The Blue Network was the on-air name of the now defunct American radio network, which ran from 1927 to 1945. Beginning as one of the two radio networks owned by the National Broadcasting Company, the independent Blue Network was born of a divestiture in 1942, arising from anti-trust litigation, is the direct predecessor of the American Broadcasting Company —organized 1943–1945 as a separate independent radio network and TV broadcaster; the Blue Network dates to 1923, when the Radio Corporation of America acquired WJZ Newark from Westinghouse and moved it to New York City in May of that year. When RCA commenced operations of WRC, Washington on August 1, 1923, the root of a network was born, though it did not operate under the name by which it would become known. Radio historian Elizabeth McLeod states that it would not be until 1924 that the "Radio Group" formally began network operations; the core stations of the "Radio Group" were RCA's stations WJZ and WRC. RCA's principal rival prior to 1926 was the radio broadcasting department of the American Telephone & Telegraph Company.
AT&T, starting in 1921, had been using this department as a test-bed for equipment being designed and manufactured by its Western Electric subsidiary. The RCA stations operated at a significant disadvantage to their rival chain; the WJZ network sought to compete toe-to-toe with the AT&T network, built around WEAF. For example, both stations sent announcer teams to cover the 1924 Democratic National Convention, held in Madison Square Garden in New York City. Promotional material produced in 1943 claimed certain "firsts" in broadcasting by WJZ, such as the first educational music program in April 1922, the first World Series broadcasts in 1922, the first complete opera broadcast, The Flying Dutchman, from the Manhattan Opera House. RCA were to receive a break in 1926, when AT&T made a corporate decision to exit the broadcasting business and focus on its telecommunications business; the first step by AT&T was to create the Broadcasting Company of America on May 15, 1926, to hold its broadcasting assets, which included WEAF and WCAP in Washington.
As reported in the press, this move was due to the growth in the radio broadcasting activities of AT&T and the special issues related thereto, though it would appear that subsequent activities in disposing of the assets of BCA may have played a role in the decision. AT&T did in fact subsequently sell WEAF to RCA for $1 million in July 1926, a price that newspaper reports indicated was a substantial premium over what other stations were commanding in the marketplace, represented a recognition of the status of WEAF in broadcasting, as well as its access to AT&T's lines. Indeed, the negotiations for the sale may have taken place shortly after the creation of BCA, as Folder 129 in the NBC History Files at the Library of Congress contains a contract of sale for WEAF dated July 1, 1926; the Oakland Tribune stated that 4/5ths of the purchase price of WEAF could be attributed to good-will and the line access. On July 28, 1926, the Washington Post reported in a front-page story that RCA had acquired WCAP.
The Oakland Tribune reported the same day that WCAP had departed the field, WRC would be operating on the frequency that they had shared, 640 AM. As part of the reorganization of the broadcasting assets in the wake of the acquisitions, on September 13, 1926, the formation of the National Broadcasting Company was announced via newspaper advertisements, on November 15, 1926 NBC's first broadcast was made; this first broadcast on November 15, 1926 marked NBC's de facto formation of the NBC Red Network from the WEAF network assets, using WEAF as the "key station". RCA merged its former radio operations into NBC, on January 1, 1927, WJZ became the "key station" of the Blue Network when its network switch operations began; the Decatur Review for Sunday, December 12, 1926 reported the following in an article describing a broadcast to be sponsored by the Victor Talking Machine Company and aired the following New Year's Day, January 1, 1927, a description of this first Blue Network broadcast—note that it makes it clear that January 1, 1927 marked the debut of the Blue Network: "TWO BIG NETWORKS: The network to be used for the first concert will consist of a combination of chains of stations affiliated with WEAF and WJZ, New York.
It is announced that this opening Victor program inaugurates a new chain system to be operated by the National Broadcasting Company, with WJZ as the "key" station. This new chain, which will be known as the "blue" network, will allow simultaneous broadcasting from WJZ through WBZ, Springfield and Boston, KDKA, KYW, Chicago. For broadcasting of the first program, the "blue" network will be joined with the "red" network, as the WEAF chain is designated, as well as other stations in various cities. Following the New Year's night program, the concerts will be given bi-monthly, through the "blue" network" Allegedly, the color design
John Crosby (media critic)
John Crosby was an American newspaper columnist, radio-television critic, novelist and TV host. After winning a Personal Peabody Award for his radio criticism in 1946, he became a member of the Peabody Awards Board of Jurors, serving from 1947 to 1962. During the 1950s, he was regarded as the leading critic of television. Born in Milwaukee, Crosby was the son of Fred G. Crosby and the former Edna Campbell, his father was in the insurance business. After graduating from New Hampshire's Phillips Exeter Academy, Crosby attended Yale but left minus a degree. In 1933, he was a reporter with The Milwaukee Sentinel, moving on to The New York Herald Tribune. During World War II, he spent five years with the Army News Service. In the post-war years, he returned to the Herald Tribune and began writing about radio, widening his horizon to television in 1952; that same year, his book-length collection of columns, Out of the Blue, was published, prompting Lewis Gannett to comment: "Crosby is at his best when he engages in the art of amiable murder.
