Single transferable vote
The single transferable vote is a voting system designed to achieve proportional representation through ranked voting in multi-seat organizations or constituencies. Under STV, an elector has a single vote, allocated to their most preferred candidate. Votes are totalled and a quota derived. If their candidate achieves quota, he/she is elected and in some STV systems any surplus vote is transferred to other candidates in proportion to the voters' stated preferences. If more candidates than seats remain, the bottom candidate is eliminated with his/her votes being transferred to other candidates as determined by the voters' stated preferences; these elections and eliminations, vote transfers if applicable, continue until there are only as many candidates as there are unfilled seats. The specific method of transferring votes varies in different systems; the system provides proportional representation in non-partisan elections, that minority factions have some representation. STV is the system of choice of groups such as the Proportional Representation Society of Australia, the Electoral Reform Society in the United Kingdom and FairVote in the USA.
Its critics contend that some voters find the mechanisms behind STV difficult to understand, but this does not make it more difficult for voters to rank the list of candidates in order of preference on an STV ballot paper. STV has had its widest adoption in the English-speaking world; as of 2018, in government elections, STV is used for: In British Columbia, Canada, a type of STV called BC-STV was recommended for provincial elections by the British Columbia Citizens' Assembly on Electoral Reform in 2004. In a 2005 provincial referendum, it received 57.69% support and passed in 77 of 79 electoral districts. It was not adopted, because it fell short of the 60% threshold requirement the BC Liberal government had set for the referendum to be binding. In a second referendum, on 12 May 2009, BC-STV was defeated 60.91% to 39.09% STV has been used in several other jurisdictions in provincial elections in the cities of Edmonton and Calgary in Alberta. Less well known is STV use at the municipal level in western Canada – Calgary used STV for more than 50 years before it was changed to first past the post.
For a more complete list, see History and use of the single transferable vote. When STV is used for single-winner elections, it is equivalent to the instant-runoff voting method. STV used for multi-winner elections is sometimes called "proportional representation through the single transferable vote", or PR-STV. "STV" refers to the multi-winner version, as it does in this article. In the United States, it is sometimes called choice voting, preferential voting or preference voting. Hare-Clark is the name given to PR-STV elections in the Australian Capital Territory. In STV, each voter ranks the list of candidates in order of preference, marking a'1' beside their most preferred candidate, a'2' beside their second most preferred, so on as shown in the sample ballot on the right; as noted, this is a simplified example. In practice, the ballot would be organized in columns so that voters are informed of each candidate's party affiliations or whether they are standing as independents; the most straightforward way to count a ranked ballot vote is to sequentially identify the candidate with the least support, eliminate that candidate, transfer those votes to the next-named candidate on each ballot.
This process is repeated. This method was used for a period of time in several local elections in South Australia. In effect, it is identical to instant-runoff voting, used in leadership contests, except that the transfer process is terminated when there are still several candidates remaining, if all the seats have been filled. However, preferences for elected candidates are not transferred at any value penalising those who vote for a popular candidate. In most STV elections, an additional step is taken that ensures that all elected candidates are elected with equal numbers of votes, it can be shown. A number of different quotas can be used. For example, at most 3 people can have 25% + 1 in 3-winner elections, 9 can have 10% + 1 in 9-winner elections, so on. If
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, the fifth-most populous city of Australia. In June 2017, Adelaide had an estimated resident population of 1,333,927. Adelaide is home to more than 75 percent of the South Australian population, making it the most centralised population of any state in Australia. Adelaide is north of the Fleurieu Peninsula, on the Adelaide Plains between the Gulf St Vincent and the low-lying Mount Lofty Ranges which surround the city. Adelaide stretches 20 km from the coast to the foothills, 94 to 104 km from Gawler at its northern extent to Sellicks Beach in the south. Named in honour of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen, queen consort to King William IV, the city was founded in 1836 as the planned capital for a freely-settled British province in Australia. Colonel William Light, one of Adelaide's founding fathers, designed the city and chose its location close to the River Torrens, in the area inhabited by the Kaurna people. Light's design set out Adelaide in a grid layout, interspaced by wide boulevards and large public squares, surrounded by parklands.
Early Adelaide was shaped by wealth. Until the Second World War, it was Australia's third-largest city and one of the few Australian cities without a convict history, it has been noted for early examples of religious freedom, a commitment to political progressivism and civil liberties. It has been known as the "City of Churches" since the mid-19th century, referring to its diversity of faiths rather than the piety of its denizens; the demonym "Adelaidean" is used in reference to its residents. As South Australia's seat of government and commercial centre, Adelaide is the site of many governmental and financial institutions. Most of these are concentrated in the city centre along the cultural boulevard of North Terrace, King William Street and in various districts of the metropolitan area. Today, Adelaide is noted for its many festivals and sporting events, its food and wine, its long beachfronts, its large defence and manufacturing sectors, it ranks in terms of quality of life, being listed in the world's top 10 most liveable cities, out of 140 cities worldwide by The Economist Intelligence Unit.
