BMW AG is a German multinational company which produces automobiles and motorcycles, produced aircraft engines until 1945. The company is headquartered in Munich, Bavaria. BMW produces motor vehicles in Germany, China, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States. In 2015, BMW was the world's twelfth largest producer of motor vehicles, with 2,279,503 vehicles produced; the Quandt family are long-term shareholders of the company, with the remaining shares owned by public float. Automobiles are marketed under the brands Mini and Rolls-Royce. Motorcycles are marketed under the brand BMW Motorrad; the company has significant motorsport history in touring cars, Formula 1, sports cars and the Isle of Man TT. BMW's origins can be traced back to three separate German companies: Rapp Motorenwerke, Bayerische Flugzeugwerke, Automobilwerk Eisenach; the history of the name itself begins with an aircraft engine manufacturer. In April 1917, following the departure of the founder Karl Friedrich Rapp, the company was renamed Bayerische Motoren Werke.
BMW's first product was the BMW IIIa aircraft engine. The IIIa engine was known for high-altitude performance; the resulting orders for IIIa engines from the German military caused rapid expansion for BMW. After the end of World War I in 1918, BMW was forced to cease aircraft engine production by the terms of the Versailles Armistice Treaty. To remain in business, BMW produced farm household items and railway brakes. In 1922, former major shareholder Camillo Castiglioni purchased the rights to the name BMW, which led to the company descended from Rapp Motorenwerke being renamed Süddeutsche Bremse AG. Castiglioni was an investor in another aircraft company, called "Bayerische Flugzeugwerke", which he renamed BMW; the disused factory of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke was re-opened to produce engines for buses, farm equipment and pumps, under the brand name BMW. BMW's corporate history considers the founding date of Bayerische Flugzeugwerke to be the birth of the company; as the restrictions of the Armistice Treaty began to be lifted, BMW began production of motorcycles in 1923, with the R32 model.
BMW's production of automobiles began in 1928, when the company purchased the Automobilwerk Eisenach car company. Automobilwerk Eisenach's current model was the Dixi 3/15, a licensed copy of the Austin 7 which had begun production in 1927. Following the takeover, the Dixi 3/15 became BMW's first production car. In 1932, the BMW 3/20 became the first BMW automobile designed by BMW, it was powered by a four-cylinder engine. BMW's first automotive straight-six engine was released in 1933, in the BMW 303. Throughout the 1930s, BMW expanded its model range to include sedans, coupes and sports cars. With German rearmament in the 1930s, the company again began producing aircraft engines for the Luftwaffe; the factory in Munich made ample use of forced labour: foreign civilians, prisoners of war and inmates of the Dachau concentration camp. Among its successful World War II engine designs were the BMW 132 and BMW 801 air-cooled radial engines, the pioneering BMW 003 axial-flow turbojet, which powered the tiny, 1944–1945–era jet-powered “emergency fighter”, the Heinkel He 162 Spatz.
The BMW 003 jet engine was first tested as a prime power plant in the first prototype of the Messerschmitt Me 262, the Me 262 V1, but in 1942 tests the BMW prototype engines failed on takeoff with only the standby Junkers Jumo 210 nose-mounted piston engine powering it to a safe landing. The few Me 262 A-1b test examples built used the more developed version of the 003 jet, recording an official top speed of 800 km/h; the first-ever four-engine jet aircraft flown were the sixth and eighth prototypes of the Arado Ar 234 jet reconnaissance-bomber, which used BMW 003 jets for power. Through 1944 the 003's reliability improved, making it a suitable power plant for air frame designs competing for the Jägernotprogramm’s light fighter production contract. Which was won by the Heinkel He 162 Spatz design; the BMW 003 aviation turbojet was under consideration as the basic starting point for a pioneering turboshaft powerplant for German armored fighting vehicles in 1944–45, as the GT 101. Towards the end of the Third Reich, BMW developed some military aircraft projects for the Luftwaffe, the BMW Strahlbomber, the BMW Schnellbomber and the BMW Strahljäger, but none of them were built.