He can, by his special personalized art of denunciation, make the most brainless radio program interesting, at least in its death pangs. He slays with zest." Crosby once observed, "A radio critic is forced to be literate about the illiterate, witty about the witless and coherent about the incoherent." Crosby was known for caustic remarks about the television industry. One of his most notable quotes came upon the cancellation of Edward R. Murrow's television series See It Now: "See it Now... is by every criterion television's most brilliant, most decorated, most imaginative, most courageous and most important program. The fact that CBS cannot afford it but can afford Beat the Clock is shocking." Crosby was so respected that he became one of the first media critics to host a television show: the Emmy-winning anthology series The Seven Lively Arts, on CBS. Telecast on Sunday afternoons, it lasted a single season, from late 1957 to early 1958, with individual episodes on such subjects as jazz and films.
The program was notable for showcasing the first telecast of Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker. From 1965 to 1975 he was a columnist for The Observer, he married Mary B. Wolferth in 1946, they divorced in 1959, his second wife, the former Katharine J. B. Wood, was a former fashion editor of Edinburgh's The Scotsman, he had two children with Mary. His children with Katharine are Victoria, his children with Mary are Mike. In 1977, he moved to a farm outside Esmont and turned to writing suspense novels, including Men in Arms, he died of cancer in 1991 in Esmont. Among those he wrote: Out Of the Blue With Love And Loathing Never Let Her Go Affair Of Strangers Nightfall The Company Of Friends Snake (1977 Dear Judgment Party Of the Year Penelope Now Men In Arms Take No Prisoners - an Horatio Cassidy Adventure Contract On the President The Family Worth Party Of the Year With Excerpts From the Legend Of the Di Castigliones Annotated American Experience John Crosby on Betty White
Arsenal Technical High School
Arsenal Technical High School referred to as Tech or Arsenal Tech, is a public high school in Indianapolis, United States, run by the Indianapolis Public Schools district. The school is located on a 76-acre, multiple building campus east of downtown Indianapolis, is the only such type school in Indiana; the school's campus served as a U. S. Civil War era Arsenal from 1864 until 1903, when it was closed following the Spanish–American War. A few years the school opened in 1912 under founder Milo H. Stuart. A number of extant buildings dating back to military use are still open and serve academic purposes for the school, such as the Arsenal building and the Barracks. In addition, a number of additional buildings were built in the following decades to accommodate the school's functions. Due to the significance of the school's campus and history, Arsenal Technical was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. Arsenal Technical offers four academic programs at the school; these include the New Tech program, the Math and Science program, the Law and Public Policy program, the Career Technology Center.
Arsenal Technical High School, once a United States Arsenal, includes a Civil War armory complex and 20th-century buildings on its campus. The campus has dual significance as the oldest military installation in central Indiana, the third oldest high school in Indianapolis. Following the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency of the United States, the prospect of civil war was evident. Indiana governor Oliver P. Morton ordered the temporary creation of an Indiana arsenal in 1861 on the present grounds of the Indiana State House. However, it soon became clear that the location would not suffice, in 1862, Congress passed an act "providing for a permanent National Arsenal at Indianapolis"; the current location was chosen by army planners because it had close access to downtown Indianapolis, but was far enough outside the city limits that it would not disrupt any neighborhoods. The first soldiers arrived in 1865; the location was used to store heavy artillery, lighter arms, some munitions, was maintained by the United States government until 1903.
