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Duployan shorthand

The Duployan shorthand, or Duployan stenography, was created by Father Émile Duployé in 1860 for writing French. Since it has been expanded and adapted for writing English, Spanish and Chinook Jargon; the Duployan stenography is classified as a geometric, stenography and is written left-to-right in connected stenographic style. The Duployan shorthands, including Chinook writing, Pernin's Universal Phonography, Perrault's English Shorthand, the Sloan-Duployan Modern Shorthand, Romanian stenography, were included as a single script in version 7.0 of the Unicode Standard / ISO 10646 Duployan is classified as a geometric stenography, in that the prototype for letterforms are based on lines and circles, instead of ellipses. It is alphabetic, with both vowel signs in equal prominence. Writing is in a left-to-right direction, proceeding down the page, as in common European writing. Most Duployan letters will attach to adjacent letters, allowing a word to be written in a single stroke, without lifting the pen.

Consonant characters come in two basic styles: line consonants and arc consonants. All consonants have a shape and stroke direction that do not change based on the surrounding characters. Both types of consonants are contrasted by orientation and the presence of ancillary dots and dashes on or near the letter; the line consonants come in five orientations: vertical, left-to-right falling, left-to-right rising, right-to-left falling. Variations of some line consonants will have dots adjacent to the center of the line. Arc consonants come in two arc lengths: half circle, quarter circle; the half circle arcs have four orientations: left, right and bottom half. Variations of the half circle arc consonants have dots inside and outside of the bowl, dashes across the middle; the quarter arc consonants have four orientations corresponding to the four quadrants of a circle, with both upwards and downwards strokes, come in regular and extended lengths. The only variant quarter arc consonant is the addition of a dot to the Duployan letter W to make the Duployan letter Wh.

Vowels characters come in two basic styles: circle vowels, orienting vowels. Vowels have only a general shape and size, but their orientation and exact appearance are dictated by the adjacent characters. Circle vowels are written by creating a loop that starts from the preceding character acting as a tangent, continuing around the circle until reaching the tangent point of the following character, at which point the following letterform is written, with the two adjacent characters crossing to complete the "circle". Variants of the circle vowels have dots in the middle of the circle, or a protuberance in from the circle. Circle vowels may take standard diacritic marks when used to write some languages. Orienting vowels are written by rotating the vowel to match the incoming angle of the preceding character mirrored along the axis of that character to avoid the following character crossing, they come in two varieties, defined by whether they will tend toward the right or left if the adjacent characters will allow either.

Nasal vowels are considered a special case of an orienting vowel, will act as orienting vowels, except in the Chinook script, where nasals can appear as diacritics. Many Duployan shorthands use small unattached marks, as well as various crossing and touching strokes, as markers for common prefixes and suffixes. Individual letters and letterlike symbols are used in many Duployan shorthands to stand for common words and phrases. Overlapping two or more letters and signs can be used in some shorthands as word signs and abbreviations. Most Duployan scripts do not make use of true ligatures that are not just one of its constituent letters with a distinguishing mark; the Romanian stenography is unusual in having a number of vowel ligatures with the Romanian U. Most Duployan letters cursively connect to any adjacent letters. Circle vowels will sometimes reduce to as small as a semi-circle in order to accommodate the incoming and outgoing strokes of adjacent letters, orienting vowels will rotate to meet the preceding letter at a straight angle, while mirroring to present themselves to the following letter.

Duployan does not have a agreed alphabetical order. A precursory order for the alphabet has been invented for the Unicode script proposal, however; this order places consonants before vowels, with similar type and size letters grouped together. This table lists the characters used in all of the Duployan shorthands along with their Unicode code points. A basic alphabetization can be derived from the order of the letters. Letters with a name otherwise identical to a more universal letter will have a parenthetical denoting its shorthand of use: for Pernin's Universal Phonography, for Romanian stenography, for Sloan-Duployan shorthand; the use of French Duployan shorthand has been heavier in areas of southern France and Switzerland, with the Prévost-Delaunay and Aimé-Paris shorthands more common in northern France and the Paris area. French Duployan makes use of an extensive list of letter words, combined consonants, affix marks, but does not cross letters to make abbreviations. Like most European shorthands, French Duployan omits vowels.

