Sherwood Forest is a royal forest in Nottinghamshire, famous by its historic association with the legend of Robin Hood. The area has been wooded since the end of the Ice Age. Today, Sherwood Forest National Nature Reserve encompasses 423.2 hectares, 1,045 acres, surrounding the village of Edwinstowe, the site of Thoresby Hall. It is a remnant of an older, much larger, royal hunting forest, which derived its name from its status as the shire wood of Nottinghamshire, which extended into several neighbouring counties, bordered on the west along the River Erewash and the Forest of East Derbyshire; when the Domesday Book was compiled in 1086, the forest covered a quarter of Nottinghamshire in woodland and heath subject to the forest laws. The Sherwood Forest Trust is a small charity that covers the ancient royal boundary and current national character area of Sherwood Forest, its aims are based on conservation and communities, but include tourism and the economy. Nottinghamshire County Council and The Forestry Commission manage jointly the ancient remnant of forest north of the village of Edwinstowe, providing walks, trails and a host of other activities.
This central core of ancient Sherwood is a SSSI, NNR, SAC. It is a important site for ancient oaks, wood pasture and fungi, as well as being linked to the legends of Robin Hood. Part of the forest was opened as a country park to the public in 1969 by Nottinghamshire County Council, which manages a small part of the forest under lease from the Thoresby Estate. In 2002, a portion of Sherwood Forest was designated a National Nature Reserve by English Nature. In 2007, Natural England incorporated the Budby South Forest, Nottinghamshire's largest area of dry lowland heath, into the Nature Reserve, nearly doubling its size from 220 to 423 hectares; some portions of the forest retain many old oaks in the portion known as the Dukeries, south of the town of Worksop, so called because it used to contain five ducal residences. The River Idle, a tributary of the Trent, is formed in Sherwood Forest from the confluence of several minor streams. Sherwood many from other countries. Visitor numbers have increased since the launch of the BBC's Robin Hood television series in 2006.
Each August the nature reserve hosts week-long Robin Hood Festival. This event recreates a medieval atmosphere and features the major characters from the Robin Hood legend; the week's entertainment includes jousters and strolling players, dressed in medieval attire, in addition to a medieval encampment complete with jesters, rat-catchers and fire eaters. Throughout the year, visitors are attracted to the Sherwood Forest Art and Craft Centre, situated in the former Coach House and Stables of Edwinstowe Hall in the heart of the Forest; the centre contains art studios and a cafe, hosts special events, including craft demonstrations and exhibitions. Sherwood Forest is home to the famous Major Oak, according to local folklore, was Robin Hood's principal hideout; the oak tree is between 800 and 1,000 years old and, since the Victorian era, its massive limbs have been supported by an elaborate system of scaffolding. In February 1998, a local company took cuttings from the Major Oak and began cultivating clones of the famous tree with the intention of sending saplings to be planted in major cities around the world.
The Major Oak was featured on the 2005 BBC TV programme Seven Natural Wonders as one of the natural wonders of the Midlands. Thynghowe, an important Danelaw meeting place where people came to resolve disputes and settle issues, was lost to history until its rediscovery in 2005–06 by local history enthusiasts amidst the old oaks of an area known as the Birklands. Experts believe it may yield clues as to the boundary of the ancient Anglo Saxon kingdoms of Mercia and Northumbria. English Heritage had inspected the site, have confirmed it was known as "Thynghowe" in 1334 and 1609; the current location of the Sherwood Forest Visitor Centre must be moved due to the classification of the area as a Special Area of Conservation. SACs are protected sites designated under the EC Habitats Directive. Article 3 of the Habitats Directive requires the establishment of a European network of important high-quality conservation sites that will make a significant contribution to conserving the 189 habitat types and 788 species identified in Annexes I and II of the Directive.
