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The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals and birds. In fish, the divisions of the small intestine are not as clear, the terms anterior intestine or proximal intestine may be used instead of duodenum. In mammals the duodenum may be the principal site for iron absorption; the duodenum is the shortest part of the small intestine. In humans, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25–38 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum, it ends at the suspensory muscle of duodenum. It can be divided into four parts; the name duodenum is from Medieval Latin, short for intestīnum duodēnum digitōrum, which may be translated: intestine of twelve finger-widths, from Latin duodēnum, genitive pl. of duodēnī, twelve each, from duodecim, twelve. The Latin phrase intestīnum duodēnum digitōrum is thought to be a loan-translation from the Greek word dodekadaktylon "twelve fingers long." The intestinal section was so called by Greek physician Herophilus for its length, about equal to the breadth of 12 fingers.

The duodenum is a 25–38 cm C-shaped structure lying adjacent to the stomach. It is divided anatomically into four sections; the first part of the duodenum lies within the peritoneum but its other parts are retroperitoneal. The first part, or superior part, of the duodenum is a continuation from the pylorus to transpyloric plane, it is superior to the rest of the segments, at the vertebral level of L1. The duodenal bulb about 2 cm long, is the first part of the duodenum and is dilated; the duodenal bulb is a remnant of the mesoduodenum, a mesentery which suspends the organ from the posterior abdominal wall in fetal life. The first part of the duodenum is mobile, connected to the liver by the hepatoduodenal ligament of the lesser omentum; the first part of the duodenum ends at the superior duodenal flexure. Relations: Anterior Gallbladder Quadrate lobe of liver Posterior Bile duct Gastroduodenal artery Portal vein Inferior vena cava Head of pancreas Superior Neck of gallbladder Hepatoduodenal ligament Inferior Neck of pancreas Greater omentum Head of pancreas The second part, or descending part, of the duodenum begins at the superior duodenal flexure.

It goes inferior to the lower border of vertebral body L3, before making a sharp turn medially into the inferior duodenal flexure, the end of the descending part. The pancreatic duct and common bile duct enter the descending duodenum, through the major duodenal papilla; the second part of the duodenum contains the minor duodenal papilla, the entrance for the accessory pancreatic duct. The junction between the embryological foregut and midgut lies just below the major duodenal papilla; the third part, or horizontal part or inferior part of the duodenum is 10~12 cm in length. It begins at the inferior duodenal flexure and passes transversely to the left, passing in front of the inferior vena cava, abdominal aorta and the vertebral column; the superior mesenteric artery and vein are anterior to the third part of duodenum. This part may be compressed between SMA causing superior mesenteric artery syndrome; the fourth part, or ascending part, of the duodenum passes upward, joining with the jejunum at the duodenojejunal flexure.

The fourth part of the duodenum is at the vertebral level L3, may pass directly on top, or to the left, of the aorta. The duodenum receives arterial blood from two different sources; the transition between these sources is important. Proximal to the 2nd part of the duodenum the arterial supply is from the gastroduodenal artery and its branch the superior pancreaticoduodenal artery. Distal to this point the arterial supply is from the superior mesenteric artery, its branch the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery supplies the 3rd and 4th sections; the superior and inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries form an anastomotic loop between the celiac trunk and the SMA. The venous drainage of the duodenum follows the arteries; these veins drain into the portal system, either directly or indirectly through the splenic or superior mesenteric vein and to portal vein. The lymphatic vessels follow the arteries in a retrograde fashion; the anterior lymphatic vessels drain into the pancreatoduodenal lymph nodes located along the superior and inferior pancreatoduodenal arteries and into the pyloric lymph nodes.

The posterior lymphatic vessels pass posterior to the head of the pancreas and drain into the superior mesenteric lymph nodes. Efferent lymphatic vessels from the duodenal lymph nodes pass into the celiac lymph nodes. Under microscopy, the duodenum has a villous mucosa; this is distinct from the mucosa of the pylorus. Like other structures of the gastrointestinal tract, the duodenum has a mucosa, muscularis externa, adventitia. Glands line the duodenum, known as Brunner's glands, which secrete mucus and bicarbonate in order to neutralise stomach acids; these are distinct glands not found in the other parts of the small intestine. The duodenum is responsible for the breakdown of food in the small intestine, using enzymes; the duodenum regulates the rate of emptying of the stomach via hormonal pathways. Secretin and cholecystokinin are released from cells in the duodenal epithelium in response to acidic and fatty stimuli present there when

