Dysprosium is a chemical element with the symbol Dy and atomic number 66. It is a rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. Dysprosium is never found in nature as a free element, though it is found in various minerals, such as xenotime. Occurring dysprosium is composed of seven isotopes, the most abundant of, 164Dy. Dysprosium was first identified in 1886 by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, but it was not isolated in pure form until the development of ion exchange techniques in the 1950s. Dysprosium has few applications where it cannot be replaced by other chemical elements, it is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications, as a component of Terfenol-D. Soluble dysprosium salts are mildly toxic. Dysprosium is a rare earth element that has a bright silver luster, it is quite soft, can be machined without sparking if overheating is avoided. Dysprosium's physical characteristics can be affected by small amounts of impurities.
Dysprosium and holmium have the highest magnetic strengths of the elements at low temperatures. Dysprosium has a simple ferromagnetic ordering at temperatures below 85 K. Above 85 K, it turns into a helical antiferromagnetic state in which all of the atomic moments in a particular basal plane layer are parallel, oriented at a fixed angle to the moments of adjacent layers; this unusual antiferromagnetism transforms into a disordered state at 179 K. Dysprosium metal tarnishes in air and burns to form dysprosium oxide: 4 Dy + 3 O2 → 2 Dy2O3Dysprosium is quite electropositive and reacts with cold water to form dysprosium hydroxide: 2 Dy + 6 H2O → 2 Dy3 + 3 H2 Dysprosium metal vigorously reacts with all the halogens at above 200 °C: 2 Dy + 3 F2 → 2 DyF3 2 Dy + 3 Cl2 → 2 DyCl3 2 Dy + 3 Br2 → 2 DyBr3 2 Dy + 3 I2 → 2 DyI3 Dysprosium dissolves in dilute sulfuric acid to form solutions containing the yellow Dy ions, which exist as a 3+ complex: 2 Dy + 3 H2SO4 → 2 Dy3+ + 3 SO2−4 + 3 H2 The resulting compound, dysprosium sulfate, is noticeably paramagnetic.
Dysprosium halides, such as DyF3 and DyBr3, tend to take on a yellow color. Dysprosium oxide known as dysprosia, is a white powder, magnetic, more so than iron oxide. Dysprosium combines with various non-metals at high temperatures to form binary compounds with varying composition and oxidation states +3 and sometimes +2, such as DyN, DyP, DyH2 and DyH3. Dysprosium carbonate, Dy23, dysprosium sulfate, Dy23, result from similar reactions. Most dysprosium compounds are soluble in water, though dysprosium carbonate tetrahydrate and dysprosium oxalate decahydrate are both insoluble in water. Two of the most abundant dysprosium carbonates, tengerite- and kozoite- are known to form via a poorly ordered precursor phase with a formula of Dy23·4H2O; this amorphous precursor consists of hydrated spherical nanoparticles of 10–20 nm diameter that are exceptionally stable under dry treatment at ambient and high temperatures. Occurring dysprosium is composed of seven isotopes: 156Dy, 158Dy, 160Dy, 161Dy, 162Dy, 163Dy, 164Dy.
These are all considered stable, although 156Dy can theoretically undergo alpha decay with a half-life of over 1×1018 years. Of the occurring isotopes, 164Dy is the most abundant at 28%, followed by 162Dy at 26%; the least abundant is 156Dy at 0.06%. Twenty-nine radioisotopes have been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 138 to 173; the most stable of these is 154Dy, with a half-life of 3×106 years, followed by 159Dy with a half-life of 144.4 days. The least stable is 138Dy, with a half-life of 200 ms; as a general rule, isotopes that are lighter than the stable isotopes tend to decay by β+ decay, while those that are heavier tend to decay by β− decay. However, 154Dy decays by alpha decay, 152Dy and 159Dy decay by electron capture. Dysprosium has at least 11 metastable isomers, ranging in atomic mass from 140 to 165; the most stable of these is 165mDy, which has a half-life of 1.257 minutes. 149Dy has two metastable isomers. In 1878, erbium ores were found to contain the oxides of thulium. French chemist Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, while working with holmium oxide, separated dysprosium oxide from it in Paris in 1886.
His procedure for isolating the dysprosium involved dissolving dysprosium oxide in acid adding ammonia to precipitate the hydroxide. He was only able to isolate dysprosium from its oxide after more than 30 attempts at his procedure. On succeeding, he named the element dysprosium from the Greek dysprositos, meaning "hard to get"; the element was not isolated in pure form until after the development of ion exchange techniques by Frank Spedding at Iowa State University in the early 1950s. Due to its role in permanent magnets used for wind turbines, it has been argued that dysprosium will be one of the main objects of geopolitical competition in a world running on renewable energy, but this perspective has been critici
"Savant" Young' is an American professional mixed martial artist. A professional competitor from 1998 until 2013, he competed for the WEC, Shooto, the Tokyo Sabres of the IFL, King of the Cage, Tachi Palace Fights. Although his first professional bout was in 1998, in June 2006 Young decided he wanted to begin training mixed martial arts full-time. In February 2007 Young won his first fight in the International Fight League by defeating Ed West with a unanimous decision. Young compiled a 2-2 record with the IFL, that gave him an opportunity to fight Takeshi Inoue at Shooto. Despite Inoue being favored, Young pulled off the upset and beat him by unanimous decision. Young has stated that this win is the reason he was offered a fight contract with the new Affliction Clothing Promotion. Young fought at their first event, Affliction: Banned, losing by second-round armbar against UFC veteran Mark Hominick. While training part-time, Young worked in post-production at a video editing company, making the feats of others come alive on the screen.
