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Duwamish River

The Duwamish River is the name of the lower 12 miles of Washington state's Green River. Its industrialized estuary is known as the Duwamish Waterway; the native Lushootseed name of the Duwamish River was Dxwdəw. The Lushootseed name of the Duwamish tribe was Dxw'Dəw? Abš or Dkhw'Duw'Absh, meaning'People of the Inside'. Both of these have been anglicized as Duwamish; until 1906, the White and Green Rivers combined at Auburn, joined the Black River at Tukwila to form the Duwamish. In 1906, the White River changed course following a major flood and emptied into the Puyallup River as it does today; the lower portion of the historic White River—from the historic confluence of the White and Green Rivers to the conjunction with the Black River—is now considered part of the Green River. In 1911 the Cedar River was diverted to empty into Lake Washington instead of into the Black River. With the opening of the Lake Washington Ship Canal in 1916, the lake's level dropped nearly nine feet and the Black River dried up.

From that time forward, the point of the name change from Green to Duwamish is no longer the confluence of the Green and Black Rivers, though it has not changed location. The Duwamish Waterway empties into Elliott Bay in Seattle. After the completion of the man-made Harbor Island in 1909, the mouth of the river was divided into two channels, the East and West Waterways; when the first European-Americans arrived in the area in 1851, they found the Dkhw’Duw’Absh people living in more than 90 longhouses, in at least 17 villages, in modern-day Seattle and environs. Radiocarbon-dating of artifacts indicates that indigenous tribes have lived along the Duwamish since at least the Sixth Century AD; the Dkhw’Duw’Absh traditionally used the river to hunt ducks and geese, fish for salmon and halibut, harvest clams, gather berries and other plants for food and medicinal purposes. Native villages on the Duwamish were supplanted by white settlement and commercial use, there was evidence of deliberate burning of Indian longhouses in 1893.

Duwamish people continued to work and fish in the area, using man-made "Ballast Island" on the Seattle waterfront as a canoe haul-out and informal market, but by the early 20th Century, most remnants of traditional life along the river had disappeared. The last year-round native residents on the river - an old man named Seetoowathl, his wife - died of starvation in their float-house on Kellogg Island in the winter of 1920. In 1895, Eugene Semple, who had earlier served as Governor of Washington Territory, outlined a plan for a series of major public works projects in the Seattle area, including the straightening and dredging of the Duwamish River, both to open up the area to commercial use and to alleviate flooding. In 1909 the City of Seattle formed the Duwamish Waterway Commission in order to sell bonds and oversee the re-channelling of the river. Work began in October, 1913, the oxbows disappeared, with a few recesses in the channel left to accommodate high water flows and turning ships.

Parts of the Georgetown and South Park neighborhoods once on quiet riverbank found themselves inland. By 1920, 4½ miles of the Duwamish Waterway had been dredged to a depth of 50 feet, with 20 million cubic feet of mud and sand going into the expansion of Harbor Island; the shallow, nine-mile-long river became a five-mile engineered waterway capable of handling ocean-going vessels. The Duwamish basin soon became Seattle's commercial core area. Activities included cargo handling and storage, marine construction and boat manufacturing, concrete manufacturing and metals fabrication, food processing, countless other industrial operations. Boeing Plant 1 was established on the Lower Duwamish in 1916, Boeing Plant 2, further upriver, in 1936; the lower waterway is spanned by four major, public bridges: the First Avenue South Bridge, the South Park Bridge, the Spokane Street Bridge, directly above the latter, the West Seattle Bridge. With the spread of ecological concerns in the 1970s, various environmental and community organizations became interested in the polluted Duwamish.

Kellogg Island, the last remnant of the original river, was declared a wildlife preserve, nearby terminal T-107 was converted into a park, creating a substantial natural area near the mouth of the river. Cleanup and restoration efforts are ongoing. In 2009, the Duwamish Longhouse and Cultural Center was opened on the west bank of the river as part of the tribe's reassertion of its historic rights in the area and its continuing struggle for federal recognition of tribal status. Due to 20th century industrial contamination, the lower 5 miles of the Duwamish was declared a Superfund site by the United States Environmental Protection Agency; the contaminants include PCBs, PAHs, phthalates. The cleanup of the river has been controversial: one plan for an "early action" or hotspot cleanup proposed to dredge contaminated sediment and dump the resulting sludge in Tacoma's Commencement Bay, 26 miles to the southwest. Opposition to this plan in both Seattle and Tacoma forced the sludge to be shipped to Klickitat County in south central Washington instead of disposal in Puget Sound.