The Chinook writing, or Wawa shorthand, or Chinuk pipa, was developed by Father Jean-Marie-Raphaël Le Jeune in the early 1890s for writing in Chinook Jargon, Thompson, Okanaga


Joulutarina is a 2007 Finnish christmas drama film directed by Juha Wuolijoki. It is the story of; the Finnish premiere was on 16 November 2007. It was shot on location in Utsjoki. Many years ago, in Lapland, a boy named Nikolas is orphaned when his family are killed in an accident; the heads of the families in the village meet to decide his future and, as life in the arctic is difficult, it is decided that as no one family could care for him permanently, they would raise him communally, with each family taking him for one year and moving him on to the next. Grateful, Nikolas begins whittling toys out of wood as a gift which, each Christmas, he leaves for the family that cared for him, it becomes a tradition from with Nikolas never forgets the children of those families that received him each year. When a blight hits the village, none of the families can afford to take him in for the next year, he is taken in by grumpy hermit Iisakki as his carpenter's apprentice. Iisakki works him hard but Nikolas is clever and quick to learn, Iisakki grows to love Nikolas as his own son.

Nikolas begins to live more and more for the spirit of Christmas with each passing year and it becomes his life and as he grows old he becomes the figure known as Santa Claus. Hannu-Pekka Björkman – Nikolas Otto Gustavsson – Young Nikolas Kari Väänänen – Iisakki Minna Haapkylä – Kristiina Mikko Leppilampi – Hannus Mikko Kouki – Eemeli Laura Birn – Aada Antti Tuisku – Mikko Matti Ristinen – Einari Ville Virtanen – Henrik Matti Rasilainen – Hermanni Joulutarina on IMDb

Les Praz

Les-Praz-de-Chamonix is a mountain village in the French Alps, part of the commune of Chamonix. Altitude: 1060m. Les Praz is located in the middle of the valley of Chamonix, it is connected to Switzerland by the pass over the Col des Montets, the Col de la Forclaz to Martigny in the Rhône valley. Les Praz is the starting point for the cable car up to La Flégère, well known for skiing and snowboarding in winter or hiking and mountain biking in summer. Peaks on the west side of the village include the Aiguilles Rouges, much of which are a nature reserve. On the east side, the sky is dominated by the Aiguille du Dru and to the south by Mont Blanc

Michael Hare

Michael Meredith Hare was an American architect. Based in New York City, he advocated for modernism in architecture. Michael Meredith Hare was born to Constance Parsons Hare in New York City, he attended Groton School from 1921 to 1927. He entered Yale College in 1927 and transferred to the department of architecture in 1929. Following a leave of absence to study architecture in France in 1931, Hare returned to Yale in 1933 to complete his degree. In 1931 he married Jane P. Jopling. During the Second World War Hare served in the U. S. Marine Corps, he received a degree from Columbia University in 1935. Hare was seen as an progressive young architect who produced controversial designs. While a student at Yale, his experiences in Paris changed him, he was out of sympathy with the philosophy prevalent at that school. In Paris, Mr. Hare had become converted to the Contemporary viewpoint, quite different from that held at Yale. Hare worked at New York architectural firm of Corbett and MacMurray, under famed architect Harvey Wiley Corbett.

While at the firm, he was a part of a team of architects that helped construct Rockefeller Center and Radio City Music Hall. In 1936, Hare designed the Nordic Theater, a single-screen streamline moderne cinema in Marquette, Michigan; the Peter White Building, the White family commissioned Hare to build the theater using an rare, unconventional design for acoustics. The Nordic Theater served as the world premiere venue for the 1959 film Anatomy of a Murder. In 1937, Hare designed the Wisconsin Union Theater at the University of Wisconsin, he was a member of the Board of Design for the 1939 New York World's Fair where he pushed for the Fair to be contemporary rather than colonial. His theme, "The Fair of the Future", was modified to "The World of Tomorrow." In 1954, Hare was appointed by the President's Commission to design the U. S. embassy in Honduras. While in Honduras, he began the study of philosophy and psychical phenomena and wrote several books on these subjects in 1966 and 1968, he died on August 1968 in Cambridge, England.

