Elwyn Brooks White was an American writer. For more than fifty years, he was a contributor to The New Yorker magazine, he was a co-author of the English language style guide The Elements of Style. In addition, he wrote books for children, including Stuart Little, Charlotte's Web, The Trumpet of the Swan. In a 2012 survey of School Library Journal readers, Charlotte's Web came in first in their poll of the top one hundred children's novels. White was born in Mount Vernon, New York, the youngest child of Samuel Tilly White, the president of a piano firm, Jessie Hart White, the daughter of Scottish-American painter William Hart. Elwyn's older brother Stanley Hart White, known as Stan, a professor of landscape architecture and the inventor of the Vertical Garden, taught E. B. White to explore the natural world. White graduated from Cornell University with a bachelor of arts degree in 1921, he got the nickname "Andy" at Cornell, where tradition confers that moniker on any male student whose surname is White, after Cornell co-founder Andrew Dickson White.
While at Cornell, he worked as editor of The Cornell Daily Sun with classmate Allison Danzig, who became a sportswriter for The New York Times. White was a member of the Aleph Samach and Quill and Dagger societies and Phi Gamma Delta fraternity. After graduation, White worked for the United Press and the American Legion News Service in 1921 and 1922. From September 1922 to June 1923, he was a cub reporter for The Seattle Times. On one occasion, when White was stuck writing a story, a Times editor said, "Just say the words." He was fired from the Times and wrote for the Seattle Post-Intelligencer before a stint in Alaska on a fireboat. He worked for two years with the Frank Seaman advertising agency as a production assistant and copywriter before returning to New York City in 1924; when The New Yorker was founded in 1925, White submitted manuscripts to it. Katharine Angell, the literary editor, recommended to editor-in-chief and founder Harold Ross that White be hired as a staff writer. However, it took months to convince him to come to a meeting at the office and additional weeks to convince him to work on the premises.
He agreed to work in the office on Thursdays. White was shy around women, claiming he had “too small a heart, too large a pen." But in 1929, culminating an affair which led to her divorce and Katherine Angell were married. They had a son, Joel White, a naval architect and boat builder, who owned Brooklin Boat Yard in Brooklin, Maine. Katharine's son from her first marriage, Roger Angell, has spent decades as a fiction editor for The New Yorker and is well known as the magazine's baseball writer. In her foreword to Charlotte's Web, Kate DiCamillo quotes White as saying, "All that I hope to say in books, all that I hope to say, is that I love the world." White loved animals and farming implements and weather formats. James Thurber described White as a quiet man who disliked publicity and who, during his time at The New Yorker, would slip out of his office via the fire escape to a nearby branch of Schrafft's to avoid visitors whom he didn't know. Most of us, out of a politeness made up of faint curiosity and profound resignation, go out to meet the smiling stranger with a gesture of surrender and a fixed grin, but White has always taken to the fire escape.
He has avoided the Man in the Reception Room as he has avoided the interviewer, the photographer, the microphone, the rostrum, the literary tea, the Stork Club. His life is his own, he is the only writer of prominence I know of who could walk through the Algonquin lobby or between the tables at Jack and Charlie's and be recognized only by his friends. White had Alzheimer's disease and died on October 1, 1985, at his farm home in North Brooklin, Maine, he is buried in the Brooklin Cemetery beside Katharine, who died in 1977. E. B. White published his first article in The New Yorker in 1925 joined the staff in 1927 and continued to contribute for six decades. Best recognized for his essays and unsigned "Notes and Comment" pieces, he became the magazine's most important contributor. From the beginning to the end of his career at The New Yorker, he provided what the magazine calls "Newsbreaks" under various categories such as "Block That Metaphor." He was a columnist for Harper's Magazine from 1938 to 1943.
In 1949, White published Here Is New York, a short book based on an article he had been commissioned to write for Holiday. Editor Ted Patrick approached White about writing the essay telling him it would be fun. "Writing is never'fun,' " replied White. That article reflects the writer's appreciation of a city that provides its residents with both "the gift of loneliness and the gift of privacy." It concludes with a dark note touching on the forces. This prescient "love letter" to the city was re-published in 1999 on his centennial with an introduction by his stepson, Roger Angell. In 1959, White updated The Elements of Style; this handbook of grammatical and stylistic guidance for writers of American English was first written and published in 1918 by William Strunk Jr. one of White's professors at Cornell. White's reworking of the book was well received, editions followed in 1972, 1979, 1999. Maira Kalman illustrated an edition in 2005; that same year, a New York composer named. The volume is a standard tool for students and writers and remains required reading in many composition classes.
The complete history of The Elements of Style
MS Freedom of the Seas is a cruise ship operated by Royal Caribbean International. She is the namesake of Royal Caribbean's Freedom class, can accommodate 3,634 passengers and 1,300 crew on fifteen passenger decks; the vessel has 4 crew decks below the waterline. Freedom of the Seas was the largest passenger ship built from 2006 until construction of her sister ship, Liberty of the Seas in 2007; as of November 2018, she is the 15th largest passenger ship in the world by gross tonnage, at 155,889 GT. Freedom of the Seas was built at the Aker Yards Turku Shipyard, which built the ships of the Voyager class as well as the other ships of the Freedom class. Upon its completion, it became the largest passenger ship built, taking that honor from Cunard's Queen Mary 2. Freedom of the Seas is 2.4 metres narrower than QM2 at the waterline, 6 metres shorter, has 1.5 metres less draft, is 8.3 metres less tall and 10 miles per hour slower. Freedom however is the larger ship in terms of gross tonnage, its gross tonnage as verified by Det Norske Veritas, a Norwegian marine classification society, was 154,407 GT, compared with QM2's 148,528 GT.