About fifteen different commanders and fifty soldiers were stationed at the Arsenal during its years of operation. After the Spanish–American War, arsenals were dubbed obsolete for military needs; as a result, in 1903, the title to the Arsenal grounds was sold at public auction to an Indianapolis public trust, which aimed to keep the property intact as the site of a school or park. In 1904, the Winona Agricultural and Technical Institute established an Indianapolis school on the site; the Indianapolis public trust planned to execute the deed to the Institute upon proof of sufficient endowment. As a result, a case was filed and venued to the Hendricks County Circuit Court by the Indianapolis public trust. Following years of litigation, including an appeal to the Indiana Supreme Court, a 1916 ruling gave the site to the Indianapolis Public Schools district, which had expressed interest in the site; the Indianapolis Public Schools district had been leasing the site since 1912, although it was granted the site's title in 1916.
The school district operated Arsenal Technical Schools. Milo H. Stuart, the principal of Manual Training High School, opened Arsenal Technical High School on the grounds as the school's inaugural principal; the school occupies many extant buildings original to the days of the site's usage as an Arsenal. Regardless, in the decades following the opening of the school, many new buildings were added to accommodate the school's functions; these buildings include Stuart Hall and the Howard Longshore Stadium, which were built using New Deal funds. The most recent building addition to the campus was in 2012, with the opening of a community center known as the Chase Legacy Building. Arsenal Technical offers four academic programs at the school; these include the New Tech program, the Math and Science program, the Law and Public Policy program, the Career Technology Center. The New Tech program is a project-based program in a technology-driven, college preparatory environment, with resources provided by the New Tech Network.
Students can take both dual credit and Advanced Placement courses, are provided with individual laptops. The Math and Science program is a traditional college-preparatory program with a focus on the STEM field. Students are offered double blocks in science as well as Advanced Placement courses. Students can explore a number of pathways ranging from engineering to biomedical sciences to information technology; the Law and Public Policy program is a humanities program with a focus on law-based education. Students can take Advanced Placement courses, participate in mock trial and student court programs, take specific courses in the law field such as Street Law, Law Education and Debate; the program has partnerships with several institutions of high education including Butler University, the Indiana University McKinney School of Law, Vincennes University. The Career Technology Center is a vocational program offering both academic- and career-based pathways; these programs range from Rescue to Automotive Services.
Certain pathways operate businesses on the school campus. A number of extant buildings date back to the history of the site's usage
The Garry Moore Show
The Garry Moore Show is the name for several separate American variety series on the CBS television network in the 1950s and 1960s. Hosted by experienced radio performer Garry Moore, the series helped launch the careers of many comedic talents, such as Dorothy Loudon, Don Adams, George Gobel, Carol Burnett, Don Knotts, Lee Goodman, James Kirkwood, Jr. and Jonathan Winters. The Garry Moore Show wins; the show started as a radio program. His radio partner since 1940, Durward Kirby, made the move to TV with him, appeared throughout all three versions of the TV show; the first incarnation of the show began in June 1950 as a Monday-through-Friday, 30-minute evening series. It was simulcast on radio; the show changed to a one-hour format by August. Another prime time edition, The Garry Moore Evening Show, alternated with The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show on Thursday nights from September through December 1951. In the fall of 1950, Moore moved to a daytime show on CBS, at first in the early afternoon and in mid-morning.
The series featured a relaxed and flexible combination of comedy skits, monologues and interaction with the studio audience, was an important commercial success for CBS. It ran in this format until mid-1958. In 1958, Moore ended the previous show because of his demanding work schedule, but he returned in the fall with a weekly, hour-long evening series, with the same title and similar format. Allen Funt's Candid Camera segments became a regular feature of this series, along with a lengthy recap segment called "That Wonderful Year". In 1959, Moore produced two LP records on the Warner Bros. label, That Wonderful Year, 1930 and That Wonderful Year, 1940. In its first season, this version of The Garry Moore Show faced competition on NBC from the drama series with a Western setting, The Californians, the ABC crime/police reality show, hosted by Jack Wyatt; the cast of the second version included Marion Lorne, rising star Carol Burnett, who honed her comedic skills for her own future successful variety show.
In addition to the performances of the cast and guests, vocal performers included the George Becker Singers and the dancers under the choreography of Ernest Flatt, including lead dancer Don Crichton. Bob Banner was the executive producer, Joe Hamilton was series producer, Irwin Kostal was the orchestra leader. In the summer of 1960, the series was replaced for nine weeks by the Patrick O'Neal medical/police drama Diagnosis: Unknown; the Garry Moore Show was removed from the CBS line-up in 1964, at Moore's request, to take a long-needed vacation which lasted more than two years. Moore returned with yet another version of the show in the fall of this time it was in color. Due to tough competition from Bonanza on NBC, the show was cancelled after only four months, it was replaced on the CBS schedule by The Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour. As of 2012, at least four episodes of the second version of the show are available on DVD. - The Garry Moore Show Presents: A Carol Burnett Christmas features the Christmas episodes from 1959, 1960, 1961.