Welford Park

Welford Park is a country house and estate in the village of Welford in the English county of Berkshire, situated 5.2 miles northwest of Newbury and 10.9 miles south of Wantage. Whilst of some historic significance, the estate is best known for its displays of snowdrops in early spring and for being the location of The Great British Bake Off since 2014; the church of Welford St Gregory, one of only two existing round-tower churches in Berkshire, is located adjacent to the house. The various chalk streams that make up the River Lambourn flow through the grounds. Welford Park is built on the site of a monastic grange that belonged to Abingdon Abbey from Anglo-Saxon times. After the dissolution of the monasteries, King Henry VIII used the site for a hunting lodge, it was granted to Sir Thomas Parry, Comptroller of the Household by Queen Elizabeth I. It was his main residence. Welford was used as a dower house for his mother, buried in the adjoining church; the existing house dates from about 1652 and was built by John Jackson of Oxford for Richard Jones, the grandson of Sir Francis Jones, Lord Mayor of London in 1620, who had purchased the property in 1618.

Jones died with no male heir and his daughter Mary in 1680 married John Archer, son to judge John Archer of Coopersale House and his wife Eleanor, daughter to Sir John Curson, Baronet of Kedleston, Derbyshire. Welford Park was remodelled by their son-in-law, the architect Thomas Archer, about 1700, which resulted in an additional storey and a facade decorated with ionic columns; the interior was again altered in 1840. The property passed in 1706 by marriage to William Eyre, on condition he changed his name to Archer and subsequently to the MP, John Houblon, who changed his name, to John Archer-Houblon, it passed to his younger son, who re-adopted the surname Eyre. In 1891 the house was let during the First World War used as a convalescent home, it passed by marriage to John Puxley. The house remains in the ownership of his son James Puxley, a local landowner and former High Sheriff of Berkshire, a distant relative of the Jones family. Welford Park is a private residence, for most of the year neither it nor its grounds are open to the public.

However, in a tradition, now over 50 years old, the grounds are opened to enable visitors to view the year's bloom of snowdrops and, to a lesser extent, aconites. The flowers thrive on the chalky soil, forming a white carpet across the estate's riverside beech woodland; the actual dates of opening vary from year depending on the state of the blooms. In recent years, the park has been opened on Tuesdays, Wednesdays and Sundays throughout the month of February; as one of the first signs of the end of winter, Welford's snowdrops are well covered by the local, sometimes national and attract large crowds of visitors. The nearby site of Welford Park station on the former Lambourn Valley Railway is used as a car park for these visitors. Official website

2010 Team Speedway Junior World Championship

The 2010 Team Speedway Junior World Championship will be the 6th FIM Team Under-21 World Championship season. The Final took place on September 2010 at Rye House Stadium in Rye House, Great Britain, it was the first Final in Great Britain. The Championship was won by Denmark, who beat Sweden, the defending champion Poland and host team Great Britain, it was first time-ever. In the 2010 Final will be the host team Great Britain. Another finalist will be determined in two Qualifying Rounds on May 29 and June 19. 29 May 2010 CZE Plzeň, Plzeň Region Speedway Track Plzeň – Bory Referee: Jesper Stentoft Jury President: Boris Kotnjek References M - exclusion for exceeding two minute time allowance • T - exclusion for touching the tapes • X - other exclusion • E - retired or mechanical failure • F - fell 10 July 2010 Güstrow, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern Speedwaystadion Güstrow Referee: Krister Gardell Jury President: Christian Bouin References M - exclusion for exceeding two minute time allowance • T - exclusion for touching the tapes • X - other exclusion • E - retired or mechanical failure • F - fell 5 September 2010 GBR Rye House, East of England Rye House Speedway Referee: Marek Wojaczek Jury President: Christer Bergstrom References M - exclusion for exceeding two minute time allowance • T - exclusion for touching the tapes • X - other exclusion • E - retired or mechanical failure • F - fell 2010 Speedway World Cup 2010 Individual Speedway Junior World Championship

Oslo Astrological Clock

The Oslo Astrological Clock is located at Karl Johans gate 3 in Oslo, the capital city of Norway. The astrological clock was donated by Christian Ringnes and features artwork designed by artists Elena Engelsen and Per Ung. Ringnes explained during his unveiling speech, "we aim to contribute in making Oslo a beautiful and pleasant city." The clock is 346 centimetres in diameter. Astrological signs are painted; the rings are made of copper and are painted. The tiles in the dial are coated with 22-carat gold leaf and the total weight of the clock is approx. 1,000 kilograms. It was designed by artists Elena Engelsen and Per Ung, who spent over a year collaborating on the project. Engelsen created the exotic animal characters star, while Ung designed the human characters in the zodiac; this was the couple’s second joint artwork venture. The unveiling of the clock took place on October 20, 2010 at a ceremony hosted by Mayor Fabian Stang at Karl Johansgate 3 in central Oslo, he has been quoted as saying, “We are proud that Oslo now has an astrological clock as it was designed by Elena Engelsen and Per Ung, two of Norway’s most renowned artists.