During World War II, many BMW production facilities had been bombed. BMW's facilities in East Germany were seized by the Soviet Union and the remaining facilities were banned by the Allies from producing motorcycles or automobiles. During this ban, BMW used basic secondhand and salvaged equipment to make pots and pans expanding to other kitchen supplies and bicycles. In 1947, BMW was granted permission to resume motorcycle production and its first post-war motorcycle - the R24 - was released in 1948. BMW was still barred from producing automobiles, the Bristol Aeroplane Company was producing cars in England based on BMW's pre-war models, using plans that BAC had taken from BMW's German offices. Production of automobiles resumed with the BMW 501 large sedan. Throughout the 1950s, BMW expanded their model range with sedans, coupes and sports cars. In 1954, the BMW 502 was BMW's first to use a V8 engine. To provide an affordable model, BMW began production of the Isetta
The Lexus GS is an executive car sold by Lexus, the premium division of Toyota. The same car launched in 1991 as the Toyota Aristo in Japan, but the Lexus-badged model did not appear until 1993. Now in its fourth generation, the GS sold under the Aristo name in Japan only until the release of the third generation model in 2005. Designed as a performance sedan competing in the mid-luxury class, the GS slots between the compact executive IS and large/flagship LS, shares its chassis with one of Toyota's longest-running platforms: the S-series, used under multiple generations of the Toyota Crown premium sedans. Four generations of the GS have been produced since 1993, each available with six-cylinder engines and rear-wheel drive. V8 engines were offered in the second and third generations, all-wheel drive and hybrid versions debuted in 2005; the first two generations had a Japanese domestic market equivalent, the Toyota Aristo, sold from 1991 until the Lexus marque's domestic debut in 2005. Though identical in exterior and interior design, the GS and the Aristo differed in their engine and transmission combinations as well as equipment packages.
The GS name stands for Grand Sedan. However, some Lexus importers use Grand Sport; the first-generation Lexus GS began sales in the United States and selected markets in Asia in 1993, where it was introduced with an inline-6 engine and exterior bodywork designed by Italdesign Giugiaro. The second-generation model premiered in 1997, using a new platform, in-house styling, adding a V8 version for the first time outside Japan; the third-generation GS, which premiered globally for the 2006 model year, was produced in V6, V8, hybrid versions, the latter known as the GS 450h performance hybrid. The third-generation models were the first GS sedans; the fourth-generation Lexus GS premiered in August 2011 at the Pebble Beach Concours d'Elegance, where models introduced included the V6-powered GS 350, hybrid GS 450h, performance-tuned F Sport variants. A lower-displacement V6 model, the GS 250, premiered at the Auto Guangzhou Exhibition in November 2011, targeted at Asian and European markets. In some markets such as North America, the GS shares the mid-size sedan category in the Lexus lineup with the front-wheel drive ES.
Italdesign Giugiaro began the first design drawings of the GS 300 in 1988. The design firm aimed to produce a deluxe saloon which did without the numerous exterior features and detailing found on existing Japanese premium sedans, in favor of a more simplified, European-style appearance; the vehicle's exterior styling blended elements of the then-current Lexus LS flagship and SC performance coupe in a rounded, aerodynamic wedge-like shape which featured a high rear decklid and longer and wider proportions than rival vehicles. The exterior produced a drag coefficient of Cd=0.31. The offered color schemes included single-tone bumper and body finishes, along with dual-tone schemes. Similarities with an Italdesign concept car which debuted in 1990, the Jaguar Kensington, led some observers to suggest that the GS 300 was derived from its design, but the firm has stated that the GS 300 was developed earlier. Equipped with an independent, double-wishbone suspension setup at both front and rear ends, Italdesign's saloon design first appeared in Toyota Aristo form in Japan in October 1991.
Built at Toyota's Tahara assembly plant in Japan, production of the Aristo involved more automation than previous vehicles built at the Tahara factory. Toyota of Japan offered two straight-six engine options for the Japanese market Aristo—the 3.0Q and 3.0V. The 3.0Q featured the 2JZ-GE engine which produced 169 kW, while the Aristo 3.0V was equipped with a 24-valve twin-turbo 2JZ-GTE engine which produced 205 kW. The Aristo was exclusive to the Toyota Vista Store as the top level luxury sedan at Vista dealerships, positioned above the Toyota Cresta and Chaser. In 1992, a third model, the V8-powered 4.0Zi-Four, joined the Aristo lineup. This model came with a 186 kW 1UZ-FE engine. Production of the export Lexus GS 300 began on 22 February 1993. For Lexus, The GS was placed above the front-wheel drive ES luxury sedan with its superior drivetrain setup and available amenities. Lexus only offered the GS with the 3.0-liter 2JZ-GE straight-six, producing 169 kW and 285 N⋅m of torque. For the interior, the GS 300 featured walnut wood trim on the center console, leather seating, an automatic tilt-and-telescoping steering wheel, the option of a Nakamichi premium stereo system.