It was ranked the most liveable city in Australia by the Property Council of Australia in 2011, 2012 and 2013. Before its proclamation as a British settlement in 1836, the area around Adelaide was inhabited by the indigenous Kaurna Aboriginal nation. Kaurna culture and language were completely destroyed within a few decades of European settlement of South Australia, but extensive documentation by early missionaries and other researchers has enabled a modern revival of both. South Australia was proclaimed a British colony on 28 December 1836, near The Old Gum Tree in what is now the suburb of Glenelg North; the event is commemorated in South Australia as Proclamation Day. The site of the colony's capital was surveyed and laid out by Colonel William Light, the first Surveyor-General of South Australia, through the design made by the architect George Strickland Kingston. Adelaide was established as a planned colony of free immigrants, promising civil liberties and freedom from religious persecution, based upon the ideas of Edward Gibbon Wakefield.
Wakefield had read accounts of Australian settlement while in prison in London for attempting to abduct an heiress, realised that the eastern colonies suffered from a lack of available labour, due to the practice of giving land grants to all arrivals. Wakefield's idea was for the Government to survey and sell the land at a rate that would maintain land values high enough to be unaffordable for labourers and journeymen. Funds raised from the sale of land were to be used to bring out working-class emigrants, who would have to work hard for the monied settlers to afford their own land; as a result of this policy, Adelaide does not share the convict settlement history of other Australian cities like Sydney, Melbourne and Hobart. As it was believed that in a colony of free settlers there would be little crime, no provision was made for a gaol in Colonel Light's 1837 plan, but by mid-1837 the South Australian Register was warning of escaped convicts from New South Wales and tenders for a temporary gaol were sought.
Following a burglary, a murder, two attempted murders in Adelaide during March 1838, Governor Hindmarsh created the South Australian Police Force in April 1838 under 21-year-old Henry Inman. The first sheriff, Samuel Smart, was wounded during a robbery, on 2 May 1838 one of the offenders, Michael Magee, became the first person to be hanged in South Australia. William Baker Ashton was appointed governor of the temporary gaol in 1839, in 1840 George Strickland Kingston was commissioned to design Adelaide's new gaol. Construction of Adelaide Gaol commenced in 1841. Adelaide's early history was marked by questionable leadership; the first governor of South Australia, John Hindmarsh, clashed with others, in particular the Resident Commissioner, James Hurtle Fisher. The rural area surrounding Adelaide was surveyed by Light in preparation to sell a total of over 405 km2 of land. Adelaide's early economy started to get on its feet in 1838 with the arrival of livestock from Victoria, New South Wales and Tasmania.
Wool production provided an early basis for the South Australian economy. By 1860, wheat farms had been established from Encounter Bay in the south to Clare in the north. George Gawler took over from Hindmarsh in late 1838 and, despite being under orders from the Select Committee on South Australia in Britain not to undertake any public works, promptly oversaw construction of a governo
Keyneton, South Australia
Keyneton is a locality in South Australia. The town is in the Mid Murray Council local government area, 82 kilometres north-east of the state capital, Adelaide. At the 2011 census and the surrounding area had a population of 534; the town was named after English pastoralist Joseph Keynes, who had settled the area in 1842 and whose descendants still live and farm in the area. It is in the Eden Valley wine region; the historic former North Rhine Mine Engine House in Pine Hut Road and the Bridge Over the River Somme on the Sedan-Angaston Road are listed on the South Australian Heritage Register
South Australian House of Assembly
The House of Assembly, or lower house, is one of the two chambers of the Parliament of South Australia. The other is the Legislative Council, it sits in Parliament House in Adelaide. The House of Assembly was created in 1857; the development of an elected legislature — although only men could vote — marked a significant change from the prior system, where legislative power was in the hands of the Governor and the Legislative Council, appointed by the Governor. In 1895, the House of Assembly granted women the right to vote and stand for election to the legislature. South Australia was the second place in the world to do so after New Zealand in 1893, the first to allow women to stand for election. From 1857 to 1933, the House of Assembly was elected from multi-member districts known as "seats," with each district returning between one and six members; the size of the Assembly varied during this time—36 members from 1857 to 1875, 46 members from 1875 to 1884, 52 members from 1884 to 1890, 54 members from 1890 to 1902, 42 members from 1902 to 1912, 40 members from 1912 to 1915, 46 members from 1915 to 1938.
