Indian road network
India has a road network of over 5,903,293 kilometres as of 31 January 2019, the second largest road network in the world. At 1.70 km of roads per square kilometre of land, the quantitative density of India's road network is higher than that of Japan and the United States to, far higher than that of China, Brazil or Russia. Adjusted for its large population, India has 4.63 km of roads per 1000 people. However, qualitatively India's roads are a mix of modern highways and narrow, unpaved roads, are being improved; as on 31 March 2016, 62.5% of Indian roads were paved. India in its past did not allocate enough resources to maintain its road network; this has changed since 1995, with major efforts underway to modernize the country's road infrastructure. The length of national highways in India has increased from 70,934 km in 2010-11 to 101,011 km in 2015-16; as of May 2017, India had completed and placed in use over 28,900 kilometres of built 4 or 6-lane highways connecting many of its major manufacturing centres and cultural centres.
According to Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, as of March 2016, India had about 1,01,011 kilometers of national highways and expressways, plus another 1,76,166 kilometers of state highways. Major projects are being implemented under the National Highways Development Project, a government initiative. Private builders and highway operators are implementing major projects - for example, the Yamuna Expressway between Delhi and Agra was completed ahead of schedule and within budget, while the KMP Expressway started in 2006 is far behind schedule, over budget and incomplete. According to 2009 estimates by Goldman Sachs, India will need to invest US$1.7 trillion on infrastructure projects before 2020 to meet its economic needs, a part of which would be in upgrading India's road network. The investment in national highways increased from ₹14,095.87 crore in 2005-06 to ₹98,988.06 crore in 2015-16. During the same period the total investment in national highways was ₹476,589.37 crore. The Government of India is attempting to promote foreign investment in road projects.
Foreign participation in Indian road network construction has attracted 45 international contractors and 40 design/engineering consultants, with Malaysia, South Korea, United Kingdom and United States being the largest players. The first evidence of road development in the Indian subcontinent can be traced back to 2800 BC from the ancient cities of Harrapa and Mohenjodaro of the Indus Valley Civilization. Ruling emperors and monarchs of ancient India had constructed roads to connect the cities. Archaeological excavations give us fresh information about road connectivity in ancient India; the Grand Trunk Road was built by the Mauryan Empire and expanded over many different dynasties until being revived by Emperor Sher Shah Suri in 1540-45 connecting Sonargaon near Dhaka in Bangladesh with Peshawar in modern-day Pakistan linking several cities from in India. It was further expanded by the Mughal Empire. In the 1830s the East India Company started a programme of metalled road construction, for both commercial and administrative purposes.
The Grand trunk road, from Calcutta, through Delhi to Peshawar was rebuilt at a cost of £1000 / mile, roads from Bombay to Pune Camp, Bombay to Agra, Bombay to Madras, were constructed, a Public Works Department, the Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee founded, to train and employ local surveyors and overseers, to perform the work, maintain the roads. The programme resulted in an estimated 2,500 km of metalled roads being constructed by the 1850sIn December 1934 the Indian Road Congress was formed, on the recommendations of the Indian Road Development Committee of the Government of India, they proposed a twenty-year plan, in 1943, to increase the road network from 350,000 km, to 532,700 km by 1963, to achieve a road density of 16 km, per 100 km2 of land. The construction was to be paid in part through the duty imposed, since 1939, on petrol sales, became known as the Nagpur Plan; the construction target was achieved in the late 1950s. In 1956 a Highways Act was passed, a second twenty-year plan proposed for the period 1961-1981, with the ambition of doubling road density to 32 km, per 100 km2.
This second plan became known as the Bombay Road Plan. India inherited a poor road network infrastructure at the time of its independence in 1947. Beyond that, between 1947 and 1988, India witnessed no new major projects, the roads were poorly maintained. Predominantly all roads were single lane, most were unpaved. India had no expressways, less than 200 kilometers of 4-lane highways. In 1988, an autonomous entity called the National Highways Authority of India was established in India by an Act of Parliament, came into existence on 15 June 1989; the Act empowered this entity to develop and manage India's road network through National Highways. However though the Authority was created in 1988, not much happened till India introduced widespread economic liberalization in the early 1990s. Since 1995, the authority has privatized road network development in India. One of the most ambitious projects to improve roads in India was under the National Highways Development Project started in the year 1998 by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.
