Dutch language

Dutch is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people as a first language and 5 million people as a second language, constituting the majority of people in the Netherlands and Belgium. It is the third-most-widely spoken Germanic language, after its close relatives German. Outside the Low Countries, it is the native language of the majority of the population of Suriname where it holds an official status, as it does in Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten, which are constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands located in the Caribbean. Historical linguistic minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France and Germany, in Indonesia, while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States and Australia combined; the Cape Dutch dialects of Southern Africa have evolved into Afrikaans, a mutually intelligible daughter language, spoken to some degree by at least 16 million people in South Africa and Namibia. Dutch is one of the closest relatives of both German and English and is colloquially said to be "roughly in between" them.

Dutch, like English, has not undergone the High German consonant shift, does not use Germanic umlaut as a grammatical marker, has abandoned the use of the subjunctive, has levelled much of its morphology, including most of its case system. Features shared with German include the survival of two to three grammatical genders—albeit with few grammatical consequences—as well as the use of modal particles, final-obstruent devoicing, a similar word order. Dutch vocabulary is Germanic and incorporates more Romance loans than German but far fewer than English; as with German, the vocabulary of Dutch has strong similarities with the continental Scandinavian languages, but is not mutually intelligible in text or speech with any of them. In both Belgium and the Netherlands, the native official name for Dutch is Nederlands. Sometimes Vlaams is used as well to describe Standard Dutch in Flanders. Over time, the Dutch language has been known under a variety of names. In Middle Dutch Dietsc, Duutsc, or Duitsc was used.

It derived from the Old Germanic word theudisk, which means "popular" or "belonging to the populace". In Western Europe this term was used for the language of the local Germanic populace as opposed to Latin, the non-native language of writing and the Catholic Church. In the first text in which it is found, dating from 784, theodisce refers to Anglo-Saxon, the West Germanic dialects of Britain. Although in Britain the name Englisc replaced theodisce early on, speakers of West Germanic in other parts of Europe continued to use theodisce to refer to their local speech. With the rise of local powers in the Low Countries during the Middle Ages, language names derived from these local polities came in use as well i.e. Vlaemsch and Brabantsch; the more powerful the local polity, the wider the use of its name for the language became. These names still survive in the corresponding dialect groups spoken today. Owing to commercial and colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th centuries between England and the Low Countries, a cognate of theodisk was borrowed into English and developed into the exonym Dutch, which came to refer to the people of the Netherlands.

In the Low Countries on the contrary, Dietsch or Duytsch as endonym for Dutch went out of common use and was replaced by the Dutch endonym Nederlands. This designation started at the Burgundian court in the 15th century, although the use of neder, laag and inferior to refer to the area known as the Low Counties goes back further in time; the Romans referred to the region as Germania Inferior. It is a reference to the Low Countries' downriver location at the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta near the North Sea. From 1551, the designation Nederlands received strong competition from the name Nederduits, it is a calque of the aforementioned Roman province Germania Inferior and an attempt by early Dutch grammarians to give their language more prestige by linking it to Roman times. Hoogduits came into use as a Dutch exonym for the German language, spoken in neighboring German states. However, 19th century Germany saw the rise of the categorisation of dialects, German dialectologists termed the German dialects spoken in the mountainous south of Germany as Hochdeutsch.

Subsequently, German dialects spoken in the north were designated as Niederdeutsch. The names for these dialects were calqued in the Dutch language area as the exonyms Nederduits and Hoogduits; as a result, Nederduits no longer served as a synonym for the Dutch language, Nederlands prevailed as sole Dutch endonym. It meant that Hoog had to be dropped in one of the two meanings of Hoogduits, leading to the narrowing down of Duits as Dutch exonym for the German language, Hoogduits as reference for southern German dialects. Old Dutch branched off more or less around the same time as Old English, Old High German, Old Frisian and Old Saxon did; the early form of Dutch was a set of Franconian dialects spoken by the Salian Franks in the fifth century, thus, it has developed through Middle Dutch to Modern Dutch over the course of 15 centuries. During that period, it forced Old Frisian back from t

43rd Georgia Volunteer Infantry

The 43rd Georgia Volunteer Infantry was an Infantry Regiment of the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. The regiment was first organized during the spring of 1862 with men recruited from Banks, Forsyth, Hall and Pickens counties, they were mustered into Confederate Service at Camp McDonald near Big Shanty, GA, March 10, 1862, to April 10, 1862. The commanding officers during the war were Hiram Parks Bell; the regiment served in the brigade of Marcellus A. Stovall. A Company was formed in Cherokee County, Georgia B Company was formed in Cherokee County, Georgia C Company was formed in Pickens County, Georgia D Company was formed in Banks County, Georgia E Company was formed in Forsyth County, Georgia F Company was formed in Hall County, Georgia G Company was formed in Jackson County, Georgia H Company was formed in Jackson County, Georgia I Company was formed in Forsyth County, Georgia K Company was formed in Hall County, Georgia L Company was formed in Pickens County, Georgia List of Civil War regiments from Georgia National Park Service: Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System Partial Listing of Microfilm in Georgia State Archives in Atlanta, Georgia.

The Home of Barton-Stovall’s Georgia Infantry Brigade

Charles H. Wilson

Charles Herbert Wilson was a California Democratic politician from the Los Angeles area. He served as a member of the U. S. House of Representatives from 1963 to 1981. Wilson was born in Magna and moved with his parents in 1922 to Los Angeles, California, he attended public schools in Los Angeles and Inglewood, where he was an employee at a bank, from 1935 to 1942. Wilson served as a Staff Sergeant in the United States Army from June 1942 to December 1945, where he gained experience overseas in the European Theater of Operations, he in 1945 opened his own insurance agency in Los Angeles. Wilson served as a member of the California State Assembly from the 66th District from 1954-1962, he was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives, where he served from January 3, 1963, to January 3, 1981. On June 10, 1980, Wilson was reprimanded by the House of Representatives, for financial misconduct stemming from the Koreagate scandal. Wilson was defeated in the 1980 primary election for the Democratic Party nomination to the Ninety-seventh Congress, when he was defeated by former California Lieutenant Governor Mervyn M. Dymally.

Wilson is, to date, the last white Congressman to represent the 31st District. This loss was due in part due to the vote of censure by the House of Representatives. Wilson resided in Tantallon, towards the end of his life, died in Clinton, Maryland, on July 21, 1984, he is interred in Inglewood, California. List of federal political scandals in the United States List of United States Representatives expelled, censured, or reprimanded Unification Church Charles H. Wilson at Find a Grave