The listed habitat types and species are those considered to be most in need of conservation at a European level. Of the Annex I habitat types, 78 are believed to occur in the UK. Of the Annex II species, 43 are native to, resident in, the UK. List of forests in the United Kingdom List of ancient woods in England Sherwood Foresters, a British Army regiment associated with Nottinghamshire Bankes, Richard. Sherwood Forest in 1609: A Crown Survey Conduit, Brian. Exploring Sherwood Forest Fletcher, John. Ornament of Sherwood Forest From Ducal Estate to Public Park Gray, Adrian. Sherwood Forest and the Dukeries 2008 Sherwood Forest and the East Midlands Walks Innes-Smith, Robert; the Dukeries & Sherwood Forest Ottewell, David. Sherwood Forest in Old Photographs Forestry Commission The News and Archaeology of The Real Sherwood Forest Nottinghamshire County Council's Official Sherwood Forest Page Sherwood Forest Regeneration Plans Sherwood Forest Trust Official Website The Living Legend details current plans for the forest.
Official tourism website
A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar
A Guide to the Scientific Knowledge of Things Familiar known as The Guide to Science or Brewer's Guide to Science, is a book by Ebenezer Cobham Brewer presenting explanations for common phenomena. First published in the United Kingdom around 1840, the book is laid out in the style of a catechism and proved popular. 47 editions were printed by 1905 in English alone and translations made into various other languages. A revised version was produced for the US market, digitised and republished in 2005 as part of Making of America IV: the American voice, 1850–1877. Although presented itself as an accurate science text, the book promotes religious ideas, including divine design; the popularity of The Guide to Science enabled Brewer to gather material for his Dictionary of Phrase and Fable which remains a classic reference work. The object of The Guide to Science was to present answers to over 2000 questions about common phenomena. There are questions dealing with the man-made objects such as candles and chimneys as well as answers seeking to explain natural phenomena such as thunder and lightning, clouds and rainbows.
Brewer intended that his book should be intelligible to a child, since children might ask the questions he was seeking to answer, but without being so foolish as to offend the scientific. The book is separated into two or three parts, depending upon the edition, each part having several chapters. Part one deals with questions relating to heat such as the sources of heat and its effects on humans and animals, while Part two deals with questions relating to air, explaining why metal rusts in air, the operation of barometers and the transmission of sound. A Miscellaneous section deals with several more nebulous questions, including questions about sleep and dreaming. Within each part, the different chapters break the questions and answers up into subject areas organised thematically; the Guide to Science had its origin in a habit of Brewer's of making and saving notes from his reading. He set his notes out in a question-and-answer or catechism style, leaving a space for answers when they were obtained.
Brewer bound his book into a volume and, disregarding advice from one man of science to burn it, sought to have it published. His initial offer to Thomas Jarrold to sell the copyright for 50 pounds was rejected. Instead, Jarrold agreed to publish the book under a profit sharing arrangement; the ultimate success of the book meant that this arrangement proved to be profitable for both Brewer and Jarrold with Jarrold refusing to sell his share back to Brewer when offered 4000 pounds. The exact date of the book's first publication is uncertain. Brewer believed it was 1840 but other sources suggest 1841 or as late as 1847. A second edition of the book was published in 1848 and two more in 1849. A total of 47 editions were published with the 47th edition appearing in 1905; the print runs were among the highest of any scientific book published in the second half of the 19th century, Brewer said the success of the book was unparalleled at the time. Several translations of the book were made including a Spanish translation in 1858 and two French translations.
The French translations were themselves translated into Swedish in 1858 and 1890 and into Portuguese in 1900. An edited version of the book by Robert Evans Peterson was published in the United States in 1851 as Familiar Science; these versions were edited and rearranged in order to make them more suitable for American pupils and were used as a text-book by schools in Pennsylvania and Brooklyn. Brewer wrote to Peterson expressing his satisfaction at the rearrangement but prepared a revised edition of his own, published in the US in 1864; this edition was digitised and republished by the University of Michigan Library in 2005 following a grant from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation as part of Making of America IV: the American voice, 1850–1877. Brewer said that he consulted "the most approved modern authors" and submitted additions to "the revision of gentlemen of acknowledged reputation for scientific attainments". Religious rather than scientific answers to certain questions are prevalent in the book answers inferring divine design.
