The M4 is a motorway which runs between London and South Wales in the United Kingdom. Major towns and cities along the route include Slough, Swindon, Newport, Cardiff, a new Severn bridge, known as the Second Severn Crossing, was opened in 1996 with the M4 rerouted to use it. The M4 runs close to the A4 from London to Bristol, after crossing the River Severn it follows the A48 through South Wales, using the Brynglas Tunnels at Junction 25a, Newport and terminates just north of Pontarddulais. It is one of three motorways in Wales, the other two, the A48 and M48, branch off it. The area of land along the M4, with its towns, european route E30 includes most of the M4, although it is not signed as such. The Maidenhead bypass opened in 1961 whilst J1-J5 opened in 1965, the stretch from J18 to the west of Newport was opened in 1966, including the Severn Bridge. The Port Talbot by-pass, built in the 1960s and now part of the M4, was originally the A48 motorway, the English section of the motorway was completed on 22 December 1971 when the 50-mile stretch between Junctions 9 and 15 was opened to traffic.
The Welsh section was completed in 1993, when the Briton Ferry motorway bridge opened, the Second Severn Crossing opened in 1996, together with new link motorways on either side of the estuary to divert the M4 over the new crossing. The existing route over the Severn Bridge was redesignated the M48, in June 1999 the section of the third lane between Junctions 2 and 3 was converted to a bus lane, first as a pilot scheme and permanently in 2001. A lower speed limit was introduced along the bus lane section at the same time, between 2007 and January 2010 the section from Castleton to Coryton was widened to six lanes. The scheme was opened on 25 January 2010 by Ieuan Wyn Jones the Deputy First Minister for Wales. During 2009 the Newport section of the motorway between Junctions 23a and 29 was upgraded with a new concrete central barrier. A similar claim was made for a 30-mile section of road in Scotland close to Aberdeen in September 2009 with refuelling points at Bridge of Don and Peterhead. Between 2008 and 2010, Junction 11, near Reading, was remodelled with a new four-lane motorway junction.
It involved the movement of the local Highways Agency and Fire Service offices, and the construction of a footbridge network, a new bus-lane. Sound barriers for nearby areas were installed. In April 2008, the decision to preserve a rare Vickers machine gun pillbox, the table below shows the timeline for the construction of the motorway on a section by section basis. Tolls are charged in one only, westbound
William Russell (knight)
He served as constable of Carisbrooke Castle, and sat in parliament on two occasions, firstly as burgess for Great Bedwyn and for the County of Southampton. As a baron his military service was called on several times by King Edward I Hammer of the Scots. William Russell was the son and eventual heir of Sir Ralph Russell, son of Sir John Russell of Kingston Russell, steward of Kings John. Shortly before his death King John had granted Russell the manor of Kingston by grand serjeanty, which grant was confirmed by Henry. In about 1280 William married Katherine de Aula, heiress of the de Aula family of the Isle of Wight, who brought to the Russell family the manor of Yaverland, Isle of Wight. Sir William Russell was seated at Yaverland for the remainder of his life and he was appointed as one of three Wardens of the Island and Constable of Carisbrooke Castle, the caput of the Island, from which all manors were held under feudal ties. In 1294 he received instructions for putting the Island into a proper posture to meet the threatened invasion by France of the southern coasts of England.
In 1297 he was summoned by King Edward I to join with his barons to muster in London in preparation for an expedition crossing over to Flanders. Sir William was summoned by writ to be at York on 25 May 1298 to oppose the Scotsman William Wallace. He fought at the Battle of Falkirk, where a great English victory was won, the Scottish forces regrouped and Russell was again summoned to join King Edwards army on 24 June 1300 at Carlisle. He was present at the Siege of Caerlaverock that year, Russell was again summoned as Sir William Russell of the Isle to be ready at Carlisle in 1301, after which the army wintered with much hardship in Scotland. In 1302 he was appointed for a 2nd time a Warden of the Isle, in 1307 Russell received another summons from King Edward I Hammer of the Scots to join the royal army at Carlisle within 15 days of 8 July, to counter the aggression of Robert the Bruce. Before the campaign commenced, the King determined on knighting his son, and was accorded by parliament the customary feudal aid, Russell was appointed as collector of this feudal aid for the county of Southampton.