The flagship project of the NHDP is the Golden Quadrilateral, a total of 5,846 km long 4/6 laned highways connecting the four major cities of Delhi, Mumbai and Kolkata. Total cost of the project is Rs.300 billion, funded by the government’s special petroleum product ta
Dalli-Rajhara is a town and a municipality in Balod district in the state of Chhattisgarh, India. Dalli Rajhara is home of iron ore captive mines for Bhilai Steel Plant, the largest integrated steel plant in India. Dalli mines deposit was discovered by Pramatha Nath Bose, the first Indian graded officer of the Geological Survey of India around 1900. Dalli Rajhara is located at 20.58°N 81.08°E / 20.58. It has an average elevation of 409 m. 3 March 1977 – SKMS leadership was reluctant to take up the issue for agitation, ostensibly because of support for the Emergency from the Communist Party of India. All the leadership could win for the contract workers was a token sum of Rs. 70. Disillusioned and angry workers resigned en masse from SKMS and joined to form a new union under the leadership. Thus, the Chhattisgarh Mines Shramik Sangh was born on 3 March 1977. In 1975, BSP fired on workers on strike, which became the big issues in the history of this small mining town. June 1983 – It was in June 1983 that the Shaheed Hospital came up in Dalli-Rajhara with the resources of the mineworkers.
Among the first to volunteer in this Hospital are Dr Binayak sen, Dr Asish kundu, Dr Saibal jana, Dr Jana is still a part of this. The movements in Chhattisgarh and Belur had evolved independent of each other, they had one thing in common: the recognition of health as a fundamental right. In the 80s, the industrial situation in West Bengal was dismal. 1998 – The original MoU for the construction of this new line was signed in 1998. As per the MoU, SAIL was to fund the first phase of the project. However, for want of requisite mining permission in Rowghat area and forestry clearances, SAIL did not deposit necessary funds with the Railways," Railway Board Chairman Mr KC Jena said pointing out the reason for delay in the project; the project would be undertaken in two phases. Phase-I 11 December 2007 – The 235-km-long broad gauge Dalli Rajhara-Jagdalpur Rail Line will be constructed with the collaboration of other public partners 29 March 2008 – Police said the Naxals looted 1.75 tonne of explosives from the Mahamaya iron ore mine in Dalli-Rajhara.
The Maoists kidnapped eight officials of the Chhattisgarh anshuman and Sail's Bhilai Steel Plant on Thursday, but freed them. 14 May 2008 – On 14 May 2008, it will be one year since Dr. Sen was arrested under various sections of the Unlawful Activities Prevention Act, the Chhattisgarh Special Public Security Act and the Crimes Against the State Chapter of the Indian Penal Code. Dr. Sen has spent the last twenty-five years working—leaving conventional life behind—among the tribal people of Chhattisgarh, setting up the worker's hospital in Dalli-Rajhara, pradeep. 5 November 2009 – A left-handed batting all-rounder, Harpreet Singh hails from a small town in interior Chhattisgarh called Dalli Rajhara. He scored 709 runs in seven matches in the Cooch Behar Trophy in 2008-09, which won him the award for the best Under-19 cricketer of the season; as of the census of India 2011 population of Dalli Rajhara is 44363. It has just 11018 Households including House-less; as of the 2001 India census, Dalli-Rajhara had a population of 50,615.
Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Dalli-Rajhara has an average literacy rate of 68%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy is 77% and, female literacy is 58%. In Dalli-Rajhara, 14% of the population is under 6 years of age. Dalli-Rajhara is the twin part of the Rajhara group of mines; these are captive iron ore mines for Bhilai Steel Plant – a SAIL enterprise. Iron ores mined from the area are of the magnetite variety; the other mines in the neighbourhood produce dolomite and other raw materials which go into steel production. Dalli-Rajhara is about 83 km south of Durg and comes under the south-eastern section of the Indian Railways. While both Dalli and Rajhara have mines, the residential area is predominantly in Rajhara. Dalli-Rajhara is a self-sufficient township with BSP having set up hospitals and a considerable number of educational institutes. Dalli-Rajhara rose to prominence as a result of the labour rights movement in the 1970s; the mines are open cast mines and the poignant view as one enters the township at dusk is that of thousands of glittering lights on the hills.