For example, although modern theories of ice formation show that most of its unusual properties result from the hydrogen bond between neighbouring water molecules, Brewer suggested that the reason ice is lighter than water, expanding as it freezes, is because it has been "wisely ordained by God that water shall be an exception to a general rule". Brewer was ordained as a deacon and as a priest and wished to provide a religious framework for science, he and many other Christian populist science writers of the time presented religious themes and were able to keep them relevant to modern science in the mind of the public after the publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859. Part of Brewer's approach in promoting his ideas was to avoid discussing religious perspectives until about a third of the way into the book so that the introduction of these ideas would appear more natural. A review of the second edition of The Guide to Science was published by Punch magazine in 1850; the book was seen to be a "very useful little work".
However, in typical Punch satirical style, the reviewer disagreed with one answer that we "feel a desire for activity in cold weather" due to "fanning combustion in the blood" by instead insisting that we feel a desire "to sit cosily over a fire in cold weather". The success of The Guide to Science convinced Brewer that his readers still accepted religious explanations rather than evolutionary theory. Following the publication o
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
Trinity Hall, Cambridge
Trinity Hall is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge, England. It is the fifth-oldest college of the university, having been founded in 1350 by William Bateman, Bishop of Norwich. Trinity Hall was known for teaching Law. Notable alumni include theoretical physicists Stephen Hawking and Nobel Prize winner David Thouless, Australian Prime Minister Stanley Bruce, Canadian Governor General David Johnston, philosopher Marshall McLuhan, Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham; the devastation caused by the Black Death plague of the 1340s included the loss of nearly half of the English population. The site that Bateman chose was the original site of Gonville Hall, founded three years earlier, but was financially struggling. Bateman's clerical aim for the Hall is reflected in the foundation of 1350, when he stated that the college's aim was "the promotion of divine worship and of canon and civil science and direction of the commonwealth and of our church and diocese of Norwich." This led the college to be strong in legal studies, a tradition that has continued over the centuries.
At first all colleges in Cambridge were known as'Halls' or'Houses' and later changed their names from'Hall' to'College'. However, when Henry VIII founded Trinity College, Cambridge next door, it became clear that Trinity Hall would continue being known as a Hall; the new foundation's name may have been a punishment for the college's master, Stephen Gardiner, who had opposed the king's remarriage and had endured much of the college's land being removed. It is incorrect to call it Trinity Hall College, although Trinity Hall college is speaking, accurate. A similar situation had existed once before when Henry VI founded King's College despite the existence of King's Hall. King's Hall was incorporated in the foundation of Trinity College in 1546. Trinity Hall, in addition to having a chapel had joint usage of the Church of St John Zacharias with Clare Hall, until the church was demolished to enable the construction of King's in the 15th century. After this, the college was granted usage of the nearby Church of St Edward and Martyr on Peas Hill, a connection which remains to this day.
The college site on the River Cam was obtained from Bateman's purchase of a house from John de Crauden, Prior of Ely, to house the monks during their study, with Front Court being built within the college's first few decades. The chapel was licensed in 1352 and was built by August 1366, when Pope Urban V granted the Master and Fellows permission to celebrate Mass in the college. In 1729-1730, Sir Nathaniel Lloyd, the college master, redecorated the chapel in what, despite subsequent enlargements, remains an intimate style, forming the smallest of the University's chapels. Lloyd removed some of the more prominent graves to the ante-chapel, while digging a vault for his own burial, decorated the interior walls with wainscoting and the ceiling with stucco representations of past masters' crests; the chapel was extended to the east by a few feet in 1864, during which the medieval piscina was rediscovered and rendered accessible by a small door in the wainscoting. The current chapel painting is Maso da San Friano's Salutation, depicting Mary's visit to Elizabeth, from the opening of the Gospel of Luke, which replaced an earlier painting by Giacomo Stella in 1957.
Like the chapel, the college's dining hall was rebuilt by Sir Nathaniel Lloyd along similar lines, with the panelling replaced throughout and the medieval beams replaced by fine baroque carvings. Although the hall was enlarged in the 19th century, it is still one of the smallest and most intimate dining halls in the University; the college library was built in the late 16th century, with the permission of Elizabeth I and during the mastership of Thomas Preston, is now principally used for the storage of the college's manuscripts and rare books. The new Jerwood Library overlooking the river was opened by Lord Howe in 1999, stores the college's modern book collection; the college owns properties in the centre of Cambridge, on Bateman Street and Thompson's Lane, on its Wychfield site next to Fitzwilliam College, where most of the college's sporting activity takes place. Trinity Hall has active Junior and Senior Combination Rooms for undergraduate and senior members of the college community respectively.