The clock is visible and will set a solid mark on the cityscape." As a representation of the 12 Zodiac signs, 12 of the foremost astrologers in Norway were among the invited guests at the ceremony. Prague Astronomical Clock

Jonathan Marc Sherman

Jonathan Marc Sherman is a contemporary American playwright. He submitted plays for several years to Young Playwrights Inc.'s National Playwrights Competition before they did a staged reading of his one-act and Serenity in 1987, followed by a full production of his next play and Wallace. 1987. Young Playwrights Festival at Playwrights Horizons 1988. Foundation of the Dramatists Guild Young Playwrights Festival at Playwrights Horizons. Josh Hamilton as Wallace 1990. American Playhouse, with Josh Hamilton, Joan Copeland, Shaie Dively, Erica Gimpel, Joanna Going, Mary Joy, Debra Monk, Cynthia Nixon, Jill Tasker. Directed by Don Scardino. Winner of the 21st Century Playwrights Award The short play is about a family of two brothers and Max, their father, fifteen years after the mother committed suicide. Toby, an idealist who has never quite recovered from his mother's death, still wears diapers at the age of 21 and hardly leaves the house, his older brother Max lectures him on the ways of life and love.

Joanna, a new representative for the diaper company responsible for Toby's deliveries, makes a delivery and Toby falls in love. The play ends with Toby leaving the house, more symbolically, his dependence on his mother's memory, to be with Joanna; the play was written in 1991, was performed by Ethan Hawke's Malaparte Theater Company in New York City. Calista Flockhart played Joanna, Josh Hamilton played Ethan Hawke played Max. In the play's earlier incarnation as a workshop reading, Sherman himself played the part of Toby. In the play's foreword, Sherman stresses the significance of Toby in the play. 1991. Los Angeles Theatre Center. Jimmy Bonaparte: Fisher Stevens 1994. Malaparte in New York City. Jimmy Bonaparte: Frank Whaley 2001. Basis for Frank Whaley's movie The Jimmy Show, with Frank Whaley, Carla Gugino, Ethan Hawke, Lynn Cohen. March, 1993. Playwrights Horizons. With Linda Atkinson, Nadia Dajani, Ethan Hawke, Katherine Hiler, Scarlett Johansson, Dick Latessa, Anthony Rapp, Jonathan Marc Sherman, Steve Zahn September–November, 1993.

Playwrights Horizons. With Linda Atkinson, Nadia Dajani, Calista Flockhart, Ethan Hawke, Austin Pendleton, Anthony Rapp, Jonathan Marc Sherman, Steve Zahn. 1995. WPA Theater in New York City. 1998. Williamstown Theatre Festival in Massachusetts. Directed by Nicholas Martin. With Matt McGrath, Dylan Baker, Anna Belknap, Marin Hinkle, Justin Kirk, Sam Breslin Wright. Sets by Alexander Dodge, Lights by Stephen Brady, Costumes by Marisa Timperman, Sound by Jerry N. Yager 2002. 45 Below at Culture Project in New York City. Directed by Elizabeth Gottlieb. With Josh Hamilton, Larry Block, Peter Dinklage, Keira Naughton, Armando Riesco, Ione Skye. Sets by Andromache Chalfant, Lights by Jeff Croiter, Costumes by Daphne Javitch, Video by Edmond Deraedt 2018 in Manchester UK. With Alex Phelps, William J Holstead, Paddy Young, Hannah Ellis Ryan. 2007. The New Group in New York City. Directed by Ethan Hawke. With Paul Dano, Peter Dinklage, Josh Hamilton, Zoe Kazan. Sets by Derek McLane, Lights by Jeff Croiter, Costumes by Sound by Daniel Baker.

2012. Oyun Alani in Istanbul. Directed by Cevdet Canver. With Kutay Kunt, Caner Erdem, Mehmet Okuroglu, Aybike Turan. 2015. Columbia University in New York City. Directed by Eric Wimer. With William Sydney, Maeve Duffy, Joseph Santia, Lizzy Harding. 2009. Williamstown Theatre Festival in Massachusetts. Directed by Nicholas Martin. With Brooks Ashmanskas, Peter Dinklage, Bob Dishy, Rightor Doyle, Annie Parisse, Susan Pourfar, Reg Rogers. Sets by Alexander Dodge. Sound Design by Alex Neumann. Oliver! Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera, 1983 My First Swedish Bombshell NBC & Showtime, 1985 The Chopin Playoffs American Jewish Theatre, 1986 A Joke, Malaparte, 1992 Sophistry, Playwrights Horizons, 1993 Wild Dogs, Malaparte, 1993 Unexpected Tenderness, WPA, 1994 The Great Unwashed, Malaparte, 1994 Quiz Show, 1994 Southie, 1998 Pigeonholed, 1999 I Wanna Be Adored, NY Performance Works, 2000 Zog's Place, 2001 Broadway: The American Musical, 2004 The Baxter, 2005 Escape Artists, 2005 The Limbo Room, 2006 Steam, 2006 When The Nines Roll Over, 2006 The Hottest State, 2007 Jonathan Marc Sherman on IMDb Jonathan Marc Sherman at the Internet Off-Broadway Database


