The Dutch Reformed Church was the largest Christian denomination in the Netherlands from the onset of the Protestant Reformation until 1930. It was the foremost Protestant denomination, and—since 1892—one of the two major Reformed denominations along with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, it spread to the United States, South Africa, Sri Lanka and various other world regions through the Dutch colonization. It was the original denomination of the Dutch Royal Family until being merged into the Protestant Church in the Netherlands, a United church of both Reformed and Evangelical Lutheran theological orientations; the allegiance to the Dutch Reformed Church was a common feature among Dutch immigrant communities around the world, became a crucial part of Afrikaner nationalism in South Africa. It developed during the Protestant Reformation, being shaped theologically by John Calvin, but other major Reformed theologians, it was founded in 1571. The Dutch Reformed Church was shaped by various theological developments and controversies during its history, including Arminianism, the Nadere Reformatie and a number of splits in the 19th century that diversified Dutch Calvinism.
The church functioned until 2004, the year it merged with the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in the Kingdom of the Netherlands to form the Protestant Church in the Netherlands. At the time of the merger, the Church had 2 million members organised in 1,350 congregations. A minority of members of the church chose not to participate in the merger and instead formed the Restored Reformed Church. Before the demise of the Dutch Republic in 1795, the Dutch Reformed Church enjoyed the status of "public" or "privileged" church. Though it was never formally adopted as the state religion, the law demanded that every public official should be a communicant member; the Church had close relations with the Dutch government. A privilege of members of the Dutch Reformed Church was that they could have their businesses open on Sundays, otherwise considered a religious day and not one for business; the Dutch Reformed Church was disestablished in 1795 with the end of the Republic.
Although it remained endorsed by the Royal Family, the Netherlands never had any public church afterwards. The Reformation was a time of religious violence and persecution by the established Catholic Church and governments, in some cases. Efforts to form a Reformed church in the southern provinces stemmed from a secret meeting of Protestant leaders at Antwerp in 1566, despite Spanish repression, many nobles joined the Protestant movement. Two years in 1568, following an attack on the Netherlands by the forces of the Duke of Alba, many Netherlanders fled to the German city of Wesel, where a Synod was convened at which the Belgic Confession and Heidelberg Catechism were adopted, provisions were made for the offices of pastor, elder and deacon; the first Synod of 23 Dutch Reformed leaders was held in October 1571 in the German city of Emden. The Synod of Emden is considered to be the founding of the Dutch Reformed Church, the oldest of the Reformed churches in the Netherlands; the Synod both affirmed the actions of the earlier Synod of Wesel, as well as established presbyterian church government for the Dutch Reformed Church.
The first Synod to be located in the Dutch Republic was held in Dordrecht in 1578. This synodical meeting is not to be confused with the better known Second Synod of Dort of 1618. Large groups of Marranos converted to Christianity. All Marranos, many Jewish groups converted to Christianity around 1649 to the Nederduitsche, Niederdeutsche church on Dutch Reformed Church. In the latter meeting, the Church fathers expelled Arminians and added the Canons of Dort to the Confessions; the Canons of Dort, together with the adopted Belgic Confession and Heidelberg Catechism, were called the Drie formulieren van Enigheid. Most conflicts and splits in the Church arose because of disagreement over the substance and interpretation of these doctrinal documents; the government of the Dutch Republic, which had instigated the Arminians' expulsion, subsequently prohibited the Reformed Church from assembling synodically. No Synod was held in the Netherlands until after the end of the Republic in 1795; the 17th and early 18th centuries were the age of the Dutch Nadere Reformatie, led by Gisbertus Voetius and Wilhelmus à Brakel, influenced by English Puritanism.
In the 19th century, theological liberalism led to splits in the Dutch Reformed Church. King William I of the Netherlands imposed a new form of government for the church, in which the civil authorities selected the commissioners to the National Synod in 1816, making it difficult for ministers to speak out against perceived errors. In 1834, the minister Hendrik de Cock of the town of Ulrum was told by church leaders that he could not preach against certain colleagues, who he believed held erroneous views, he and his congregation seceded from the Dutch Reformed Church. In time, the Afscheiding led to the departure of 120 congregations from the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1886, another separation, the Doleantie, led by Dutch Reformed businessman and politician Abraham Kuyper; the Dutch Reformed Church remained the largest church body in the Netherlands until the middle of the 20th century, when it was overtaken by the Roman Catholic Church. The rapid secularisation of the Netherlands in the 1960s reduced participation in the mainstream Protestant church.
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Herman was a medieval cleric who served as the Bishop of Ramsbury and of Sherborne before and after the Norman conquest of England. In 1075, he oversaw their translation to Salisbury, he died before the completion of the new cathedral. Herman was a native of Flanders; as chaplain of Edward the Confessor, he was named Bishop of Ramsbury shortly after 22 April 1045. He visited Rome in 1050, he was named abbot of Malmesbury Abbey by King Edward in 1055 and planned to move his seat there as well in the hope of increasing the income from his poor see. The king revoked this position after three days, when the monks and Earl Harold objected. Herman abandoned Ramsbury to the administration of Ealdred and traveled to the continent to become a monk at the abbey of St Bertin at Saint-Omer, he returned three years when the bishopric of Sherborne fell vacant. He moved the see to the royal fortress at Salisbury. Approval for this translation and the unification of his sees was given at the council held at London between 1074 and 1075.
