit juices.

The antioxidant strength of XanGo Juice measured higher than cranberry juice but lower than black cherry and less than half the value for blueberry juice. However, the value of in vitro analysis of antioxidant strength is questionable, as there is no current evidence that antioxidant phytochemicals present in Xango or other fruit juices have functions inside the human body; the measurements of antioxidant strength apply to test tubes, but consumed juices are affected by stomach acids that would neutralize or destroy antioxidant value preventing the same biological effects in vivo. In 2002, Xango founders Aaron Garrity, Gordon Morton, Joseph Morton applied for a United States patent for Xango Juice. On November 3, 2008, the U. S. Court of