The expert appraisal committee of the ministry had met during the last three days to clear a shelf of stranded projects entailing an investment of nearly Rs 80,000 crore. The EAC has cleared 12 of these projects; the committee is expected to meet shortly again to take a call on the remaining projects. Among those cleared on Saturday are SAIL’s proposed 1 million tonne per annum pellet plant along with upstream slime beneficiation facilities at its Dalli-Rajhara iron ore mine in Chhattisgarh; this area is connected via road with its district balod. It is well connected by bus to the Bastar region; the road is in quite good shape. Only one passenger train runs between Durg. Much development is due on the rail connectivity front. There is an ongoing rail link with Jagdalpur. Union Railway Budget of 2012–13 has proposed new links to existing Durg-Dalli Rajhara Railway line. Ongoing Project of Dalli Rajhara - Rawghat - Jagdalpur.. Extension of Trains: 78816/78815 Dalli rajhara – Durg DEMU to Raipur. New Line Surveys for Extending proposed Dalli Rajhara railway line by constructing it up to Balod-Dhamtari.
New Line Surveys for Dalli Rajhara – Chandrapur via Khadgaon, BharriTola and Manpur. New Line Surveys for Linking Bhanupratappur with Dalli Rajhara – Rawghat under construction rail line and connecting it with Jagdalpur; the majority of the population is depend
Uruguay the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, is a country in the southeastern region of South America. It borders Argentina to its west and Brazil to its north and east, with the Río de la Plata to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast. Uruguay is home to an estimated 3.44 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the metropolitan area of its capital and largest city, Montevideo. With an area of 176,000 square kilometres, Uruguay is geographically the second-smallest nation in South America, after Suriname. Uruguay was inhabited by the Charrúa people for 4,000 years before the Portuguese established Colonia del Sacramento in 1680. Montevideo was founded as a military stronghold by the Spanish in the early 18th century, signifying the competing claims over the region. Uruguay won its independence between 1811 and 1828, following a four-way struggle between Spain and Argentina and Brazil, it remained subject to foreign influence and intervention throughout the 19th century, with the military playing a recurring role in domestic politics.
A series of economic crises put an end to a democratic period that had begun in the early 20th century, culminating in a 1973 coup, which established a civic-military dictatorship. The military government persecuted leftists and political opponents, resulting in several deaths and numerous instances of torture by the military. Uruguay is today a democratic constitutional republic, with a president who serves as both head of state and head of government. Uruguay is ranked first in Latin America in democracy, low perception of corruption, e-government, is first in South America when it comes to press freedom, size of the middle class and prosperity. On a per-capita basis, Uruguay contributes more troops to United Nations peacekeeping missions than any other country, it tops the rank of absence of a unique position within South America. It ranks second in the region on economic freedom, income equality, per-capita income and inflows of FDI. Uruguay is the third-best country on the continent in terms of HDI, GDP growth and infrastructure.
It is regarded as a high-income country by the UN. Uruguay was ranked the third-best in the world in e-Participation in 2014. Uruguay is an important global exporter of combed wool, soybeans, frozen beef and milk. Nearly 95% of Uruguay's electricity comes from renewable energy hydroelectric facilities and wind parks. Uruguay is a founding member of the United Nations, OAS, Mercosur, UNASUR and NAM. Uruguay is regarded as one of the most advanced countries in Latin America, it ranks high on global measures of personal rights and inclusion issues. The Economist named Uruguay "country of the year" in 2013, acknowledging the policy of legalizing the production and consumption of cannabis; the name of the namesake river comes from the Spanish pronunciation of the regional Guarani word for it. There are several interpretations, including "bird-river"; the name could refer to a river snail called uruguá, plentiful in the water. In Spanish colonial times, for some time thereafter and some neighbouring territories were called the Cisplatina and Banda Oriental for a few years the "Eastern Province".
Since its independence, the country has been known as la República Oriental del Uruguay, which means "the eastern republic of the Uruguay ". However, it is translated either as the "Oriental Republic of Uruguay" or the "Eastern Republic of Uruguay"; the documented inhabitants of Uruguay before European colonization of the area were the Charrúa, a small tribe driven south by the Guarani of Paraguay. It is estimated that there were about 9,000 Charrúa and 6,000 Chaná and Guaraní at the time of contact with Europeans in the 1500s. Fructuoso Rivera - Uruguay's first president – organized the Charruas' genocide; the Portuguese were the first Europeans to enter the region of present-day Uruguay in 1512. The Spanish arrived in present-day Uruguay in 1516; the indigenous peoples' fierce resistance to conquest, combined with the absence of gold and silver, limited their settlement in the region during the 16th and 17th centuries. Uruguay became a zone of contention between the Spanish and Portuguese empires.