Driver and front passenger airbags were standard. A moonroof, remote 12-CD auto changer, traction control were options; the GS was intended to take the price position of the original LS 400 flagship, which had moved upmarket since its 1989 launch. By the time of the GS 300's debut, the US$35,000 initial base price of the LS in the United States had climbed to US$47,000, while the GS 300 at debut carried base price of US$38,000. However, sales of the GS 300 were modest, with 1993 seeing the greatest sales at 19,164 sold that year. Sales dropped in years as the Japanese yen rose in value against the dollar and made the vehicle more expensive than its rivals. Additionally, more powerful V8 sport sedans provided strong competition. By 1997, the price of the GS 300 had risen to US$46,000. Production of the first generation GS sedan ended in July 1997. In 1993, after sales commenced for the first generation S140 series, development began on the successor under the inte
BMW 5 Series
The BMW 5 Series is an executive car manufactured by BMW since 1972. It is the successor to the New Class Sedans and is in its seventh generation; the 5 Series was only available in a sedan body style. The wagon/estate body style was added in 1991 and the 5-door fastback was produced from 2009 to 2017; the first generation of 5 Series was powered by aspirated four-cylinder and six-cylinder petrol engines. Following generations have been powered by four-cylinder, six-cylinder, V8 and V10 engines that are either aspirated or turbocharged. Since 1982, diesel engines have been included in the 5 Series range; the 5 Series is BMW's second best-selling model after the 3 Series. On January 29, 2008, the 5 millionth 5 Series was manufactured, a 530d sedan in Carbon Black Metallic. BMW's three-digit model naming convention began with the first 5 Series, thus the 5 Series was BMW's first model line to use "Series" in the name. Since the E28, all generations of 5 Series have included an "M" model, called the BMW M5.
The E12 is the first generation of 5 Series, produced from 1972 to 1981. It was produced in the sedan body style; the initial models were powered by four-cylinder engines, with a six-cylinder engine being introduced a year later. There was no M5 model for the E12, however the E12 M535i is considered to be the predecessor to the M5; the E12 was replaced by the E28 in 1981, although E12 production continued until 1984 in South Africa. The E28 is the second generation of 5 Series, produced from 1981 to 1988 in the sedan body style, it was produced with petrol four-cylinder and six-cylinder engines. In 1983, a diesel engine was available for the first time in a 5 Series; the E28 was the first 5 Series with the centre console angled towards the driver and the option of anti-lock brakes. The E28 M5 began the line of M5 high performance models that has continued through every generation since, it was powered by the M88/3 six-cylinder engines. The E34 is the third generation of the 5 Series, produced from 1988 to 1996.
It was launched in the sedan body style, with the range expanded in 1990 to include the "Touring" wagon/estate body style. The E34 was the first 5 Series to be available with the wagon body style, all-wheel drive and V8 engines, it saw the introduction of stability control, traction control a 6-speed manual transmission and adjustable damping to the 5 Series range. There was an unusually large range of engines fitted over its lifetime, as nine different engine families were used; these consisted of four-cylinder, six-cylinder and V8 petrol engines, six-cylinder diesel engines. The E34 M5 is powered by the S38 six-cylinder engine and was produced in sedan and wagon body styles; the E39 is the fourth generation of 5 Series, sold from 1995 to 2004. It was launched in the sedan body style, with the wagon/estate body style introduced in 1996; the E39 was the first 5 Series. The proportion of chassis components using aluminium increased for the E39, in order to reduce weight, it was the first 5 Series where a four-cylinder diesel engine was available.
V8 models use recirculating ball steering, however rack and pinion steering was used for the first time, in the four-cylinder and six-cylinder models. Unlike its E34 predecessor and E60 successor, the E39 was not available with all-wheel drive; the E39 M5 sedan was introduced in 1998, powered by the 4.9-litre S62 V8 engine. The E60/E61 is the fifth generation of the 5 Series, sold from 2003 to 2010; the body styles of the range are: 4-door sedan/saloon 5-door estate/wagon The E60 generation introduced various new electronic features to the 5 Series, including iDrive, head-up display, active cruise control, active steering and voice control. The E60 was the first 5 Series to be available with a turbocharged petrol engine, a 6-speed automatic transmission and regenerative braking. New safety features for the E60 included adaptive headlights, night vision, active headrests, Lane Departure Warning and high intensity emergency brake lights; the E60/E61 M5 is powered by the S85 V10 engine. It was sold in the sedan and wagon body styles, with most cars using a 7-speed automated manual transmission.