Tribology is the science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion. It includes the study and application of the principles of friction and wear. Tribology is interdisciplinary, it draws on many academic fields, including physics, materials science, mathematics and engineering. People who work in the field of tribology are referred to as tribologists; the word tribology derives from the Greek root τριβ- of the verb τρίβω, tribo, "I rub" in classic Greek, the suffix -logy from -λογία, -logia "study of", "knowledge of". Peter Jost coined the word in 1966, in the eponymous report which highlighted the cost of friction and corrosion to the UK economy. Despite the recent naming of the field of tribology, quantitative studies of friction can be traced as far back as 1493, when Leonardo da Vinci first noted the two fundamental ‘laws’ of friction. According to da Vinci, frictional resistance was the same for two different objects of the same weight but making contact over different widths and lengths.

He observed that the force needed to overcome friction doubles as weight doubles. However, da Vinci's findings remained unpublished in his notebooks; the two fundamental ‘laws’ of friction were first published by Guillaume Amontons, with whose name they are now associated. They state that: the force of friction acting between two sliding surfaces is proportional to the load pressing the surfaces together the force of friction is independent of the apparent area of contact between the two surfaces. Although not universally applicable, these simple statements hold for a wide range of systems; these laws were further developed by Charles-Augustin de Coulomb, who noticed that static friction force may depend on the contact time and sliding friction may depend on sliding velocity, normal force and contact area. In 1798, Charles Hatchett and Henry Cavendish carried out the first reliable test on frictional wear. In a study commissioned by the Privy Council of the UK, they used a simple reciprocating machine to evaluate the wear rate of gold coins.

They found. In 1860, Theodor Reye proposed Reye's hypothesis. In 1953, John Frederick Archard developed the Archard equation which describes sliding wear and is based on the theory of asperity contact. Other pioneers of tribology research are Australian physicist Frank Philip Bowden and British physicist David Tabor, both of Cavendish Laboratory. Together they wrote the seminal textbook The Lubrication of Solids. Michael J. Neale was another leader in the field during the mid-to-late 1900's, he specialized in solving problems in machine design by applying his knowledge of tribology. Neale was respected as an educator with a gift for integrating theoretical work with his own practical experience to produce easy-to-understand design guides; the Tribology Handbook, which he first edited in 1973 and updated in 1995, is still used around the world and forms the basis of numerous training courses for engineering designers. Duncan Dowson surveyed the history of tribology in his 1997 book History of Tribology.

This covers developments from prehistory, through early civilizations and highlights the key developments up to the end of the twentieth century. The term tribology became used following The Jost Report published in 1966; the report highlighted the huge cost of friction and corrosion to the UK economy. As a result, the UK government established several national centres to address tribological problems. Since the term has diffused into the international community, with many specialists now identifying as "tribologists". Despite considerable research since the Jost Report, the global impact of friction and wear on energy consumption, economic expenditure, carbon dioxide emissions are still considerable. In 2017, Kenneth Holmberg and Ali Erdemir attempted to quantify their impact worldwide, they considered the four main energy consuming sectors: transport, power generation, residential. The following were concluded: In total, ~23% of the world’s energy consumption originates from tribological contacts.

Of that, 20% is to overcome friction and 3% to remanufacture worn parts and spare equipment due to wear and wear-related. By taking advantage of the new technologies for friction reduction and wear protection, energy losses due to friction and wear in vehicles and other equipment worldwide could be reduced by 40% in the long term and 18% in the short term. On a global scale, these savings would amount to 1.4% of GDP annually and 8.7% of total energy consumption in the long term. The largest short term energy savings are envisioned in transport and in power generation while the potential savings in the manufacturing and residential sectors are estimated to be ~10%. In the longer term, savings would be 55%, 40%, 25%, 20%, respectively. Implementing advanced tribological technologies can reduce global carbon dioxide emissions by as much as 1,460 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent and result in 450,000 million Euros cost savings in the short term. In the long term, the reduction could be as large as 3,140 MtCO2 and the cost savings 970,000 million Euros.

Classical tribology covering such applications as ball bearings, gear drives, brakes, etc. was developed in the context of mechanical engineering. But in the last decades tribology expanded to qualitatively new fields of applications, in particular micro- and nanotechnology as well as biology and medicine; the word friction comes from the Latin "frictionem", which