Rockefeller Center Radio City Music Hall Nordic Theater Wisconsin Union Theater Dau-Kreinheder Hall Wisconsin Union Theater

Trevor Carson

Trevor Carson is a Northern Irish professional footballer who plays for Motherwell as a goalkeeper. Carson signed professional terms during the 2004–05 season, where he was backup to Ben Alnwick for the final three games of the season, he was allocated the number 24 shirt for the 2005 -- 2006 -- 07, 2007 -- 08 and 2008 -- 09 seasons. On 14 August 2008, Carson joined Chesterfield on a season long loan deal, he made his professional début on a 1–0 victory against Grimsby Town keeping a clean sheet. He was recalled early in the January after a shortage of keepers due to injuries at Sunderland, he made his debut for Sunderland on 16 July, against Darlington in the 4–0 win for Sunderland. In 2009 with Craig Gordon out through injury, Steve Bruce urged Carson to push Márton Fülöp for the No.1 spot in the squad. He signed a new contract with Sunderland on 22 October 2009 which would keep him at the Stadium of Light until 2012, he was loaned out to Lincoln City on 20 January 2011 until the end of the season.

He made his debut on 22 January against Stockport County in a 4–3 win. The following season he was loaned out again in January 2012, where he went out on loaned for a month to Hull City. After showing promise at Sunderland it still wasn't enough to stay at the Premier League side, subsequently he was released on 19 May 2012. After a short spell at the KC Stadium he was loaned out to Bury, where he made 9 appearances in Greater Manchester. On 22 May 2012 it was announced that Bury had completed his signing on a two-year contract after impressing in his short loan spell. In his first season at Gigg Lane he made 39 league appearances, but Bury were relegated to the Fourth Tier, he was released by Bury on 1 May 2014. On 3 October 2013 Carson joined Portsmouth in a three-month loan deal. Carson was given the number 40 shirt and made his debut in a league match against Rochdale, he kept a clean sheet in a 3–0 victory, he established himself as number one ahead of Phil Smith. He set himself up to be signed up permanently in January 2014, when Carson outlined that he was keen to stay at the South Coast Club.

On 30 June 2014 Carson joined Cheltenham Town on a free transfer after his release from Bury. On 6 June 2017 Carson joined Motherwell for an undisclosed fee from Hartlepool United, on a three-year contract. On 7 January 2020, he signed a new two-and-a-half-year contract, keeping him at Fir Park until 2022, he played two games in two days when appearing for Northern Ireland U21s in Wuppertal, Germany on 5 September 2008, with his side losing 3–0, before making a dash back to Chesterfield to play in a 1–0 win over Rotherham United. He represented Northern Ireland B in a 3–0 defeat against Scotland B in May 2009. In January 2013 he was called up to the full Northern Ireland squad for their game with Malta, but was forced to withdraw with a broken finger. In May 2015 he was called up again for a friendly against Romania, he made his international debut on 24 March 2018, against South Korea at Windsor Park. As of match played 5 July 2019 On 23 November 2018, it was reported that Carson had developed Deep vein thrombosis.