On this occasion the army was spared any fighting since Bruce had in the meantime been defeated by the border barons acting independently. Russell thereupon relinquished his duties as Constable of Carisbrooke Castle to his successor Nicholas de Bois, in 1308 by letters patent Russell was appointed one of three justiciaries for the Channel Islands to make enquiry into encroachments to the royal revenues. By now Russell was in failing health and being unable to meet the summons in person, Sir William Russell died in 1311, leaving an only son, Theobald Russell, still a minor aged only 7. Williams infant son Theobald was granted in wardship to Ralph III, 1st Baron Gorges of Knighton manor, Isle of Wight, Wraxall and Bradpole, Dorset. Gorges married off his ward to his second daughter Eleanor
Battle of Deorham
The Battle of Deorham was a decisive military encounter between the West Saxons and the Britons of the West Country in 577. The battle, which was a victory for the Wessex forces led by Ceawlin and his son, resulted in the capture of the Brythonic cities of Glevum, Corinium Dobunnorum. It led to the permanent cultural and ethnic separation of Dumnonia from Wales, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is the only source that carries a mention of the battle. Although it gives few details, it describes it as a major engagement, the location of the Deorham is Hinton Hill near to Dyrham in South Gloucestershire. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle entry for 577 records that that year King Ceawlin of Wessex and this is generally taken to be Dyrham in what is now South Gloucestershire, on the Cotswolds escarpment a few miles north of Bath. The West Saxons carried the day, and three kings of the Britons, whose names are given as Conmail, and Condidan, and Farinmail, were slain. The Severn Valley has always one of the military keys of Britain.
In 577 Ceawlin advanced from the Thames Valley across the Cotswolds to seize the area, once the Saxons were in occupation of the site the Britons of those three towns were compelled to unite and make a combined attempt to dislodge them. Their attempt failed and the three opposing British kings were killed, the military historian Lieutenant-Colonel Alfred Burne, employing his theory of Inherent Military Probability opted for a simpler explanation for the battle than Baddeley. In his view Ceawlin was methodically advancing towards the Severn and the three forces of Britons concentrated to stop him, a last stand in this position would explain why none of the three Briton leaders was able to escape. Archaeological research has found many of the villas in the post-Roman era were still occupied around these cities. This suggests the area was controlled by relatively sophisticated and wealthy Britons, however they were eventually abandoned or destroyed as the territory came under the control of Wessex.
This quickly happened after the battle around the Cirencester region but the Saxons took many years to colonise Gloucester, some academics believe the battle was the starting point when Welsh and Cornish began to become two separate languages. H. P. R. Finberg, The Formation of England, 550–1042, Hart-Davis, MacGibbon, 1974/Paladin,1976. John Morris, The Age of Arthur, A History of the British Isles from 350 to 650, Weidenfeld & Nicolson,1973, The Oxford History of England, The English Settlements, Clarendon,1986, ISBN0198217196
Abson is a small village in South Gloucestershire, England, it forms part of the civil parish of Wick and Abson. Abson is located on a road between the villages of Wick and Pucklechurch. It is a mainly nucleated in pattern with some outlying farms. The centre of the village is a village green and the church. Abson is part of the Church of England parish of Wick and Abson, the name Abson is a corruption of Abbots Ton - a place belonging to the Abbot. This was the Abbot of Glastonbury, as the manor of Pucklechurch was given to the Abbot after the murder of King Edmund at neighbouring Pucklechurch, in the 16th century the village was called Abston, and was since shortened to Abson. Blue Lodge, one of the houses, was once the home of Anna Sewell, whilst staying there she witnessed a man killed by a cart and this was incorporated into the novel. Abson is centred on the church and it is dedicated to St James the Great, and is a Grade I listed building, as are the churchyard walls and many of the graves.