Freedom of the Seas had the highest gross tonnage of any passenger ship yet built until the 2007 completion of Liberty of the Seas. The ship has four bow thrusters; when at sea Freedom of the Seas consumes 12,800 kg of fuel per hour. On July 22, 2015, a fire started in a mechanical area of the ship around 9:15 AM when the ship was en route from Cape Canaveral, Florida to Falmouth, Jamaica. All passengers were sent to their muster stations, one crew member sustained first degree burns; the fire was extinguished, the ship was able to continue on its planned itinerary. On July 7, 2019, 18-month-old Chloe Wiegand from died after falling through an open window on the 11th deck while the ship was docked in San Juan, Puerto Rico, her 51-year-old grandfather, Salvatore Anello, had placed her on a railing and lost his grip while holding her. Anello claimed that he was colorblind and didn't notice that the window was open, but the cruise line released security camera footage that they claim shows Anello leaning out the window shortly before lifting the toddler up to it.
On December 11, 2019, Chloe's parents sued Royal Caribbean Cruises Ltd. over the death of their daughter, alleging that the company was negligent for not properly securing the windows. Anello pled guilty to a charge of negligent homicide on February 25, will be placed on probation; the ship has an interior promenade 445 feet long called the "Royal Promenade". The ship has three swimming areas: an interactive water park, a dedicated adult pool, the main pool; the 13th deck has a sports area with a rock climbing wall, the FlowRider surf simulator, a miniature golf course and a full size basketball court. Other items include a casino and a three-deck-high broadway-style theater. Many of the ship's interiors were extensively decorated by muralist Clarissa Parish; the ship docked at Blohm und Voss in Hamburg, Germany on 17 April 2006 to repair a damaged bearing in one of the three Azipod propulsion units and some minor modifications prior to her official handover to Royal Caribbean International on 24 April 2006.
She visited Oslo, Norway before sailing for Southampton, England. The ship sailed on its first transatlantic crossing on 3 May 2006. Freedom of the Seas arrived in New York Harbor USA for her official naming ceremony on 12 May 2006, broadcast live on NBC's The Today Show from Cape Liberty Cruise Port in Bayonne, New Jersey, thereafter traveled to Boston for the weekend of May 19–22; the ship's godmother was selected as Katherine Louise Calder, a Portland, Oregon foster care provider. She began operations out of Miami with her first cruise and maiden voyage on 4 June, sailing to western Caribbean locations. On 4 May 2009, Freedom of the Seas moved her home port from the Port of Miami-Dade to Port Canaveral; the ship underwent her first dry dock refurbishment in late March 2011. In January 2015, the ship underwent another 24-day dry dock. During the dry dock some new interior passenger cabins were added. In winter 2016, Freedom of the Seas repositioned to Port Everglades, from where she undertook cruises in the Caribbean.
After homeporting in Barcelona in the spring and summer of 2017, Freedom of the Seas returned to Port Everglades. In May 2018, she commenced sailing Southern Caribbean sailings out of San Juan, Puerto Rico until April 2021. Freedom of the Seas is scheduled to undergo a $116 million dry dock early in 2020. Freedom of the Seas Official Website BBC News "Final polish at Germany's Blohm + Voss shipyard" Aftenposten Norway "World's largest cruise ship in Oslo" BBC News "Massive cruise ship arrives in UK" BBC News "Huge cruise ship leaves UK shores"
Idiosyncratic drug reactions known as type B reactions, are drug reactions that occur and unpredictably amongst the population. This is not to be mistaken with idiopathic, they occur with exposure to new drugs, as they have not been tested and the full range of possible side-effects have not been discovered. Some patients have multiple-drug intolerance. Patients who have multiple idiopathic effects that are nonspecific are more to have anxiety and depression. Idiosyncratic drug reactions appear to not be concentration dependent. A minimal amount of drug will cause an immune response, but it is suspected that at a low enough concentration, a drug will be less to initiate an immune response. In adverse drug reactions involving overdoses, the toxic effect is an extension of the pharmacological effect. On the other hand, clinical symptoms of idiosyncratic drug reactions are different from the pharmacological effect of the drug; the proposed mechanism of most idiosyncratic drug reactions is immune-mediated toxicity.
To create an immune response, a foreign molecule must be present that antibodies can bind to and cellular damage must exist. Drugs will not be immunogenic because they are too small to induce immune response. However, a drug can cause an immune response; some unaltered drugs, such as penicillin, will bind avidly to proteins. Others must be bioactivated into a toxic compound; the second criterion of cellular damage can come either from a toxic drug/drug metabolite, or from an injury or infection. These will cause a response. Idiosyncratic reactions fall conventionally under toxicology. Idiosyncrasy