Dutch Cape Colony

The Cape Colony was a Dutch East India Company colony in Southern Africa, centered on the Cape of Good Hope, whence it derived its name. The original colony and its successive states that the colony was incorporated into occupied much of modern South Africa. Between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the Dutch East India Company. Jan van Riebeeck established the colony as a re-supply and layover port for vessels of the Dutch East India Company trading with Asia; the Cape came under Dutch rule from 1652 to 1795 and again from 1803 to 1806. Much to the dismay of the shareholders of the Dutch East India Company, who focused on making profits from the Asian trade, the colony expanded into a settler colony in the years after its founding; as the only permanent settlement of the Dutch East India Company not serving as a trading post, it proved an ideal retirement place for employees of the company. After several years of service in the company, an employee could lease a piece of land in the colony as een Vryburgher, on which he had to cultivate crops that he had to sell to the Dutch East India Company for a fixed price.

As these farms were labour-intensive, Vryburghers imported slaves from Madagascar and Asia, which increased the number of inhabitants. After King Louis XIV of France revoked the Edict of Nantes, which had protected the right of Huguenots in France to practise Protestant worship without persecution from the state, the colony attracted many Huguenot settlers, who mixed with the general Vryburgher population. Due to the authoritarian rule of the Company, some farmers tried to escape the rule of the company by moving further inland; the Company, in an effort to control these migrants, established a magistracy at Swellendam in 1745 and another at Graaff Reinet in 1786, declared the Gamtoos River as the eastern frontier of the colony, only to see the Trekboere cross it soon afterwards. In order to avoid collision with the Bantu peoples advancing south and west from east central Africa, the Dutch agreed in 1780 to make the Great Fish River the boundary of the colony. In 1795, after the Battle of Muizenberg in present-day Cape Town, the British occupied the colony.

Under the terms of the Peace of Amiens of 1802, Britain returned the colony to the Dutch on 1 March 1803, but as the Batavian Republic had since nationalized the Dutch East India Company, the colony came under the direct rule of The Hague. Renewed Dutch control did not last long, however, as the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars invalidated the Peace of Amiens. In January 1806, the British occupied the colony for a second time after the Battle of Blaauwberg at present-day Bloubergstrand; the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814 confirmed the transfer of sovereignty to Great Britain. However most of the Dutch settlers remained in the colony under new leadership of the British. Traders of the Dutch East India Company, under the command of Jan van Riebeeck, were the first people to establish a European colony in South Africa; the Cape settlement was built by them in 1652 as a re-supply point and way-station for Dutch East India Company vessels on their way back and forth between the Netherlands and Batavia in the Dutch East Indies.

The support station became a settler community, the forebears of the Boers, an ethnic group in South Africa known as the Afrikaners. At the time of first European settlement in the Cape, the southwest of Africa was inhabited by San people and Khoikhoi who were pastoral people with a population estimated between 13,000 and 15,000; the Khoisan nomadic people were disgruntled by the disruption of their seasonal visit to the area for which purpose they grazed their cattle at the foot of Table Mountain only to find European settlers occupying and farming the land, leading to the 1st Khoi-Dutch War as part of a series of Khoikhoi-Dutch Wars. After the war, the natives ceded the land to the settlers in 1660. During a visit in 1672, the high-ranking Commissioner Arnout van Overbeke made a formal purchase of the Cape territory, although ceded in 1660, his reason was to "prevent future disputes"; the ability of the European settlers to produce food at the Cape initiated the decline of the nomadic lifestyle of the Khoisan since food was produced at a fixed location.