The BMW F10/F11/F07/F18 is the sixth generation of the BMW 5 Series, produced from 2010 to 2017. The body styles of the range are: 4-door sedan/saloon 5-door estate/wagon 5-door fastback 4-door long wheelbase sedan The F07 Gran Turismo is the only 5 Series to date, produced in a fastback body style; the F10 is the first 5 Series to offer a hybrid drivetrain, a turbocharged V8 engine, an 8-speed automatic transmission, a dual-clutch transmission, active rear-wheel steering, electric power steering, double-wishbone front suspension, an LCD instrument cluster and automatic parking. The F10 M5 is powered by the S63 twin-turbo V8 engine with a 7-speed dual clutch transmission, it is the first M5 to use a turbocharged engine. The BMW G30/G31/G38 is the seventh generation of the 5 Series, it was announced in October 2016, sales began in February 2017. The body styles of the range are: 4-door sedan/saloon 5-door wagon/estate 4-door long-wheelbase saloon The fastback 5 Series GT model from the previous generation is no longer part
Tesla Model S
The Tesla Model S is an all-electric five-door liftback car, produced by Tesla, Inc. and introduced on June 22, 2012. The EPA official range for the 2017 Model S 100D, equipped with a 100 kWh battery pack, is 335 miles, higher than any other electric car; the EPA rated the 2017 90D Model S's energy consumption at 3.096 miles per kWh for a combined fuel economy of 104 miles per gallon gasoline equivalent. In 2016, Tesla updated the design of the Model S to match that of the Model X; as of January 2019, the following versions are available: 100D and P100D. In 2013, the Model S became the first electric car to top the monthly new car sales ranking in any country, twice leading in Norway, in September and December 2013 and in Denmark in December 2015. Global Model S sales passed 250,000 units in September 2018; the U. S. is its leading market, with about 140,000 units delivered through December 2018. The Tesla Model S was the top selling plug-in electric car worldwide in 2015 and 2016, by the end of 2018 continued to rank as the second most-sold electric car in history after the Nissan Leaf.
The December 2017 Consumer Reports owner satisfaction survey had the Tesla Model S at the top. The Model S was styled by Franz von Holzhausen, who worked for Mazda North American Operations; the car was codenamed WhiteStar during preliminary development. It was announced in a press release on June 30, 2008; the prototype vehicle was displayed at a press conference on March 26, 2009. Exclusive premier of their Model S electric car was held at their Menlo Park store on April 8, 2009. In February 2008 it was reported that Tesla, Inc. was planning to offer a range-extended version of its Model S. This version would have included a gasoline engine to extend the driving range of the vehicle, but it was removed in revisions. At the GoingGreen conference in September 2008 Tesla's CEO, Elon Musk, announced that Tesla was developing only electric cars. Construction of an assembly factory in Albuquerque, New Mexico was supposed to begin in April 2007, but was cancelled. A factory to be built in San Jose, California was announced.
In May 2010 Tesla announced it would produce the Model S at the former NUMMI assembly plant in Fremont, now known as the Tesla Factory. This third plan was implemented; the Tesla Model S was the 2013 World Green Car of the Year, 2013 Motor Trend Car of the Year, Automobile magazine's 2013 Car of the Year, Time Magazine's Best 25 Inventions of the Year 2012, Consumer Reports' top-scoring car in road testing. In 2015, Car and Driver named the Model S the Car of the Century. After not recommending the Model S in 2015 due to poor reliability, one year Consumer Reports added the car to its recommended list. Tesla said that after three years, Model S cars traveled over 1 billion miles, the first plug-in electric car to reach that total. In 2014 the Volt total was 629 million all-electric miles out of a total of 1 billion miles traveled, while Nissan said the Leaf had accumulated 625 million total miles. Tesla said 68 % of Model S travel was in 25 % in Europe and 7 % in Asia-Pacific. Global Model S sales passed the 100,000 units in 2015, the 150,000 mark in November 2016.