An avid video game player, Young has had a lifelong fascination with cars and competing with them in street races while in high school. Savant and his wife Rahima have a girl and a boy, his mother's name is Debra Baldwin. Professional MMA record for Savant Young from Sherdog Savant Young IFL Page International Fight League
Last Seen in Massilia is a historical novel by American author Steven Saylor, first published by St. Martin's Press in 2000, it is the eighth book in his Roma Sub Rosa series of mystery stories set in the final decades of the Roman Republic. The main character is the Roman sleuth; the year is 49 BC, there is civil war in the Roman Empire. Caesar is besieging the ancient Greek colony of Massilia in Gaul. Meanwhile, Gordianus the Finder is desperate to get inside the city to find his son Meto, Caesar's secretary, who has disappeared and is believed to be dead. Once inside, Gordianus must solve the murder of a woman to save his new friend, Hieronymus
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1668, adopted unanimously on April 10, 2006, after recalling Resolution 1581, the Council extended the term of Judge Joaquín Canivell at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia beyond his term of office to allow him to complete a case. The Secretary-General Kofi Annan had requested the Council to extend Canivell's term so he could complete the Krajišnik case, notwithstanding the fact that his service at the ICTY had exceeded three years. List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 1601 to 1700 Yugoslav Wars Works related to United Nations Security Council Resolution 1668 at Wikisource Text of the Resolution at undocs.org
Clavus albotuberculatus is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Drilliidae. The length of the shell varies between 50 mm; the elongate shell is, dark fleshy brown, with large white riblike nodules and a white infra-sutural line. It contains 10 whorls; the apical ones of the holotype are smooth. The next two whorls show rather indistinct ribs, the rest conspicuous white nodules, which become larger up to the body whorl. On this whorl, somewhat oblique, they are smaller on the ventral side, it shows a large nodule before the aperture and a second row of much smaller ones, which are not visible on the upper whorls. The surface of the shell is covered with faint spiral lirae, they suture is linear, irregular in consequence of the nodules of which there are 9 on the body whorl, besides 12 of the second row, 6 or 7 on the upper whorls, where they occupy nearly the whole breadth, except a narrow zone at the upper part of each whorl. The aperture is rather small, the interior white with fleshy brown spots near the margin.
The sinus is large and not deep. The outer lip is thin and prominent crenulate; the siphonal canal is short and large. The columella is curved, with a brown callosity, its lower extremity produced, near the suture with a strong tubercle; this is a marine species occurs off the Philippines and New Caledonia Kilburn R. N. Fedosov A. & Kantor Yu. I; the shallow-water New Caledonia Drilliidae of genus Clavus Montfort, 1810. Zootaxa 3818: 1-69 "Clavus albotuberculatus". Gastropods.com. Retrieved 15 January 2019
Najwa Najjar is a film writer/director. Born to a Jordanian father and Palestinian mother, she began her career making commercials and has worked in both documentary and fiction since 1999, her debut feature film'Pomegranates and Myrrh picked up 10 international awards, sold worldwide and was released theatrically and screened at over 80 international festivals. Her second film Eyes of a thief is a multi award winning thriller based on a true story, shot in Palestinian Territories. With Egyptian multi award-winning star actor and producer Khaled Abol Naga as the lead and the Algerian sensational singer Souad Massi debut as an actress, Eyes of a thief was the official Palestinian submission to the 2014 87th Academy Awards. Najjar's work includes several award-winning films shown worldwide. Najjar produced a collection of short films by international filmmakers Gaza Winter and produced a second long feature Eyes of A Thief, a Palestinian/Algerian/French/Icelandic co-production which received the support of Sundance Scriptwriting Lab, Sundance Duke Award, Dubai Film Connection, Jordan Film Fund and was a participant in the Rome International film Festival New Cinema Network.
The 1999 documentary film Naim and Wadee’a was based on Najjar's family and includes the oral histories of Na’im Azar and Wadee’a Aghabi, a couple who were forced to leave their Jaffa home in 1948. The film won the Award for Films of Conflict and Resolution at the 2000 Hamptons International Film Festival. Najjar's first fictional film and Myrrh, features a young Palestinian dancer who defends her family's land after her husband is sent to an Israeli prison. According to Najjar, when the film was first screened in Ramallah there was public outcry by the Hamas Government in Gaza over the film's portrayal of "what was deemed its'unpatriotic' portrayal of an untrustworthy wife of a political prisoner." At the Doha Tribeca Film Festival, the film won the Best Arab Film award. A speaker on numerous panels on cinema and a member of International Film Festival Juries, Najjar has reviewed books, her articles on Palestinian cinema have been published, she was an advisor and reader for the Rawi Sundance Lab for Arab scriptwriters, organized seminars for Palestinian filmmakers, gave a Directors Masterclass in Galway International Film Festival.
Najjar lives in the Palestinian Territories. Najjar has a BA in Political Science/Economics and did her MA in Film in Washington DC. Naim and Wadee’a Quintessence of Oblivion A Boy Named Mohamed Blue Gold They Came from the East Yasmine Tughani Pomegranates and Myrrh Eyes of a Thief Najwa Najjar on Twitter Interview with Najjar at the 2009 Edinburgh International Film Festival Women vs Occupation in Pomegranates and Myrrh