Guests included Mahalia Jackson and Henry Morgan, Jonathan Winters and Louise O'Brien, Julie Andrews and Gwen Verdon. The 1961 show includes Julie's earliest televised recording of "My Favorite Things", three years before filming The Sound of Music. - The Carol Burnett Show: Carol's Favorites includes as a bonus feature the March 6, 1962, episode where Burnett, playing Supergirl, delivers her first televised "Tarzan yell". The episode guests included Alan King and Barbara McNair, a peek at the end credits shows how a lot of the production and writing staff on whom she relied during her own show came from those with whom she worked The Garry Moore Show. Museum of Broadcast Communications page for Garry Moore The Garry Moore Show on IMDb Summary web site for the 1958–64 and 1966–67 versions of The Garry Moore Show
Carol Creighton Burnett is an American actress, comedian and writer, whose career spans seven decades of television. She is best known for her groundbreaking television variety show, The Carol Burnett Show aired on CBS, it was the first of its kind to be hosted by a woman. She has achieved success on stage and film in varying genres including dramatic and comedic roles, she has appeared on various talk shows and as a panelist on game shows. Born in San Antonio, Burnett moved with her grandmother to Hollywood, where she attended Hollywood High School and studied theater and musical comedy at UCLA, she performed in nightclubs in New York City and had a breakout success on Broadway in 1959 in Once Upon a Mattress, for which she received a Tony Award nomination. She soon made her television debut appearing on The Garry Moore Show for the next three years, won her first Emmy Award in 1962. Burnett had her television special debut in 1963 when she starred as Calamity Jane in the Dallas State Fair Musicals production of Calamity Jane on CBS.
Burnett moved to Los Angeles and began an 11-year run as star of The Carol Burnett Show on CBS television from 1967 to 1978. With its vaudeville roots, The Carol Burnett Show was a variety show that combined comedy sketches with song and dance; the comedy sketches included film parodies and character pieces. Burnett created many memorable characters during the show's run, both she and the show won numerous Emmy and Golden Globe Awards. During and after her variety show, Burnett appeared in many film projects, her film roles include Pete'n' Tillie, The Front Page, The Four Seasons, Noises Off, Horton Hears a Who!. On television, she has appeared in other sketch shows, she returned to the Broadway stage in 1995 in Moon Over Buffalo, for which she was again nominated for a Tony Award. Burnett has written and narrated several memoirs, earning Grammy nominations for all of them, a win for In Such Good Company: Eleven Years Of Laughter, And Fun In The Sandbox. In 2005, she was recognized as "one of America's most cherished entertainers" and awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom "for enhancing the lives of millions of Americans and for her extraordinary contributions to American entertainment."
Burnett was born in San Antonio, Texas, on April 26, 1933, the daughter of Ina Louise, a publicity writer for movie studios, Joseph Thomas Burnett, a movie theater manager. Her maternal grandparents were Mabel Eudora "Mae" Jones. Both of her parents were alcoholics, at a young age, she was left with her grandmother, Mabel Eudora White, her parents divorced in the late 1930s, she and her grandmother moved to a one-room apartment near her mother's in an impoverished area of Hollywood, California. There they stayed in a boarding house with Burnett's younger half-sister Chrissie; when Burnett was in second grade, she invented an imaginary twin sister named Karen, with Shirley Temple-like dimples. She recalled that, motivated to further the pretense, she "fooled the other boarders in the rooming house where we lived by frantically switching clothes and dashing in and out of the house by the fire escape and the front door. I became exhausted and Karen mysteriously vanished." When Burnett was nine, she taught herself how to do the "Tarzan yell", which she realized years was a good vocal exercise for volume, it became a fan favorite.
Burnett's first experiences with singing occurred with her family. Her grandmother was a trained musician who could play the piano, her mother played a ukulele, so they would sometimes sing popular songs in harmony together around the kitchen table, her grandmother would take Burnett and her sister to the movies - as well as take a few rolls of toilet paper home from the theater. Years the movies she saw in her youth would be an influence on the sketch content in The Carol Burnett Show. For a while, she worked as an usherette at the Warner Brothers Theater; when the cinema screened Alfred Hitchcock's Strangers on a Train, having seen and enjoyed the film, she advised two patrons arriving during the last five minutes of a showing to wait until the beginning of the next showing to avoid spoiling the ending for them, but the couple insisted on being seated. The manager observed Burnett not letting the couple in and fired her, stripping the epaulettes from her uniform on the spot. Years in the 1970s after achieving TV stardom, when the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce offered her a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, they asked her where she wanted it.