The Middle Combination Room is located in Front Court, while the Junior Combination Room is adjacent to the college bar in North Court. Both the MCR and JCR have active committees and organize popular socials for their members across the term. Trinity Hall's oldest and largest society, the Boat Club was founded in 1827, has had a long and distinguished history; the college won all but one of the events in the 1887 Henley Royal Regatta, making it the most successful Cambridge college in Henley's history. The current boathouse, built in 1905 in memory of Henry Latham, is on the River Cam, a short walk from the college; the current Master is the Revd. Jeremy Morris, he took up the role on 1 October 2014. The current Dean is the Revd. Dr. Stephen Plant; the ro
Public Record Office
The Public Record Office, Chancery Lane in the City of London, was the guardian of the national archives of the United Kingdom from 1838 until 2003, when it was merged with the Historical Manuscripts Commission to form The National Archives, based at Kew. It was under the control of the Master of a senior judge; the Public Record Office still exists as a legal entity, as the enabling legislation has not been modified. The Public Record Office was established in 1838, to reform the keeping of government and court records which were being held, sometimes in poor conditions, in a variety of places; some of these were court or departmental archives which were well-run and had good or adequate catalogues. Many of the professional staff of these individual archives continued their existing work in the new institution. Many documents were transferred from the Tower of London and the Chapter House of Westminster Abbey, though Domesday Book was not moved from Westminster Abbey until 1859, when proper storage had been prepared.
The PRO was placed under the control of the Master of the Rolls, a senior judge whose job had included responsibility for keeping the records of the Court of Chancery. Its original premises were the mediaeval Rolls Chapel, on Chancery Lane at the western extremity of the City of London, near the border with the City of Westminster; the first Master of the Rolls to take on this responsibility was Lord Langdale although his Deputy Keeper, the historian Sir Francis Palgrave, had full-time responsibility for running the Office. Until 1852 no right existed for the general public to consult the records even for scholarly purposes, despite the intention of the Public Record Office Act 1838 to enable public access. Fees were payable by lawyers; these charges were abolished for serious historical and literary researchers after a petition was signed in 1851 by 83 people including Charles Dickens and the historians Lord Macaulay and Thomas Carlyle. Between 1851 and 1858 a purpose built archive repository was built next to the Rolls Chapel, to the design of the architect Sir James Pennethorne, following the Chapel's demolition due to structural unsoundness, was extended onto that original site between 1895 and 1902.
Public search rooms were opened in 1866, but the pressure of wider demand led the authorities to restrict the availability of certain classes of document and to favour visitors who were experienced in dealing with historical material. The growing size of the archives held by the PRO and by government departments led to the Public Records Act 1958, which sought to avoid the indiscriminate retention of huge numbers of documents by establishing standard selection procedures for the identification of those documents of sufficient historical importance to be kept by the PRO. So, growing interest in the records produced a need for the Office to expand, in 1977 a second building was opened at Kew in south-west London; the Kew building was expanded in the 1990s and by 1997 all records had been transferred from Chancery Lane either to Kew or to the Family Records Centre in Islington, North London. The Chancery Lane building was acquired by King's College London in 2001, is now the Maughan Library, the University's largest library.
In April 2003 the PRO merged with the Historical Manuscripts Commission to form The National Archives, which moved from its previous office located off Chancery Lane, to Kew in 2004. The National Archives of Scotland and the Public Record Office of Northern Ireland were and remain separate institutions; the archive held the official collection of records of public business for England and the central UK government, including the records of court proceedings going back to the Middle Ages, the original manuscript of the Domesday Book. Under the 1958 act, most documents held by the PRO were kept "closed" for 50 years: under an amending act of 1967 this period was reduced to 30 years; these provisions changed when the UK's Freedom of Information Act 2000 came into full effect in 2005: the 30 year rule was abolished and closed records in The National Archives became subject to the same access controls as other records of public authorities. Some records do remain closed for longer periods, however: individual census returns, for example, are kept closed for 100 years.