The Youngstown State Penguins football team represents Youngstown State University in college football. Youngstown State plays as a member of the NCAA at the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision and are a member of the Missouri Valley Football Conference; the Penguins have played their home games in Stambaugh Stadium, more called "The Ice Castle," since 1982. YSU football has been one of the leading programs in NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision, winning four national championships under former head coach Jim Tressel, third behind North Dakota State's eight titles and Georgia Southern's six. Overall, YSU has made 11 playoff appearances since Division I FCS was formed in 1978. 1938–72: Independent 1973–77: NCAA Division II Independent 1978–80: Mid-Continent Conference 1981–87: Ohio Valley Conference 1988–96 NCAA Division I-AA Independent 1997–present: Missouri Valley Football Conference The YSU football program began in 1938 as an Independent NCAA team under head coach Dwight "Dike" Beede.
The Penguins played their first game on September 1938 in a 12 -- 6 loss to Geneva College. About a month on October 22, 1938, Youngstown State won its first game with a 20–0 shutout at Westminster College; the Penguins won their first home game on November 3, 1938 with a 20–14 win against Davis & Elkins College. Longtime head coach, Dwight "Dike" Beede, made a historical impact on the game of American football after noticing on-field confusion due to officials using whistles to signal a penalty. Beede invented the penalty flag and it was used for the first time during a game on October 17, 1941 against Oklahoma City University at the Youngstown's Rayen Stadium; the flag is now standard at all football games. Dwight Beede retired from the program after the 1972 season and was replaced by Rey Dempsey starting in the 1973 season. After 35 years as an independent program the football team joined NCAA Division II in 1973. In the 1974 season, the penguins qualified for the Division II playoffs after going 8–1 in the regular season.
YSU fell 14–35 against Delaware in the program's first playoff game. Following the 1974 season, Dempsey he left Youngstown State to become a special-teams coach for the Detroit Lions 1975, he was In the three seasons at YSU he compiled a 12–8 record. Bill Narduzzi became the third coach in program history in 1975; the team joined the Mid-Continent Conference in 1978 and recorded a 9 win regular season under Narduzzi and claimed the Mid-Continent Conference Championship. Narduzzi led Youngstown State to its first playoff win on November 1978 against Nebraska-Omaha; the 21–14 win advanced the team into the Division II Semifinal Playoff Game where the Penguins lost to Eastern Illinois 22–26. The team finished the season with a record of the first 10-win season for the program; the 1979 season saw Youngstown State claim their second Mid-Continent Conference Champions going undefeated in conference games and losing only a single game to Delaware. The Penguins defeated South Dakota State 50–7 in the Division II Quarterfinal Playoff Game and shutout Alabama A&M 52–0 in the Division II Semifinal Playoff Game.
The win in the semifinal round gave Youngstown state its first appearance in an NCAA Football Championship. The Penguins faced the Delaware Fightin' Blue Hens in the Zia Bowl in Albuquerque, New Mexico for the NCAA Division II Championship. In the championship YSU was defeated by Delaware 21–38 and finished the season with a record of 11–2. In 1981, Youngstown State joined the Ohio Valley Conference. After going 2–8–1 in the 1980 season, playing a majority of Division I opponents, the Penguins finished their first season in Division I and the OVC with a record of 7–4, including an upset of Cincinnati, playing as a Division I FBS Independent; the program's most successful period came from 1986 to 2000 under Jim Tressel. Tressel led the Penguins to four NCAA Division I-AA National Championships. In 1991, YSU won its first national championship, defeating Marshall, won two more national championships in the following three seasons: against Marshall in 1993 and Boise State in 1994; the Penguins won a fourth title in 1997 with a 10–9 victory against McNeese State.
The Tressel era of YSU football included two stints as national runner-up in 1992 and 1999. YSU's four national championships are third in DI FCS only to North Dakota State's eight titles and Georgia Southern's six. Tressel was named Division I-AA Coach of the Year in ’91, ’93, ’94 and ’97. Tressel left Youngstown State following the 2000 season to coach Ohio State, where he coached from 2001 to 2010. Tressel resigned from Ohio State in 2011 after an NCAA investigation of rules violations during the 2010 season and Ohio State self-vacating their wins for 2010 season. Tressel's first incident with the NCAA came during his tenure as YSU head coach when it emerged in 1994 that Ray Issac, the quarterback on the Penguins' 1991 national championship team, had received benefits from Mickey Monus, a major benefactor to Youngstown State University. Over Issac's college career, Monus gifted the use of several cars; the NCAA made an inquiry after being tipped off to Monus' actions, but dropped it after a cursory internal investigation by Youngstown State.
The true scope of the violations was only revealed in 1998, when Isaac admitted tampering with a juror in Monus' fraud trial. Youngstown State admitted to a lack of institutional control and docked itself some scholarships, but was allowed to keep its 1991 title since the statute of limitations had run out, his successor, Jon Heacock, did not win a national championship, but still delivered consistent seasons and