Trevor Carson at Soccerbase Profile at Irish FA

Days of week on Hebrew calendar

The modern Hebrew calendar has been designed to ensure that certain holy days and festivals do not fall on certain days of the week. As a result, there are only four possible patterns of days; the modern Hebrew calendar has been arranged so that Yom Kippur does not fall on a Friday or Sunday, Hoshana Rabbah does not fall on Shabbat. These rules have been instituted because Shabbat restrictions apply to Yom Kippur, if Yom Kippur were to fall on Friday, it would not be possible to make necessary preparations for Shabbat, including candle lighting, because the preceding day is Yom Kippur. If Yom Kippur fell on a Sunday, it would not be possible to make the necessary preparations for Yom Kippur, including candle lighting, because the preceding day is Shabbat; the laws of Shabbat override those of Hoshana Rabbah, so that if Hoshana Rabbah were to fall on Shabbat certain rituals that are a part of Hoshana Rabbah services could not be performed in that year. As a consequence, in the case of Yom Kippur, which falls on 10 Tishrei and cannot fall on a Friday or Sunday, the days in Cheshvan and/or Kislev are adjusted so that Rosh Hashanah, which falls on 1 Tishrei, does not fall on a Wednesday or Friday.

And, in the case of Hoshana Rabbah, which falls on 21 Tishrei and cannot fall on a Saturday, Rosh Hashanah cannot be on a Sunday. This leaves only four days on which Rosh Hashanah is allowed to fall: Monday, Tuesday and Saturday, which are referred as the "four gates". Since three arrangements cannot occur within the fixed calendar, most holidays can each occur on one of four possible days. All the holy days and festivals fall in the months of Nisan through months one to seven; these months always have the same number of days, alternating 30 and 29. The next two months are months eight and nine. Both or either of these months can have either 29 or 30 days, allowing for adjustments to be made and the schedule in the coming year to be manipulated.. The months of Tevet and Shevat, months ten and eleven, have 30 days respectively. In a regular year the month of Adar has 29 days, while in a leap year Adar I of 30 days is added before the regular Adar, which becomes Adar II of 29 days; the result is that the period from 1 Tevet to 29 Cheshvan is fixed, except that in a leap year Adar I of 30 days is added.

The period from 1 Adar to 29 Cheshvan contains all of the festivals specified in the Bible - Purim, Shavuot, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur and Shemini Atzeret. This period is fixed, during; the result is that all dates from 1 Nisan through 29 Cheshvan can each fall on one of four days of the week. Dates during Kislev can fall on any of six days of the week. *Postponed to not fall on Shabbat With each gate, some unusual effects occur. Since Purim falls on Sunday, the 13th of Adar, known as the Fast of Esther, falls on Saturday. Fasts other than Yom Kippur are postponed to the following Sunday, but as this Sunday is Purim, fasts are not observed on Friday, the fast is pushed back to the prior Thursday. No Yom Tov during the year falls on Sunday, therefore havdalah during the Yom Tov kiddush is never recited during the course of the year. During Tishrei, three holidays start on Thursday. In the Diaspora, the eruv tavshilin is prepared thrice. In Israel, this is the only occasion with a "three-day holiday".

The Fast of Gedaliah falls on Saturday. Since fasts other than Yom Kippur are not observed on Saturday, this is observed on the following Sunday; this leaves an interval of just five days between fasts, the shortest on the Jewish Calendar. Yom Kippur occurs on Saturday; this is the only occurrence in which a fast is observed on Saturday. Ashkenazim do not recite Avinu Malkeinu except during Ne'ila; the 10th of Tevet may occur on Friday, the only public fast that can be observed on a Friday. The fast is not broken until about an hour. Purim Katan, the holiday that only occurs in leap years, may occur on Friday; the eruv tavshilin is prepared prior to Shavuot. In the diaspora, the second day of Shavuot falls on Saturday, the only time Shavuot falls on Saturday. Rosh Hashanah and Shemini Atzeret begin on Saturday. On Rosh Hashanah, since blowing the Shofar is prohibited on the Sabbath, the shofar is blown only on the second day. Tashlich is postponed to the second day. On Sukkot, the Four Species, which are not taken on the Sabbath, are unused on the first day.

Chanukah will begin on either Saturday. If on Friday the Sabbath of Miketz will not be during Chanukah. If Chanukah begins on Saturday, there will be two Sabbaths of Chanukah, as the holiday is eight days long; the 10th of Tevet may occur on Friday, the only public fast that can be observed on a Friday. The fast is not broken until about an hour. Rosh Chodesh Shevat and Tu Bishvat may occur on Saturday; this means that on R