The neighbouring farmhouse and barn are all Grade II listed, there are two fragments of carved knotwork masonry on the walls as well as a Sheela na Gig carving of a male figure high on the East wall. This figure is believed to date from Saxon or early Norman times, the church contains an early 17th-century pulpit with a sounding board and 18th-century woodwork. The belltower contains six bells which are rung by hand. Media related to Abson at Wikimedia Commons
Maurice Russell, knight
Sir Maurice Russell of Kingston Russell and Dyrham, Glos. was an English nobleman and knight. He was a prominent member of the Gloucestershire gentry and he was the third but eldest surviving son and heir of Sir Ralph Russell and his wife Alice. He was knighted between June and December 1385 and served twice as Knight of the Shire for Gloucestershire in 1402 and 1404 and he held the post of Sheriff of Gloucestershire four times, and was Coroner and Justice of the Peace, Tax Collector and Commissioner of Enquiry. His land holdings were extensive in Gloucestershire, Dorset and he was descended from an ancient line which can be traced back to 1210, which ended on the death of his son Thomas, from his second marriage, as a young man without male issue. Most of his estates, despite having been entailed, passed at his death into the families of his two daughters from his first marriage. The family was established at Kingston Russell in the parish of Long Bredy, near Swyre, in Dorset, the tenure was said to be that of telling out the Kings chessmen and putting them away when the King had finished his game.
John Russell was Governor of Corfe Castle in Dorset in 1220/1 and sometime Constable of Sherborne Castle and he married Rose Bardolph, a daughter of Thomas Bardolph and Adela Corbet. Isabel, the elder, he married to his son Ralph Russell in 1219, on the death of Bottrell, Hawise married secondly Nicholas de Moels, to whom her moiety of the property descended. To Moels went North Cadbury and Upton “Moels”, whilst to Ralph Russell went Dyrham, the Testa de Nevill entry for Dyrham was, “Jame de Novo Mercato tenet in Dorham cum pertinenciis duos milites et dimidium”. Ralph Russells and Isabels son Sir William Russell died as a man in 1310/11. William produced an heir, Theobald, by his wife Jane Peverell. Thus, the infant Theobald, having lost father and grandfather, was granted by King Edward II in wardship to Ralph de Gorges, 1st Baron Gorges of Wraxall & Bradpole, Tothill. In 1316, Theobald Russell, as a minor, was recorded as holding 8 manors,2 in Glos, Gorges had a son, Ralph, 2nd Baron Gorges, and 3 daughters, Elizabeth and Joan.
He appears to have married his second daughter Eleanor to the young Theobald Russell, the case was brought before the Earl Marshal, who adjudged on 19 July 1347 in favour of Warburton and forced Theobald Russell Gorges to add a chevron gules to the Morville arms as a difference. Thus the new Gorges arms became Lozengy or and azure, a chevron gules, Maurice Russell, aged just 13, was married firstly in June 1369, to Isabel Childrey, daughter of Sir Edmund Childrey of Frethornes Manor in the parish of Childrey, Berkshire. Frethornes was a manor held from the Newmarch family, and its tenant prior to Edmund was the “de Frethorne” family. Certainly Frethornes was part of the Newmarch moiety which had gone to the husband of Hawise, since the Bottreaux family, eventual heirs of Nicholas de Moels, were the overlords to Edmund. Sir Edmund was from a relatively new family, though long resident within the parish of Childrey
Glevum was a Roman fort in Roman Britain that became a colonia of retired legionaries in AD97. Today, it is known as Gloucester, located in the English county of Gloucestershire, the name Glevum is taken by many present day businesses in the area and by the 26-mile Glevum Way, a long-distance footpath or recreational walk encircling modern Gloucester. Glevum was established around AD48 as a centre at an important crossing of the River Severn and near to the Fosse Way. Initially, there was a Roman fort established at Kingsholm, twenty years later, a larger replacement fortress was built on slightly higher ground nearby, centred on Gloucester Cross, and a civilian settlement grew around it. The Roman Legion based here was the Legio II Augusta as they prepared to invade Roman Wales between 66 and 74 AD, being based at Burrium and Isca Augusta in South Wales, in AD97, the whole area was designated a colonia by the Emperor Nerva. A colonia was the residence of retired legionaries and enjoyed the highest status in the Empire, the legionaries were given farmland in the surrounding district and could be called upon as a Roman auxiliary armed force.