The riverwide cleanup plan was released for public review on February 28, 2013. EPA's Community Advisory Group for the site, the Duwamish River Cleanup Coalition/Technical Advisory Group, conducted a review of the plan and published a Community Fact Sheet with a summary of its assessment and recommendations for improvement; the Duwamish River faces many

Travis Association for the Blind

Travis Association for the Blind is a 501 non-profit organization employing over 400 Texans of which 250 are blind in six facilities in southeast Austin, Texas as well as a facility in Taylor, Texas. Travis Association for the Blind warehouses, distributes and repairs a wide variety of merchandise for local and federal government as well as private industry; the mission of TAB is to enhance the opportunities for the economic and personal independence of people who are blind or visually impaired by creating and improving employment. TAB’s mission ensures long-term employment and training opportunities through AbilityOne and Texas State-Use strategic sourcing programs, as well as supporting the local community with job training and skill attainment. TAB is a National Industries for the Blind partner agency. Known as the Austin Lighthouse, the Association for the Blind was founded in 1934 shortening its name to Travis Association for the Blind. At its start, the organization employed blind people producing woven mats and canning peaches.

During World War II the United States government took advantage of the newly legislated Wagner-O'Day Act of 1938 and began purchasing mops produced at the Austin Lighthouse. In 1971, under the leadership of United States Senator Jacob Javits of New York the act was amended to include all individuals with severe disabilities, becoming the Javits–Wagner–O'Day Act. Over the years, the Austin Lighthouse has manufactured a number of different sewing products and packaged 200+ different skin care products and warehoused / distributed items for the military and state government customers. Major League Baseball player "Prince" Oana worked for Travis Association for the Blind during seven years in the late 1950s and early 1960s because of cataracts in both eyes. Today, the Austin Lighthouse is composed of three main divisions; the distribution division has 800,000 sqft of warehouse space, sorting, laundering, labeling and distributing items for the U. S. Army, Marine Corps, Air Force and Coast Guard.

In the manufacturing division a variety of skincare products are produced, as well as textiles, notebook binders, award plaques and others. The Training and Education Services division provides skill enhancing training, adaptive equipment and employment searching services to blind and visually impaired customers. In a partnership with GOJO Industries, TAB packages and redistributes skincare products, including PURELL Instant hand Sanitizer and MICRELL antibacterial hand soap under the Skilcraft® trade name. TAB manufactures the following products: Military uniform trouser and rigger belts Award plaques Key cases Soap dispensers Binders The Austin Lighthouse's Distribution Services department has two federal contracts. One is with the Air Marine Corps providing Third Party Logistics support. In it, the Austin Lighthouse provides supply chain services to the U. S. Armed Forces through a contract with Defense Logistics Agency Troop Support Defense Supply Center Philadelphia. In the other large distribution services contract, Austin Lighthouse provides distribution and repair services for the United States Army through the Regional Logistics Support Center.

The RLSC facilities are located in Taylor, Texas. The Travis Association for the Blind website GOJO Skilcraft Website

Gary, Minnesota

Gary is a city in Norman County, United States. The population was 214 at the 2010 census. Gary was laid out in 1883, named for Garrett L. Thorpe, a pioneer merchant. A post office has been in operation at Gary since 1887. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.33 square miles, all of it land. The Agassiz Recreational Trail, a 53-mile multi-use trail built on an abandoned railroad grade passes through the city; as of the census of 2010, there were 214 people, 83 households, 59 families residing in the city. The population density was 648.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 96 housing units at an average density of 290.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.8% White, 2.3% African American, 0.5% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.5% of the population. There were 83 households of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.7% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 28.9% were non-families.

25.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 12% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.14. The median age in the city was 40.5 years. 29% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.9% male and 48.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 215 people, 83 households, 54 families residing in the city; the population density was 669.0 people per square mile. There were 93 housing units at an average density of 289.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.07% White, 0.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.93% of the population. There were 83 households out of which 33.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.0% were married couples living together, 3.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.9% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.30. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.7% under the age of 18, 3.3% from 18 to 24, 30.7% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, 16.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,875, the median income for a family was $47,250. Males had a median income of $29,844 versus $15,938 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,683. About 6.8% of families and 14.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 26.5% of those sixty five or over