The 200,000 milestone was achieved by early in the fourth quarter of 2017. In 2016, the "Electric GT World Series" was promoted in preparation for a 2017 racing season using the P85+ as a race car on certain traditional tracks; the first season is planned to have 20 cars in 10 teams. In April 2016, Tesla made minor changes in the Model S; the front fascia has a similar design as the Model X, adding adaptive LED headlights. A HEPA cabin air filtration system was added; the standard charger increased from 40 to 48 amps. Two ash wood interior options were added. In May 2018 Tesla released source code for the Model S on a github.com repository as part of their software license compliance process in collaboration with the Software Freedom Conservancy. Tesla manufactures the Model S at the 5,400,000 square feet Tesla Factory in California. For the European market, Tesla assembles and distributes from its European Distribution Center in Tilburg, the Netherlands. Cars are tested in Fremont, California; the battery pack, the electric motor and parts are disassembled and shipped separately to Tilburg, where the cars are reassembled.
The center occupies a 203,000 sq ft industrial building that serves as a workshop and spare parts warehouse. Tesla expects the Model S to "pay back" the energy that went into producing the car in fewer than 10,000 miles; the first ten customers received their cars at the Fremont factory on June 22, 2012 at the official launch. Production grew from 15–20 cars completed per week in August 2012 to about 1,000 cars per week in 2015. In October 2015, Tesla announced the company is negotiating with the Chinese government on producing its electric cars domestically. Local production has the potential to reduce the sales prices of Tesla models by a third. Agreement for a production facility with capacity for up to 500,000 vehicles was formally announced in July 2018; the Model S exists in several versions, differing in energy capacity and equipment. It is classified as a full-size luxury car in the US, or as a "Large Car" or "Luxury Sedan" by the EPA; the Euro Car Segment classification is "Oberklasse" in Germany.
The 2012 Tesla Model S Performance model has a three-phase, four-pole AC induction 416
Mercedes-Benz is a German global automobile marque and a division of Daimler AG. The brand is known for luxury vehicles, buses and trucks; the headquarters is in Baden-Württemberg. The name first appeared in 1926 under Daimler-Benz. In 2018, Mercedes-Benz was the biggest selling premium vehicle brand in the world, having sold 2.31 million passenger cars. Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft's 1901 Mercedes and Karl Benz's 1886 Benz Patent-Motorwagen, regarded as the first gasoline-powered automobile; the slogan for the brand is "the best or nothing". Mercedes-Benz traces its origins to Karl Benz's creation of the first petrol-powered car, the Benz Patent Motorwagen, financed by Bertha Benz and patented in January 1886, Gottlieb Daimler and engineer Wilhelm Maybach's conversion of a stagecoach by the addition of a petrol engine that year; the Mercedes automobile was first marketed in 1901 by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft. Emil Jellinek, an Austrian automobile entrepreneur who worked with DMG, created the trademark in 1902, naming the 1901 Mercedes 35 hp after his daughter Mercedes Jellinek.
Jellinek was a businessman and marketing strategist who promoted "horseless" Daimler automobiles among the highest circles of society in his adopted home, which, at that time, was a meeting place for the "Haute Volée" of France and Europe in winter. His customers included other well-known personalities, but Jellinek's plans went further: as early as 1901, he was selling Mercedes cars in the New World as well, including US billionaires Rockefeller, Astor and Taylor. At a race in Nice in 1899, Jellinek drove under the pseudonym "Monsieur Mercédès", a way of concealing the competitor's real name as was normal and regularly done in those days; the race ranks as the hour of birth of the Mercedes-Benz brand. In 1901, the name "Mercedes" was registered by Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft worldwide as a protected trademark; the first Mercedes-Benz brand name vehicles were produced in 1926, following the merger of Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's companies into the Daimler-Benz company on 28 June of the same year.
Gottlieb Daimler was born on 17 March 1834 in Schorndorf. After training as a gunsmith and working in France, he attended the Polytechnic School in Stuttgart from 1857 to 1859. After completing various technical activities in France and England, he started working as a draftsman in Geislingen in 1862. At the end of 1863, he was appointed workshop inspector in a machine tool factory in Reutlingen, where he met Wilhelm Maybach in 1865. Throughout the 1930s, Mercedes-Benz produced the 770 model, a car, popular during Germany's Nazi period. Adolf Hitler was known to have driven these cars during his time in power, with bulletproof windshields. Most of the surviving models have been sold at auctions to private buyers. One of them is on display at the War Museum in Ottawa, Ontario; the pontiff's Popemobile has been sourced from Mercedes-Benz. In 1944, 46,000 forced laborers were used in Daimler-Benz's factories to bolster Nazi war efforts; the company paid $12 million in reparations to the laborers' families.