A large and impressive administrative basilica and forum market-place was built in the town, Roman Britain was divided into four provinces in the early 4th century. It is most likely that Glevum, as a colony, became the capital of Britannia Secunda, in the same way that colonies at York. There is some evidence that at this time Glevum possessed a mint, at its height, Glevum may have had a population of as many as 10,000 people. Indeed, some of the best Roman villas in Britain, like Chedworth villa, excavations at the New Market Hall showed that Romano-British occupation of the town may have continued in some form into the sub-Roman period, even if the towns population was greatly reduced. A new portal in the wall was made at the beginning of the sixth century, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records a King Coinmail, who may have come from Gloucester, taking part in the Battle of Dyrham in 577, when the city was conquered by the Anglo-Saxons. An equestrian statue of the Emperor Nerva was erected at the entrance to Southgate Street in 2002 and it was created by Anthony Stone and paid for by public subscription, following a campaign that started in 1997, the 1900th anniversary of the colonias foundation.
Gloucester City Council Museum & Art Gallery homepage Gloucester City Council The Romans AD43-577 Daily Telegraph 30/04/08 Mass Roman grave found in Gloucester Glevum on Roman Britain website
Wessex was an Anglo-Saxon kingdom in the south of Great Britain, from 519 until England was unified by Æthelstan in the early 10th century. The Anglo-Saxons believed that Wessex was founded by Cerdic and Cynric, the two main sources for the history of Wessex are the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and the West Saxon Genealogical Regnal List, which sometimes conflict. Wessex became a Christian kingdom after Cenwalh was baptised and was expanded under his rule, cædwalla conquered Sussex and the Isle of Wight. His successor, issued one of the oldest surviving English law codes, the throne subsequently passed to a series of kings with unknown genealogies. During the 8th century, as the hegemony of Mercia grew and it was during this period that the system of shires was established. Under Egbert, Sussex, Kent and Mercia and he obtained the overlordship of the Northumbrian king. However, Mercian independence was restored in 830, during the reign of his successor, Æthelwulf, a Danish army arrived in the Thames estuary, but was decisively defeated.
When Æthelwulfs son, Æthelbald, usurped the throne, the kingdom was divided to avoid war, Æthelwulf was succeeded in turn by his four sons, the youngest being Alfred the Great. Wessex was invaded by the Danes in 871, and Alfred was compelled to pay them to leave and they returned in 876, but were forced to withdraw. In 878 they forced Alfred to flee to the Somerset Levels, during his reign Alfred issued a new law code, gathered scholars to his court and was able to devote funds to building ships, organising an army and establishing a system of burhs. Alfreds son, captured the eastern Midlands and East Anglia from the Danes and became ruler of Mercia in 918 upon the death of his sister, Edwards son, Æthelstan, conquered Northumbria in 927, and England became a unified kingdom for the first time. Cnut the Great, who conquered England in 1016, created the wealthy and powerful earldom of Wessex, modern archaeologists use the term Wessex culture for a Middle Bronze Age culture in this area. Although agriculture and hunting were pursued during this period, there is little archaeological evidence of human settlements.
During the Roman occupation numerous country villas with attached farms were established across Wessex, the Romans, or rather the Romano-British, built another major road that integrated Wessex, running eastwards from Exeter through Dorchester to Winchester and Silchester and on to London. The early 4th century CE was a time in Roman Britain. However, following a previous incursion in 360 that was stopped by Roman forces and they devastated many parts of Britain and laid siege to London. The Romans responded promptly, and Count Theodosius had recovered the land up to the Wall by 368, the Romans temporarily ceased to rule Britain on the death of Magnus Maximus in 388. Stilicho attempted to restore Roman authority in the late 390s, two subsequent Roman rulers of Britain, appointed by the remaining troops, were murdered
Sir William Denys of Dyrham, was a courtier of King Henry VIII and High Sheriff of Gloucestershire in 1518 and 1526. He was the eldest son and heir of Sir Walter Denys by his 2nd wife Agnes Danvers, 2nd daughter & co-heiress of Sir Robert Danvers of Epwell, Chief Justice of the Common Pleas. The Inquisition post mortem of his father Sir Walter, dated 1505, states William his son and heir to have been aged 35 years and more, which suggests a date of birth of 1470. Twynyho served as MP for Bristol in 1472-5 and again in 1484 and had been Attorney General to Lord Edward, Clarence was determined to have Ankaret executed, against the wishes of the Queen, who believed her to be an elderly and harmless widow blamed unjustly. She was hanged at Mytton, Warks. on 15 April 1477, Shaftesbury was the second wealthiest Abbey in the land, behind only Glastonbury Abbey. The will of John Twynyho bequeaths to this Dame Margery, my niece, nun of Shaftesbury a silver & gilt goblet which had presented to him by George.