In 1938, the Assembly was reduced to 39 members, elected from single-member districts. The House of Assembly has had 47 members since the 1970 election, elected from single-member districts: 34 in the Adelaide metropolitan area and 13 in rural areas; these seats are intended to represent the same population in each electorate. Voting is by preferential voting with complete preference allocation, as with the equivalent federal chamber, the Australian House of Representatives. All members face re-election every four years; the most recent election was held on 17 March 2018. Most legislation is initiated in the House of Assembly; the party or coalition with a majority of seats in the lower house is invited by the Governor to form government. The leader of that party becomes Premier of South Australia, their senior colleagues become ministers responsible for various portfolios; as Australian MPs always vote along party lines all legislation introduced by the governing party will pass through the House of Assembly.
As with the federal parliament and Australian other states and territories, voting in the Assembly is compulsory for all those over the age of 18. Voting in the House of Assembly had been voluntary, but this was changed in 1942. While South Australia's total population is 1.7 million, 1.3 million of them live in Adelaide. Uniquely, over 75% of the state's population resides in the metropolitan area, making South Australia the most centralised state in the nation; as a result, Adelaide accounts for 72% of the seats in the chamber. The dominance of Adelaide, combined with a lack of comparatively-sized rural population centres, results in the metropolitan area deciding election outcomes. At the 2014 election for example, although the state-wide two-party vote was 47.0% Labor v 53.0% Liberal, the metropolitan area recorded a 2PP of 51.5% Labor v 48.5% Liberal. 24 votes as a majority are required to pass legislation. South Australian state election, 2018 List of elections in South Australia List of South Australian state by-elections Members of the South Australian House of Assembly Parliaments of the Australian states and territories South Australian Electoral Districts House of Assembly Homepage General Hansard Information
Alveringem, West Flemish: Oalveringem, is a municipality located in the Belgian province of West Flanders. The municipality comprises the towns of Alveringem proper, Beveren-aan-de-IJzer, Hoogstade, Leisele, Sint-Rijkers and Stavele. On January 1, 2006, Alveringem had a total population of 4,887; the total area is 80.01 km² which gives a population density of 61 inhabitants per km². The mayor of Alveringem is Gerard Liefooghe since 2006. Cyriel Verschaeve was as a priest attached to the parish of Alveringem and re-buried near Alveringem's church in 1973; the municipality of Alveringem has a low population density and the number of inhabitants has still decreased last decades. The extensive territory comprises nine rural deelgemeentes; the largest town is the chief town, located in the northeast of the municipality. During the merger of municipalities in 1971, the villages Hoogstade and Sint-Rijkers were added to Alveringem. In 1977, Leisele and Stavele, independent municipalities at the time, were added as well.
As from 1971, Leisele comprised the villages Gijverinkhove and Izenberge. So, since 1977, the new extended municipality comprised the nine rural deelgemeentes; the population of the small villages of Oeren and Sint-Rijkers is contained in the number for Alveringem proper Source: Streekplatform Westhoek https://web.archive.org/web/20070928072054/http://www.westhoek.be/streekplatform/Tabellen/3.2..htm Due to its rural extent, the municipality of Alvergem borders a large number of small villages: Official website - Available only in Dutch
The Gallipoli peninsula is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east. Gallipoli is the Italian form of the Greek name "Καλλίπολις", meaning "Beautiful City", the original name of the modern town of Gelibolu. In antiquity, the peninsula was known as the Thracian Chersonese; the peninsula runs in a south-westerly direction into the Aegean Sea, between the Dardanelles, the Gulf of Saros. In antiquity, it was protected by the Long Wall, a defensive structure built across the narrowest part of the peninsula near the ancient city of Agora; the isthmus traversed by the wall was only 36 stadia in breadth, but the length of the peninsula from this wall to its southern extremity, Cape Mastusia, was 420 stadia. In ancient times, the Gallipoli Peninsula was known as the Thracian Chersonesus to the Greeks and the Romans, it was the location of several prominent towns, including Cardia, Callipolis, Sestos and Elaeus.