She replied "Right in front of where the old Warner Brothers Theater was, at Hollywood and Wilcox", where it was placed, at 6439 Hollywood Blvd. After graduating from Hollywood High School in 1951, she received an anonymous envelope containing $50 for one year's tuition at UCLA, where she planned on studying journalism. During her first year of college, she switched her focus to theatre arts and English, with the goal of becoming a playwright, she found. She followed a sudden impulse in her first performance.
Allen Albert Funt was an American television producer, director and television personality best known as the creator and host of Candid Camera from the 1940s to 1980s, as either a regular television show or a television series of specials. Its most notable run was from 1960 to 1967 on CBS. Funt was born into a Jewish family in New York, his father Isidore Funt was a diamond wholesaler, his mother was Paula Saferstein Funt. Allen graduated from high school at age 15. Too young to attend college on his own, he studied at Pratt Institute, he earned a bachelor's degree in fine arts from Cornell University, studied business administration at Columbia University returned to Pratt for additional art instruction. Trained in commercial art, Funt worked for an advertising agency in their art department, but he moved to its radio department. Among his first jobs for radio, he wrote for Truth or Consequences and assisted US First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt with her radio commentaries. Drafted into the military during World War II and stationed in Oklahoma, Funt served in the Army Signal Corps making radio shows.
He began the show on ABC Radio as The Candid Microphone on June 28, 1947, it ran until September 23, 1948. The program was revived on CBS June 6 – August 29, 1950, he soon experimented with a visual version by doing a series of theatrical short films known as Candid Microphone. These film shorts served as a springboard for his entrance into television on August 10, 1948; the show ran on all three major TV networks and in syndication while hosted by Allen Funt until he was sidelined by a stroke in 1993. The syndicated version of Candid Camera was broadcast from 1974 to 1979. Funt wrote several books, beginning with Eavesdropper at Large: Adventures in Human Nature with "Candid Mike", he followed Candid Kids with Candidly, Allen Funt: A Million Smiles Later. During the 1970s, Funt made two documentary films based on the hidden camera theme: the X-rated What Do You Say to a Naked Lady? and Money Talks. In the 1980s, Funt produced. Funt donated his recordings and films to his alma mater Cornell University and established a fellowship at Syracuse University for postgraduate studies in radio and television "aimed at providing the broadcast industry with qualified black personnel."He established a foundation which used laughter therapy for ill patients by providing videocassettes of his recordings.
He taught psychology at Monterey Peninsula College. In 1946, Funt married Evelyn Michal with whom he had three children, Peter and John. In 1964 the couple was divorced and the same year Funt married Marilyn Laron, whom he divorced in 1978; the couple had two children and William. Funt had seven grandchildren. On February 3, 1969, his wife, his two youngest children boarded Eastern Airlines Flight 7 in Newark, New Jersey with a destination of Miami, Florida. While en route, two men demanded passage to Cuba. However, some of the passengers, having spotted Funt, believed the whole thing to be a Candid Camera stunt. Funt attempted to persuade his fellow passengers as to the reality of the hijacking, but to no avail; the plane landed in Cuba convincing the passengers. He amassed a collection of works by the Victorian painter Lawrence Alma-Tadema and engineered an exhibition of them at the Metropolitan Museum Of Art; the collection's value skyrocketed as a result, Funt sold them at a handsome profit. Funt resided in Westchester County, New York.