In 1603, the Spanish began to introduce cattle. The first permanent Spanish settlement was founded in 1624 at Soriano on the Río Negro. In 1669–71, the Portuguese built a fort at Colonia del Sacramento. Montevideo was founded by the Spanish in the early 18th century as a military stronghold in the country, its natural harbor soon developed into a commercial area competing with Río de la Plata's capital, Buenos Aires. Uruguay's early 19th century history was shaped by ongoing fights for dominance in the Platine region, between British, Spanish and other colonial forces. In 1806 and 1807, the British army attempted to seize Buenos Aires and Montevideo as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Montevideo was occupied by a British force from February to September 1807. In 1811, José Gervasio Artigas, who became Uruguay's national hero, launched a successful revolt against the Spanish authorities, defeating them on 18 May at the Battle of Las Piedras. In 1813, the new government in Buenos Aires convened a constituent assembly where Artigas emerged as a champ
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the United States. As of the 2010 Census, it has the highest per-capita income, Human Development Index, median household income in the United States, it is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, New York to the west, Long Island Sound to the south. Its capital is Hartford and its most populous city is Bridgeport, it is part of New England, although portions of it are grouped with New York and New Jersey as the Tri-state area. The state is named for the Connecticut River which bisects the state; the word "Connecticut" is derived from various anglicized spellings of an Algonquian word for "long tidal river". Connecticut's first European settlers were Dutchmen who established a small, short-lived settlement called Fort Hoop in Hartford at the confluence of the Park and Connecticut Rivers. Half of Connecticut was part of the Dutch colony New Netherland, which included much of the land between the Connecticut and Delaware Rivers, although the first major settlements were established in the 1630s by the English.
Thomas Hooker led a band of followers from the Massachusetts Bay Colony and founded the Connecticut Colony. The Connecticut and New Haven colonies established documents of Fundamental Orders, considered the first constitutions in America. In 1662, the three colonies were merged under a royal charter; this was one of the Thirteen Colonies. Connecticut is the third smallest state by area, the 29th most populous, the fourth most densely populated of the 50 states, it is known as the "Constitution State", the "Nutmeg State", the "Provisions State", the "Land of Steady Habits". It was influential in the development of the federal government of the United States; the Connecticut River, Thames River, ports along Long Island Sound have given Connecticut a strong maritime tradition which continues today. The state has a long history of hosting the financial services industry, including insurance companies in Hartford and hedge funds in Fairfield County. Landmarks and cities of Connecticut Connecticut is bordered on the south by Long Island Sound, on the west by New York, on the north by Massachusetts, on the east by Rhode Island.
The state capital and fourth largest city is Hartford, other major cities and towns include Bridgeport, New Haven, Waterbury, Danbury, New Britain and Bristol. Connecticut is larger than the country of Montenegro. There are 169 incorporated towns in Connecticut; the highest peak in Connecticut is Bear Mountain in Salisbury in the northwest corner of the state. The highest point is just east of where Connecticut and New York meet, on the southern slope of Mount Frissell, whose peak lies nearby in Massachusetts. At the opposite extreme, many of the coastal towns have areas that are less than 20 feet above sea level. Connecticut has a long maritime history and a reputation based on that history—yet the state has no direct oceanfront; the coast of Connecticut sits on Long Island Sound, an estuary. The state's access to the open Atlantic Ocean is both to the east; this situation provides many safe harbors from ocean storms, many transatlantic ships seek anchor inside Long Island Sound when tropical cyclones pass off the upper East Coast.
The Connecticut River cuts through the center of the state. The most populous metropolitan region centered within the state lies in the Connecticut River Valley. Despite Connecticut's small size, it features wide regional variations in its landscape. Connecticut's rural areas and small towns in the northeast and northwest corners of the state contrast with its industrial cities such as Stamford and New Haven, located along the coastal highways from the New York border to New London northward up the Connecticut River to Hartford. Many towns in northeastern and northwestern Connecticut center around a green, such as the Litchfield Green, Lebanon Green, Wethersfield Green. Near the green stand historical visual symbols of New England towns, such as a white church, a colonial meeting house, a colonial tavern or inn, several colonial houses, so on, establishing a scenic historical appearance maintained for both historic preservation and tourism. Many of the areas in southern and coastal Connecticut have been built up and rebuilt over the years, look less visually like traditional New England.