The peninsula was renowned for its wheat. It benefited from its strategic importance on the main route between Europe and Asia, as well as from its control of the shipping route from Crimea; the city of Sestos was the main crossing-point on the Hellespont. According to Herodotus, the Thracian tribe of Dolonci held possession of Chersonesus before the Greek colonization. Settlers from Ancient Greece of Ionian and Aeolian stock, founded about 12 cities on the peninsula in the 7th century BC; the Athenian statesman Miltiades the Elder founded a major Athenian colony there around 560 BC. He took authority over the entire peninsula, building up its defences against incursions from the mainland, it passed to his nephew, the more famous Miltiades the Younger, around 524 BC. The peninsula was abandoned to the Persians in 493 BC after the outbreak of the Greco-Persian Wars; the Persians were expelled, after which the peninsula was for a time ruled over by Athens, which enrolled it into the Delian League in 478 BC.
The Athenians established a number of cleruchies on the Thracian Chersonese and sent an additional 1,000 settlers around 448 BC. Sparta gained control after the decisive battle of Aegospotami in 404 BC, but the peninsula subsequently reverted to the Athenians. In the 4th century BC, the Thracian Chersonese became the focus of a bitter territorial dispute between Athens and Macedon, whose king Philip II sought possession, it was ceded to Philip in 338 BC. After the death of Philip's son Alexander the Great in 323 BC, the Thracian Chersonese became the object of contention among Alexander's successors. Lysimachus established his capital Lysimachia here. In 278 BC, Celtic tribes from Galatia in Asia Minor settled in the area. In 196 BC, the Seleucid king Antiochus III seized the peninsula; this alarmed the Greeks and prompted them to seek the aid of the Romans, who conquered the Thracian Chersonese, which they gave to their ally Eumenes II of Pergamon in 188 BC. At the extinction of the Attalid dynasty in 133 BC it passed again to the Romans, who from 129 BC administered it in the Roman province of Asia.
It was subsequently made a state-owned territory and during the reign of the emperor Augustus it was imperial property. The Thracian Chersonese was part of the Eastern Roman Empire from its foundation in 330 AD. In 443 AD, Attila the Hun invaded the Gallipoli Peninsula during one of the last stages of his grand campaign that year, he captured both Callipolis and Sestus. Aside from a brief period from 1204 to 1235, when it was controlled by the Republic of Venice, the Byzantine Empire ruled the territory until 1356. During the night between 1 and 2 March 1354, a strong earthquake destroyed the city of Gallipoli and its city walls, weakening its defenses. After the devastating 1354 earthquake, the town of Gallipoli was besieged and captured by the Ottomans, making Gallipoli the first Ottoman stronghold in Europe, the staging area for their expansion across the Balkans, it was recaptured for Byzantium by the Savoyard Crusade in 1366, but the beleaguered Byzantines were forced to hand it back in September 1376.
The Greeks living there were allowed to continue their everyday life. In the 19th century, Gallipoli was a district in the Vilayet of Adrianople, with about thirty thousand inhabitants: comprising Greeks, Turks and Jews. Gallipoli became a major encampment for British and French forces in 1854 during the Crimean War, the harbour was a stopping-off point on the way to Istanbul British and French engineers constructed, in March 1854, an 11.5 km line of defence to protect the peninsula from a possible Russian attack and so keep control of the route to the Mediterranean Sea. Gallipoli did not experience any more wars until the First Balkan War, when the 1913 Battle of Bulair and several minor skirmishes took place here. A dispatch on 7 July 1913 reported that Ottoman troops treated Gallipoli's Greeks ‘with marked depravity’ as they ‘destroyed and burned all the Greek villages near Gallipoli’. Many villages were sacked and destroyed and some Greeks killed; the cause of this savagery of the Turks was their fear that if Thrace was declared autonomous the Greek population may be found numerically superior to the Muslims.
The Turkish Government, under p
Saddleworth, South Australia
Saddleworth is a small town in the Mid North region of South Australia. The town is situated on the Gilbert River and along with neighbouring towns of Riverton and Tarlee the local area is known as the Gilbert Valley; the town is bisected by the Barrier Highway. At the 2006 census, Saddleworth had a population of 425. Saddleworth was established as one of many settlements on the road to Burra, was named after Saddleworth Lodge pastoral station, a local landholding which itself was named after a town of Saddleworth in Greater Manchester, England. Joseph Dunn applied for a Publican's Licence to open a new Saddleworth Lodge in March 1846, it was granted on the 14th of March 1846; the Burra railway line passed through the town from 1870 until the early 2000s. An old store on the Barrier Highway has been converted into a museum which focuses on the history of Saddleworth and the nearby towns of Waterloo and Manoora. Saddleworth is in the District Council of Clare and Gilbert Valleys local government area, the state electoral district of Frome and the federal Division of Grey.
The town has a 3km long Heritage Walking Trail which provides an insight into the history of the area.. In May 2016 the local store burned down; the store was home to the town's Post Office