His estate, White Gates, was sold to opera singer Jessye Norman in the early 1990s. Funt purchased a 1,226 acre ranch located 12 mi south of Carmel near Big Sur, California, "where he raised Hereford cattle and quarter horses" Funt owned the property for over 30 years and purchased the nearby 11-acre Bixby Ranch where he resided. Both ranches were bought by The Trust for Public Land which expected to turn the land over to the US Forest Service. After a stroke in 1993, he became incapacitated and died in 1999 in Pebble Beach, California, 11 days before his 85th birthday. Candid Camera continued with Peter Funt, as host. Alma-Tadema compiled by Russell Ash, Sotheby's Belgravia, 1973 "Allen Funt". Find a Grave. Retrieved September 14, 2010. Allen Funt on IMDb
Summer stock theatre
In American theater, summer stock theatre is a theatre that presents stage productions only in the summer. The name combines the season with the tradition of staging shows by a resident company, reusing stock scenery and costumes. Summer stock theatres take advantage of seasonal weather by having their productions outdoors or under tents set up temporarily for their use; some smaller theatres still continue this tradition, a few summer stock theatres have become regarded by both patrons as well as performers and designers. Equity status and pay for actors in these theatres varies greatly. Viewed as a starting point for professional actors, stock casts are young, just out of high school or still in college. Summer stock started in 1919-1920s with four theatres: The Muny, St. Louis, Mo. is the nation's oldest and largest outdoor musical theatre. Many of the theatres of the heyday, the 1920s through the 1960s, were in New England. Part of the "straw hat circuit," theatres were in New York and Ohio, among other states.
The structure was to present different plays in weekly or biweekly repertory, performed by a resident company between June and September. The usual fare consisted of light comedies and mysteries; the theatres were located in rural areas. Touring companies would carry hand props and costumes to each venue, where sound and set would be awaiting them. Summer stock provided a training ground for actors and inexpensive entertainment for vacationing East Coast urbanites. Craig Mamrick describes Louis Edmonds' early summer stock experience: "Louis spent the summer of 1949 working as part of the repertory company at the Ogunquit Playhouse in Ogunquit, Maine... The Ogunquit Playhouse was affiliated with the Manhattan Theatre Colony, an apprentice program that hopeful actors could attend to learn their craft and observe—and work with—professionals; such stage luminaries as Maude Adams, Ethel Barrymore, Lilian Gish, Ruth Gordon had trod the boards here. Students took classes in acting, stagecraft and voice, if they were talented enough, they might be asked to appear in plays with the resident acting company."
Additionally, many notable performers spent their summers on the circuit. Plays and musicals that had closed on Broadway would play the circuit. By 1950, there were 152 Equity companies, including the Ogunquit Playhouse and Skowhegan Playhouse in Maine; the Westport Country Playhouse in Connecticut, since renovated with the support of Joanne Woodward and Paul Newman, was part of the summer stock circuit. The circuit toured in the Southeast during the winter. Venues included the Beacham Theater in Orlando and the Royal Poinciana Playhouse in Palm Beach, Florida where performers from Bob Cummings in 1958 to Arlene Francis and Richard Chamberlain appeared. Stars of Broadway and television would spend summers performing in stock; the Council of Stock Theatres negotiated a special contract with Actors Equity to cover the work of actors and stage managers. John Kenley, an Ohio-based producer, ran his own summer stock circuit, Kenley Players, in Columbus, Warren, the Carousel Theatre in Akron, Canton and sent many of the shows to an affiliated theatre in Flint, Michigan.
Starting in 1958 performers such as Dan Dailey in Guys and Dolls, Barbara Eden in Lady in the Dark, Howard Keel in Kismet appeared. Kenley cast "movie stars and television personalities" who were nationally known. During Gypsy Rose Lee's engagement in Auntie Mame at the Warren theatre, Erik Preminger wrote: "Working for him was a joy. Everything about his operation was first-class from the director and supporting cast he had assembled through the scenery and costumes... He was attentive, supportive." Performers such as Paul Lynde, Bill Bixby, Karen Morrow, Phyllis Diller, Andy Devine, Gordon MacRae and Patrice Munsel starred in Kenley stock productions. Ethel Merman performed in Call Me Madam at the Kenley Players in 1968; the Cape Playhouse in Dennis, Massachusetts opened in 1927 with The Guardsman, starring Basil Rathbone, has continued through the 2009 season with Hunter Foster and Malcolm Gets. The Ogunquit Playhouse, begun in 1933, attracted performers such as Maude Adams, Ethel Barrymore, Laurette Taylor in the early years and more Sally Struthers, Lucie Arnaz, Lorenzo Lamas.
Performers such as Ginger Rogers, Douglas Fairbanks Jr. Angela Lansbury, Bob Hope, Sergio Franchi, Zero Mostel, Ann Miller, Jane Powell, Debbie Reynolds performed at the Cape Cod Music Circus and its sister theatre, the South Shore Music Circus. Colleen Dewhurst wrote of her experiences in summer stock as a new actress: "My first professional jobs were in summer stock, in small and large companies that presented ten plays in ten weeks from June until Labor Day... At that time, the core of each summer stock company was made up of