This familiarity with the Duke suggests that John was the son or grandson of Ankarette, the manor descended to his son Walter Twynyho. Alice Walwyn, as widow of Sir Thomas, was the 4th, Edmund Langleys will was dated 1490. Thomas Delalynde of Winterborne Clenston, was married to Edith Twynyho, daughter of William Twynyho of Keyford, John Walshe of Olveston, and Little Sodbury Glos. Appears to have acquired Olveston in 1472 from Sir Walter Denys, father of William, in 1490 Walshe was appointed Kings Receiver of the estates of William, Marquess Berkeley, uncle of Anne Berkeley, Sir William Denyss 2nd. Wife, when he alienated his estates to King Henry VII and his son John II Walshe was Kings Champion at the coronation of Henry VIII, and was a great favourite of the young kings. John I Walshes daughter Catherine married George Huntley of Frocester, MP for Cricklade, eldest son of John Huntley of Standish by Alice Langley, George Huntleys brother John married Jane Carne, daughter of Sir Edward Carne, husband of Anne Denys, daughter of Sir William Denys.
The marriage settlement appears to have concerned the Denys manors of Aust, Gloucestershire, of which held a moiety. The feoffees to this arrangement are the same as those who acted in the previously quoted transfer at about the time of Cherington by Sir Walter Denys. The marriage settlement appears to have concerned the Denys manor of Aust,21 Edward IV. enfeoffed thereof. Twynyho, William Twynyho, John Thame, Edmund Langley. A daughter named Anne was born from the marriage with Edith Twynyho, Hugh had occupied the closest position to the king of all the courtiers, and was highly trusted by the old king. It was perhaps as a replacement for old Hugh that the king appointed his half-nephew William Denys in his place. This grant is witnessed by a charter on parchment, to which is affixed a rare example of a great seal of Henry VIII
Alveston is twinned with Courville sur Eure, France. It has two hotels, a variety of shops, several parks and fields, two churches and a Hyundai car dealership. Alveston is the gateway to the first Severn Bridge from the A38 road and it is the home of Thornbury Cricket Club and Marlwood secondary school. The civil parish includes the villages of Rudgeway and Earthcott. Translated as follows, In Langeley Hundred Earl Harold held Alveston, there were there 10 hides in demesne,1 plough-team,23 villeins,5 bordars for whom there were 22 plough-teams,2 serfs. This was a large manor, of 35 households in total. As the manor had been held by King Harold it was seized into the demesne by William the Conqueror. Early in March 1093 King William II was at the manor of Alveston. He was suddenly attacked by an illness, thought to have been a disorder of the stomach or bowels. He was immediately rushed to Gloucester Castle 25 miles to the north and it was believed the illness had been brought on as a result of the kings sinful behaviour and he determined to repent and make amends.
This illness contracted at Alveston thus resulted in the issuance of a charter which elaborated the kings coronation pledge and he pledged to protect and defend the church, to abolish simony, to abolish unjust laws and deter wrong-doers. He ordered the release of prisoners, remission of debts and all offences against himself he pardoned and he was confined to his chamber for the whole of Lent, covering the period 2 March to 17 April 1093. On 6 March he consented to appoint Anselm Abbot of Bec as Archbishop of Canterbury, in 1149 it was granted by Henry Plantagenet, heir to the throne of King Stephen to Fulk I FitzWarin, a powerful Marcher Lord from Shropshire. In 1160 Fulk was in charge of arming and provisioning for King Henry II Dover Castle, Henry trusted Fulk and valued his services. The grant was a reward for Fulks loyalty to the cause of Henrys mother the Empress Matilda in the war with The Usurper Stephen. Alveston was inherited in 1171 by Fulks son Fulk II, in 1204 Fulk III regained possession, but on 30 June 1216 King John ordered that Alveston should be seized once again from Fulk III FitzWarin.