In 2002 the PRO set up a website to allow online access to the records of the 1901 census, was overwhelmed by the numbers of people wanting to access the site. From 1838 to 1958 the nominal head of the office, known as the Keeper of the Records, was the Master of the Rolls of the day; the chief executive officer who oversaw the office's day-to-day operations was known as the Deputy Keeper of the Records. Deputy Keepers from 1838 to 1958 were: 1838–1861: Sir Francis Palgrave 1861–1878: Thomas Duffus Hardy 1878–1886: William Hardy 1886–1926: Henry Maxwell Lyte 1926–1938: Alfred Edward Stamp 1938–1947: Cyril Thomas Flower 1947–1954: Hilary Jenkinson 1954–1958: David Lewis EvansThe 1958 act transferred responsibility for the PRO from the Master of the Rolls to the Lord Chancellor; the Keepers from 1958 to 2003 were: 1958–1960: Sir David Lewis Evans 1960–1966: Stephen Wilson 1966–1970: Harold Cottam Johnson 1970–1978: Jeffery Raymond Ede 1978–1982: Alfred Mabb
Edwinstowe is a large English village in Sherwood Forest, associated with the Robin Hood and Maid Marian legends. The population of the civil parish at the 2011 census was 5,188; the etymology of the village name, "Edwin's resting place", recalls that the body of Edwin of Northumbria and Saint, was hidden in the church after he was killed in the Battle of Hatfield Chase, near Doncaster in AD 633. The battle against King Penda of Mercia occurred near the present-day hamlet of Cuckney, some five miles north-west of modern Edwinstowe. Edwinstowe is referred to twice in the Domesday Book as having five households, in addition to a priest and his four bordars, living in the hamlet in 1086. Legend has it. Edwinstowe's present-day popularity is due to the presence near the village of the Major Oak, a feature in the folk tales of Robin Hood. Thoresby Colliery served as Edwinstowe's main source of employment until July 2015, when the mine was permanently closed; the loss of one of the last remaining deep coal mines in the country has left tourism as the main factor in the local economy.
Nottinghamshire County Council's nearby Sherwood Forest Visitors' Centre is scheduled for redevelopment and improvement. A contract awarded to RSPB intended for completion by late 2017 had a projected cost of £5.3 million. Centre Parcs' Sherwood Forest holiday village is a local employer established in 1987, close to the edge of the village. There was a post windmill south of the Mansfield Road with a small box-style roundhouse, it was driven by two double-patent sails. The two schools in the village are King Edwin Primary School; the village has a business services provider, a St John's Ambulance amenity, an antiques centre, workshops, a fun park, a youth hostel, two arts and crafts centres, a village hall, a community pest-control centre. Leisure facilities include Thoresby Colliery Band and Youth Band, a high-wire forest adventure course, a mountain biking, cyclo cross and forest walks centre, a skate park, a forest fun park, an outdoor adventure park. Edwinstowe still has five pubs: the Black Swan, the Dukeries Lodge, Forest Lodge and Wedge, the Royal Oak.
Other caterers include the Edwinstowe Bistro Restaurant, the Cottage Tea Rooms, Launay's Restaurant. Environmental concerns are addressed under the Maun Valley Project Conservation Area. Edwinstowe railway station functioned between 1897 and 1955. A goods line remains; the nearest railway station today is at Mansfield. The village is served by half-hourly daytime Monday–Saturday bus services to Mansfield and Ollerton, six buses Monday–Saturday to Worksop, one bus Monday–Friday to Nottingham. Services once a week to Lincoln. In order of birth: King Edwin of Northumbria gave his name to the village; the legendary Robin Hood is said to have married Maid Marian here. John Holles, 1st Duke of Newcastle and landowner, was born here. E. Cobham Brewer, died at the vicarage, where his son-in-law was the vicar. Henry Morley, first-class cricketer, was died here. Fanny Jean Turing and activist, was born in the village, where her father was vicar. Fred Kitchen, self-educated writer and autobiographer, was born here.
Francis Woodhead, first-class cricketer, was born here. Philip Brett and conductor, was born here. Edwinstowe Parish Council, residents' and visitors' site Edwinstowe Historical Society GeoHack Edwinstowe grid reference SK613663
Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website