The Dutch Golden Age was a period in the history of the Netherlands spanning the 17th century, in which Dutch trade, science and art were among the most acclaimed in the world. The first section is characterized by the Eighty Years' War, which ended in 1648; the Golden Age continued in peacetime during the Dutch Republic until the end of the century. The transition by the Netherlands to becoming the foremost maritime and economic power in the world has been called the "Dutch Miracle" by historian K. W. Swart. In 1568, the Seven Provinces that signed the Union of Utrecht started a rebellion against Philip II of Spain that led to the Eighty Years' War. Before the Low Countries could be reconquered, a war between England and Spain, the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585-1604, broke out, forcing Spanish troops to halt their advances and leaving them in control of the important trading cities of Bruges and Ghent, but without control of Antwerp, arguably the most important port in the world. Antwerp fell on 17 August 1585, after a siege, the division between the Northern and Southern Netherlands was established.
The United Provinces fought on until the Twelve Years' Truce. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648, which ended the Eighty Years' War between the Dutch Republic and Spain and the Thirty Years' War between other European superpowers, brought the Dutch Republic formal recognition and independence from the Spanish crown. Under the terms of the surrender of Antwerp in 1585, the Protestant population were given four years to settle their affairs before leaving the city and Habsburg territory. Similar arrangements were made in other places. Protestants were well-represented among the skilled craftsmen and rich merchants of the port cities of Bruges and Antwerp. More moved to the north between 1585 and 1630 than Catholics moved in the other direction, although there were many of these. Many of those moving north settled in Amsterdam, transforming what was a small port into one of the most important ports and commercial centres in the world by 1630. In addition to the mass migration of Protestant natives from the southern Netherlands to the northern Netherlands, there were influxes of non-native refugees who had fled from religious persecution Sephardi Jews from Portugal and Spain, Protestants from France.
The Pilgrim Fathers spent time there before their voyage to the New World. Economists Ronald Findlay and Kevin H. O'Rourke attribute part of the Dutch ascendancy to its Protestant work ethic based on Calvinism, which promoted thrift and education; this contributed to "the highest literacy rates in Europe. The abundance of capital made it possible to maintain an impressive stock of wealth, embodied not only in the large fleet but in the plentiful stocks of an array of commodities that were used to stabilize prices and take advantage of profit opportunities." Several other factors contributed to the flowering of trade, the arts and the sciences in the Netherlands during this time. A necessary condition was a supply of cheap energy from windmills and from peat transported by canal to the cities; the invention of the wind powered sawmill enabled the construction of a massive fleet of ships for worldwide trading and for military defense of the republic's economic interests. In the 17th century the Dutch—traditionally able seafarers and keen mapmakers—began to trade with the Far East, as the century wore on, they gained an dominant position in world trade, a position occupied by the Portuguese and Spanish.
In 1602, The Dutch East India Company was founded. It was the first-ever multinational corporation, financed by shares that established the first modern stock exchange; the Company received a Dutch monopoly on Asian trade, which it would keep for two centuries, it became the world's largest commercial enterprise of the 17th century. Spices were imported in bulk and brought huge profits due to the efforts and risks involved and demand; this is remembered to this day in the Dutch word peperduur, meaning something is expensive, reflecting the prices of spices at the time. To finance the growing trade within the region, the Bank of Amsterdam was established in 1609, the precursor to, if not the first true central bank. Although the trade with the Far East was the more famous of the VOC's exploits, the main source of wealth for the Republic was in fact its trade with the Baltic states and Poland. Called the "Mothertrade", the Dutch imported enormous amounts of bulk resources like grain and wood, stockpiling them in Amsterdam so Holland would never lack for basic goods, as well as being able to sell them on for profit.
This meant that unlike their main rivals the Republic wouldn't face the dire repercussions of a bad harvest and the starvation it accompanied, instead profiting when this happened in other states. According to Ronald Findlay and Kevin H. O'Rourke, geography favored the Dutch Republic, contributing to its wealth, they write, "The foundations were laid by taking advantage of location, midway between the Bay of Biscay and the Baltic. Seville and Lisbon and the Baltic ports were too far apart for direct trade between the two terminal points, enabling the Dutch to provide profitable intermediation, carrying salt, wine and silver, colonial products eastward while bringing Baltic grains and naval stor
Valtteri Laurell Pöyhönen is a Finnish jazz guitarist, composer and producer. He is best known as bandleader and composer of the 20-headed Ricky-Tick Big Band and the award-winning jazz-sextet Dalindèo. Valtteri Laurell Pöyhönen grew up in Finland. In 2010 Pöyhönen finished his master studies in jazz composition from the jazz department of the Sibelius Academy in Helsinki, he has studied at the Conservatoire de Paris, the Codarts and Helsinki's Pop and Jazz Conservatory. Since 2009, Pöyhönen has divided his time between Helsinki. In 2003, Pöyhönen founded the jazz-sextet Dalindèo; the group's line-up consists of Valtteri Laurell Pöyhönen, Jose Mäenpää, Petri "Pope" Puolitaival, Rasmus Pailos, Pekka Lehti and Jaska Lukkarinen. Dalindèo's early music was a fusion between hard bop and exotica. From 2013 onwards, heavy surf guitars and rockabilly-sounds have been prominent in the group's sound; the group's fourth studio album Kallio became a huge success, received the prestigious Emma-award as "Jazz Album of the Year" in 2013.