Mercedes-Benz has introduced many technological and safety innovations that became common in other vehicles. Mercedes-Benz is one of the best-known and established automotive brands in the world. For information relating to the famous three-pointed star, see under the title Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft, including the merger into Daimler-Benz; as part of the Daimler AG company, the Mercedes-Benz Cars division includes Mercedes-Benz and Smart car production. Mercedes-AMG became a majority owned division of Mercedes-Benz in 1999; the company was integrated into DaimlerChrysler in 1999, became Mercedes-Benz AMG beginning on 1 January 1999. Daimler's ultra-luxury brand Maybach was under Mercedes-Benz cars division until 2013, when the production stopped due to poor sales volumes, it now exists under the Mercedes-Maybach name, with the models being ultra-luxury versions of Mercedes cars, such as the 2016 Mercedes-Maybach S600. Daimler cooperates with BYD Auto to sell a battery-electric car called Denza in China.
In 2016, Daimler announced plans to sell. Beside its native Germany, Mercedes-Benz vehicles are manufactured or assembled in: Since its inception, Mercedes-Benz has maintained a reputation for its quality and durability. Objective measures looking at passenger vehicles, such as J. D. Power surveys, demonstrated a downturn in reputation in these criteria in the late 1990s and early 2000s. By mid-2005, Mercedes temporarily returned to the industry average for initial quality, a measure of problems after the first 90 days of ownership, according to J. D. Power. In J. D. Power's Initial Quality Study for the first quarter of 2007, Mercedes showed dramatic improvement by climbing from 25th to 5th place and earning several awards for its models. For 2008, Mercedes-Benz's initial quality rating improved to fourth place. On top of this accolade, it received the Platinum Plant Quality Award for its Mercedes’ Sindelfingen, Germany assembly plant. J. D. Power's 2011 US Initial Quality and Vehicle Dependability Studies both ranked Mercedes-Benz vehicles above average in build quality and reliability.
In the 2011 UK J. D. Power Survey, Mercedes cars were rated above average. A 2014 iSeeCars.com study for Reuters found Mercedes to have the lowest vehicle recall rate. Mercedes-Benz offers a full range of light commercial and heavy commercial equipment. Vehicles are manufactured in multiple countries worldwide; the Smart marque of city cars are produced by Daimler AG
The Chrysler 300 is a rear-wheel-drive, front-engine, full-sized luxury car manufactured and marketed by FCA US as a four-door sedan and station wagon in its first generation and as a four-door sedan in its second and current generation. The second generation 300 was marketed as the Chrysler 300C in the United Kingdom and Ireland and as the Lancia Thema in the remainder of Europe; the 300 debuted as a concept at the 2003 New York International Auto Show with styling by Burke Brown and production starting in January 2004 for the 2005 model year. The Chrysler 300 was designed as a modern interpretation of the Chrysler C-300, featuring a large grille, long hood and low roofline, prominent on those vehicles; the styling retained many elements of the 1998 Chrysler Chronos concept car, such as chrome interior accents and tortoiseshell finishings on the steering wheel and shifter knob. The Chrysler 300 is based on the rear-wheel drive Chrysler LX platform with components derived from the Chrysler LH architecture.
The basic 300 comes with standard 17-inch wheels, wheel covers, four-wheel disc brakes, single disc MP3 player, auxiliary input jack, power driver seat and a four-speed automatic transmission. It uses a 2,736 cc EER V6 making 190 hp. In Canada, it comes standard with the Touring model's 3,518 cc V6 engine; the vehicle comes with available all wheel drive. The basic 300 model remains as the code-name for the platform; the Touring model uses a 3,518 cc V6, producing 250 hp and 250 lb⋅ft of torque, either a 4 or 5spd transmission depending on the year and drive configuration, comes with 17-inch aluminium wheels, AM/FM radio with CD player and auxiliary audio jack, Electronic Stability Program, remote keyless entry, leather trimmed seats, SIRIUS satellite radio. This model was renamed Touring Plus for the 2010 model years; the Limited model included the Touring model's 3.5 L V6 engine, generating 250 hp and 250 lb⋅ft and either a 4 or 5 speed transmission depending on the year and drive configuration.