The northern boundary of the state with Massachusetts is marked by the Southwick Jog or Granby Notch, an 2.5 miles square detour into Connecticut. The origin of this anomaly is established in a long line of disputes and temporary agreements which were concluded in 1804, when southern Southwick's residents sought to leave Massachusetts, the town was split in half; the southwestern border of Connecticut where it abuts New York State is marked by a panhandle in Fairfield County, containing the towns of Greenwich, New Canaan and parts of Norwalk and Wilton. This irregularity in the boundary is the result of territorial disputes in the late 17th century, culminating
Balod is a town in banks of river Tandula and a nagar palika in Balod district in the state of Chhattisgarh, India. Balod is 58 km from Durg. Balod has one college, one court, one CHC, a jail. Medical facilities are good in Balod. There are two Dams nearby Tandula and Aadmabaad built on rivers sukha and tandula in 1912. On 1 January 2012 it was notified as Civil District though revenue district was declared from 10 January 2012. Balod became the 27th district of Chhattishgarh. There are several religious temples nearby town Ganga Maiyya temple and Siyadevi temple hold great religious value for the townsfolk; as of August 2018 the district collector of Balod is Shri Saransh Mittar. Balod is located at 20.73°N 81.2°E / 20.73. It has an average elevation of 324 metres; as of 2001 India census, Balod had a population of 21,044. Males constitute 51% of the population and females 49%. Balod has an average literacy rate of 73%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. 13% of the population is under 6 years of age
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient, non-theistic, Indian religion. Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of 24 victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, twenty-third being Parshvanatha in 8th century BC and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology; the main religious premises of Jainism are anekāntavāda, aparigraha and asceticism. Devout Jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā, asteya and aparigraha; these principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles.
Parasparopagraho Jīvānām is the motto of Jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most basic prayer in Jainism. Jainism has Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; the Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices and which Jain texts can be considered canonical. Jain mendicants are found in all Jain sub-traditions except Kanji Panth sub-tradition, with laypersons supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources. Jainism has between five million followers, with most Jains residing in India. Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname and the United States. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, Diwali; the principle of ahimsa is a fundamental tenet of Jainism. It believes that one must abandon all violent activity, without such a commitment to non-violence all religious behavior is worthless. In Jain theology, it does not matter how correct or defensible the violence may be, one must not kill any being, "non-violence is one's highest religious duty".
Jain texts such as Acaranga Sūtra and Tattvarthasūtra state that one must renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, movable or immovable. Its theology teaches that one must neither kill another living being, nor cause another to kill, nor consent to any killing directly or indirectly. Furthermore, Jainism emphasizes non-violence against all beings not only in action but in speech and in thought, it states that instead of hate or violence against anyone, "all living creatures must help each other". Violence negatively affects and destroys one's soul when the violence is done with intent, hate or carelessness, or when one indirectly causes or consents to the killing of a human or non-human living being; the idea of reverence for non-violence is founded in Hindu and Buddhist canonical texts, it may have origins in more ancient Brahmanical Vedic thoughts. However, no other Indian religion has developed the non-violence doctrine and its implications on everyday life as has Jainism.
The theological basis of non-violence as the highest religious duty has been interpreted by some Jain scholars not to "be driven by merit from giving or compassion to other creatures, nor a duty to rescue all creatures", but resulting from "continual self-discipline", a cleansing of the soul that leads to one's own spiritual development which affects one's salvation and release from rebirths. Causing injury to any being in any form creates bad karma which affects one's rebirth, future well being and suffering. Late medieval Jain scholars re-examined the Ahiṃsā doctrine when one is faced with external threat or violence. For example, they justified violence by monks to protect nuns. According to Dundas, the Jain scholar Jinadatta Suri wrote during a time of Muslim destruction of temples and persecution that "anybody engaged in a religious activity, forced to fight and kill somebody would not lose any spiritual merit but instead attain deliverance". However, such examples in Jain texts that condone fighting and killing under certain circumstances are rare.
The second main principle of Jainism is anekāntavāda or anekantatva, a word derived from anekānta and vada. The anekāntavāda doctrine states that reality is complex and always has multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to express it with language. Human attempts to communicate is Naya, explained as "partial expression of the truth". Language is not Truth. From Truth, according to Mahāvīra, language returns and not the other way round. One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot express that taste through language. Any attempts to express the experience is syāt, or valid "in some respect" but it remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete". In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced. Since reality is many-sided the great error, according to Jainism, is ekānta where some relative truth is treated as an absolute truth to the exclusion of others.
The anekāntavāda premise of the Jains is ancient, as evidenced by its mention in Buddhist texts such as the Samaññapha