Clearly Fulk was in favour as in June 1234 he received from the king a gift of 3 deer from the royal Forest of Cannock. In September he received 2 bucks and 8 does from the royal Forest of Braden, near Purton, Wiltshire, in 1236 Fulk was given another 6 does from Braden and 6 more does from the Forest of Selwood, again to help him stock his park at Alveston
The Ginetta F400, previously known as the Farbio GTS, and originally developed by Arash Motor Company as the Farboud GTS, is a sports car made by the British Ginetta Cars company. It was the first Farboud and Farbio planned for production until its sale to Ginetta in 2010, the Farbio GTS was originally conceived in 2002 as the Farboud GT with an Audi-based engine. It was eventually launched in 2007 with sales from the beginning of 2008, three engine options were offered, with the GTS260,350 and 400. Both the GTS350 and 400 feature a supercharged 3.0 litre Ford unit, the GTS400 produces 384 bhp providing 0-60 mph of 3.9 seconds, with a top speed of over 175 mph. The basic GTS260 model with 262 bhp could accelerate to 60 mph in 4.8 seconds, the F400 sold few when production was halted in 2010 and the car underwent significant redevelopment to be relaunched at the end of 2011 as the Ginetta G60
Acton Turville is a parish in the Cotswold Edge ward within South Gloucestershire, England. It lies 17 miles east of the city of Bristol, with the M4 running southwards of the parish, Acton Turville consists of a cluster of households across 1,009 acres, with a total population of 370 people. Acton Turville is listed as Achetone in the Domesday Book and it lies 5.5 miles of Chipping Sodbury, and 7.5 miles east of Yate railway station. The Parish Church St, Marys is dated back to the 12th century and is Grade II* listed, according to the Church of England, in the Diocese of Gloucester minor alterations were made in the 13th century and again in the 15th century. And, in 1853 with the help of architect T, H Wyatt, enlarged the church that was so central to the parish. The churchs stained glass windows were due to the generosity of a few local benefactors, the most notable benefactor in the parish - Reverend R H Mullens, who was appointed vicar in 1869, made a very generous donation to St Marys Church in his retirement in 1911.
One stained glass window was presented in memory of his wife, as the monarchy was restored, the presentation of a Royal Coat of Arms was made compulsory, asserting a royal supremacy within the church. St Marys Church coat of arms reflects George III monarchy, dated 1801-1816, from the 1800s, population evidently began to rise until it reached a total of 175 residents in 1850. Acton Turvilles sudden increase in population can be explained by the introduction of industry in the area, where new canals and railways were promoted. Following this, there was a significant decrease in population around the 1900s, however, we see an exponential increase from 1950 to 2000, where population peaks at 370 residents, which to date, is the current population of Acton Turville. The 2001 Census data, show Acton Turville to have a population of 328 British/Irish, and very small number of other ethnicity groups. The ward of Cotswold Edge however, presents a more diverse range of results with a total of 78 residents from other ethnic groups such as, other White, other Mixed, Caribbean.
Statistics suggest Acton Turville to be lacking in religious and ethnic diversity, according to the 2011 census data, 78% are Christian, 18% have no specified religion and the remaining 8% state no religion at all. In the first census in 1801, Britain saw an increase in international trade. A global introduction to trading is a fact that reflects on occupational change in small villages such as Acton Turville. In the 1831 occupational statistics, where industrialisation is beginning,0 residents were employed in the manufacturing industry, women however, were extremely domesticated or under an unspecified occupation. In the following data,50 years in 1881. In this 50 year difference, those employed in agriculture had decreased by 5, evidence for this can be reflected in the decline of servants which could explain the rising affluence within Acton Turville