Additional features included anti-roll bars. The top-of-the-line 300C version uses a 5.7 L Hemi V8. Using the Multidisplacement System, this engine can run on four cylinders when less power is needed in order to reduce total fuel consumption; the USEPA-rated fuel consumption of the 300C is: 15 miles per US gallon city, 23 miles per US gallon highway. When all eight cylinders are needed, the 300C can produce 390 lb ⋅ ft of torque, it uses a five-speed automatic transmission and comes standard with 18-inch chrome-clad alloy wheels, Chrysler's MyGIG Infotainment System in 2008 and SIRIUS Satellite Radio and Backseat Television in 2008. The HEMI cylinder heads necessitate the use of a double rocker arm shaft configuration, with a cam-in-block, overhead valve pushrod design. There are two spark plugs per cylinder to promote efficient fuel/air mixture burn and thereby reduce emissions. In 2009–2010 power output was increased to 360 hp; the SRT-8 model was equipped with a 6.1-liter Hemi engine producing 425 hp at 6,200 rpm and 420 lb⋅ft of torque at 4,800 rpm.
The SRT8 can accelerate from 0–60 mph in 4.9 seconds. The 300C was sold in Europe and Japan as both a four-door notchback sedan and a five-door station wagon; the five-door station wagon was sold as the 300C Touring, which shared much of its sheet metal aft of the C-pillar and wheel designs with the Dodge Magnum. The base Chrysler 300 was not sold in Europe, instead all cars came with the 300C body style/interior and a choice of either V6 diesel or V8 gasoline powerplants; the economical Mercedes-based V6 diesel was popular in Europe. All 300C Touring models, along with European 300C sedans and right-hand drive models were assembled by Magna Steyr in Graz, Austria beginning in June 2005. Steyr insisted on upgrading suspension components to suit European tastes. Dodge Charger/Magnum wheels with Chrysler center caps were used instead of the distinct wheels used on Canada-assembled models; the five-door station wagon bodystyle was discontinued after the first generation. In Europe and Australia, the 300C was available with a Mercedes-Benz 3.0 L diesel V6 engine rated 218 PS at 3800 rpm and 376 lb⋅ft of torque at 1600 rpm.
Fuel economy for the 300C diesel is rated at 26.2 mpg‑US City, 42.8 mpg‑US Highway and 34.9 mpg‑US on the combined cycle. It can accelerate from 0–60 mph in 7.9 seconds while the top speed remains the same as the gasoline V6. The 2008 UK models included the 300C SRT-Design model in sedan or Touring body, which included SRT 20-inch alloy wheels and wheel arch spats, chrome mesh grille, MyGIG satellite navigation, SRT-8 steering wheel, SRT-8 leather sports seats and carbon fiber interior details. ASC created a convertible version of the Chrysler 300C, dubbed the ASC Helios 300, unveiled it at the North American International Auto Show in early 2005. Despite rumours, Chrysler confirmed; the Walter P. Chrysler Executive Series 300 was an extended wheelbase version shown at the 2006 New York Auto Show, it added 6 inches to the rear
BMW 8 Series
The BMW 8 Series is a range of grand tourers produced by BMW. The 8 Series was introduced in 1990 under the E31 model code and was only available as a two-door coupé, it is powered by a range of aspirated V8 and V12 petrol engines. The E31 started production just as E24 6 Series production ended, however it is not considered a direct successor, it was discontinued in 1999 due to poor sales. The model range was reintroduced in 2018 with the second generation, G15 8 Series, it is expected to launch in coupé, four-door Gran Coupé body styles, as the successor to the F06/F12/F13 6 Series lineup. The G15 8 Series introduces an inline-six diesel engine, a high-performance M8 model is expected to be launched in the future. Design work of the first generation E31 8 Series began in 1984, with final design phase and production development starting in 1986; the car debuted at the 1989 Frankfurt Motor Show, was produced until 1999. The 8 Series was designed to move beyond the market of the original E24 6 Series, featuring greater performance and an increased price.
The 8 Series was the first road car to offer a V12 engine mated to a 6-speed manual transmission and was one of the first vehicles to be fitted with electronic drive-by-wire throttle. The 8 Series was among one of BMW's first cars to use a multi-link rear axle; the BMW 8 Series was announced on June 15, 2018 with sales commencing from November 2018. It is only available as a coupé, with the convertible and four-door Gran Coupé variants expected to be introduced soon. Production commenced in late 2018 at the BMW assembly plant in Germany. Official site