Thus by 1672 the permanent Khoisan residents living at the Cape had grown substantially. The first school to be build in South Africa by the settlers were for the sake of the slaves, rescued from a Portuguese slaveship and arrived at the Cape with the Amersfoort in 1658. On, the school was attended by the children of the Khoisan and the Free Burghers; the Dutch language was taught at schools as the main medium for commercial purposes, with the result that the Khoisan and the French settlers found themselves speaking Dutch more than their native languages. The principles of Christianity were introduced at the school resulting in the baptisms of many slaves and Khoisan residents. Conflicts with the settlers and the effects of smallpox decimated their numbers in 1713 and 1755, until the breakdown of their tribal society led them to work for the colonists as shepherds and herdsmen; the VOC favoured the idea of freemen at the Cape and many settlers requested to be discharged in order to become free burghers, as a result Jan van Riebeeck approved the notion on favorable conditions and earmarked two areas near the Liesbeek River for farming purposes in 1657.

The two areas which were allocated to the freemen, for agricultural purposes, were named'Groeneveld' and'Dutch Garden'. These areas were separated by the Amste


Gispert is the name of two brands of premium cigars, one produced in Cuba for Habanos S. A. the Cuban state-owned tobacco company, the other produced in Honduras for the Franco-Spanish tobacco monopoly Altadis S. A. a division of Imperial Tobacco. The Cuban Gispert cigar began production in 1940 in Cuba in the Pinar del Rio by Simón Veja Peláez, using tobacco from the Vuelta Arriba. At the beginning, all vitolas were hand-made; the Gispert brand has traditionally been a light-bodied cigar mild in strength compared to most Cuban brands. After the Cuban Revolution in 1959, production of the Gispert brand continued, first under Cubatabaco and by Habanos S. A. at the Carlos Baliño factory, which produced the El Rey del Mundo brand. Over time, sales diminished, the original line of eleven vitolas offered in 1972 had been reduced by 1993 to a few machine-made and hand-finished, machine-made sizes. By 2003, the brand comprised just 0.1% of the total cigar exports of Habanos S. A. and only one vitola remained in production, the Habaneros No. 2.

The Gispert brand was discontinued by Habanos S. A. in 2005. In 2003, Altadis began production of a new Gispert cigar in Honduras to reprise the vintage Cuban brand, it is handmade at the La Flor de Copan Cigar Factory in Honduras using an Ecuador-grown Connecticut-seed wrapper or a maduro wrapper from San Andrés, with a mixture of Honduran and Nicaraguan filler tobacco. It is a mild-to-medium-bodied cigar; the following list of vitolas de salida within the Gispert marque lists their size and ring gauge in Imperial, their vitolas de galera, their common name in American cigar slang. Cenadores Ones - 5​3⁄8" × 44 Coronas - 5​1⁄2" x 42 a Corona Coronas Grandes - 5​5⁄8" x 44 a Gran Corona Habaneros No. 2 - 4​13⁄16" x 40 Petit Coronas de Luxe - 5​1⁄16" x 42 a petit corona


A userscript is a program written in JavaScript, for modifying web pages to augment browsing. On desktop browsers such as Firefox, they are enabled by use of a userscript manager browser extension such as Greasemonkey; the Presto-based Opera-browser-supported userscripts are placed in a designated directory. Userscripts are referred to as Greasemonkey scripts, named after the original userscript manager for Firefox. On Wikipedia, a user scripts feature is enabled for registered users that allows them to install userscripts to augment editing and viewing of the encyclopedia's pages. A userscript manager is a type of browser extension and augmented browsing technology that provides a user interface to manage scripts; the main purpose of a userscript manager is to execute scripts on webpages. The most common operations performed by a userscript manager include downloading, installing, organizing and editing scripts, as well as modifying script permissions. One aspect of userscripts is, they can be uploaded to a userscript repository where they become available to other users for downloading., created by American programmer Jesse Andrews, was the largest such repository for userscripts. Over time, the site was transitioned between various maintainers. All that remains is a mirror, useful for archival purposes. A handful of the most active contributors in the community created OpenUserJS, in use today. Available is Greasy Fork, a repository developed and maintained by Canadian programmer Jason Barnabe. Users of the Greasemonkey and Tampermonkey extensions may choose to install.user.js scripts from any location. List of augmented browsing software Scripting language archival mirror, official website for Greasemonkey