In 2009, after studying composition for a year in Paris, Pöyhönen founded the Ricky-Tick Big Band. The 16-member big band took its name from the Helsinki-based record label Ricky-Tick Records, the original line-up included many of the label's artists, including saxophonist Timo Lassy and trumpetist Jukka Eskola; the group released their self-titled debut album Ricky-Tick Big Band in 2010. In 2012, Pöyhönen met with rapper Paleface and drummer Jaska Lukkarinen to contemplate a collaboration of big band jazz and rap; this resulted in the forming of the 20-piece Ricky-Tick Big Band & Julkinen Sana, with rappers Paleface, Tommy Lindgren and Redrama. The group's debut album Burnaa was released in 2013 and was a critical success, debuting at number four on the Finnish national album chart and staying in the Top 10 for 11 weeks; the group toured all over Finland in jazz and rock festivals. The group's second album Korottaa Panoksii was released in October 2015, again followed by extensive touring all over Finland.
In 2014 premiered Pöyhönen's suite A Nocturnal Affair for big band and tenor sax soloist, commissioned by the UMO Jazz Orchestra, featuring Timo Lassy on tenor saxophone. Pöyhönen has written several string and horn arrangements for rap artist Paleface, including "Palamaan" from the movie soundtrack to Pahan Kukat and the tracks "Snaijjaa", "Vangin Laulu", on the album Maan Tapa. 2013: Emma-award for the jazz album of the year, Dalindèo: Kallio With Dalindèo: Poseidon / Solifer-Lento 12” Go Ahead, Float / Voodoo 12” Open Scenes Vintage Voyage EP New Creation / Another Devil 7” Soundtrack for the Sound Eye Kallio Slavic Souls With Ricky-Tick Big Band & Julkinen Sana: Burnaa Korottaa Panoksii With Ricky-Tick Big Band: Ricky-Tick Big Band Official website Ricky-Tick Big Band & Julkinen Sana Ricky-Tick Big Band Dalindèo
The Neapolis University Paphos is a private university in Paphos, that offers graduate and undergraduate degrees in Economic and Business Studies, Health Sciences, Architecture & Land and Environmental Sciences,Theology and Greek Civilization. In October 2007 the University was registered in the Register of Universities of the Ministry of Education following a decision of the Cabinet. In June 2010 the University took the initial license of operation; the decision was made after a positive recommendation of E. A. I. P. On the basis of the successful response of the provisions of the law, the final authorization will be granted to the University. All programs of the University are recognized by the Republic of Cyprus and all EU countries; the Neapolis University of Pafos, after the submission of request, after thorough evaluation was recognized by the National Academic Recognition and Information Centre of Greece as equivalent institution to the Greek Universities in July 2012. The University's academic programs are focusing in sectors that are critical to the Cyprus economy and are in high demand in the local job market.
Real estate and construction along with the banking and financial sectors represent some of the most critical sectors not only for the Cyprus economy but for the world economy, and, as such, represent major focus of the university’s undergraduate and post-graduate programmes. The university offers undergraduate programmes in: Architecture and Environmental Design Real Estate Valuation and Development Business Administration Financial Studies PsychologyThe University offers post-graduate programmes in: Real Estate Construction Management Business Administration Banking and Finance Educational Psychology The Neapolis University of Pafos operates under the relevant law of private universities in Cyprus. Study programs are evaluated and approved by a special committee, the Evaluation Committee of Private Universities; this Committee has the overall supervision of the operation of the University. In October 2007 the University was registered in the Register of Universities of the Ministry of Education following a decision of the Cabinet.
In June 2010 the University took the initial license of operation and 2015 the Final Licence of operation. The decision was made after a positive recommendation of E. A. I. P. On the basis of the successful response of the provisions of the law, the final authorization granted to the University in January 2015. All programs of the University are recognized by the Republic of Cyprus and all EU countries; the Neapolis University of Pafos, after the submission of request, after thorough evaluation was recognized by the National Academic Recognition and Information Centre of Greece as equivalent institution to the Greek Universities in July 2012. The programs of Architecture and Real Estate are recognized by the Professional and Technical Chamber of Cyprus; the postgraduate programme of the Real Estate has secured, in addition, a certification by the Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors. Corresponding recognitions exist for other courses related to professional bodies; the University Campus has classrooms and amphitheatres, teaching and computer labs, architectural studios, a main library, student dormitories.
Students and staff have access to facilities such as indoor and outdoor hotel-standard restaurant/cafeteria, outdoor swimming pool and snack pool bar, health centre with indoor swimming pool and gym, floodlit tennis courts, car park and 24-hour security service. The University is located in the western coastal Kato Paphos area, adjacent to the beltway and major coastal highway, which makes private and public transportation easy and fast. In addition and staff can benefit from the various amenities of the immediate areas surrounding the Campus. Official website