Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Interstate matches in Australian rules football
Australian rules football matches between teams representing Australian colonies and territories have been held since 1879. For most of the 20th century, the absence of a national club competition and international matches meant that football games between state representative teams were regarded with great importance. Football historian John Devaney has argued that: "some of the state of origin contests which took place during the 1980s constituted arguably the finest expositions of the game seen"; until 1976, interstate Australian rules football games were played by teams representing the major football leagues or organisations. From 1977 to 1999, players were selected under State of Origin selection rules and they were chosen from the Australian Football League. Since 2000, all matches have been between teams representing the second-tier state or territorial leagues. Players from the AFL no longer take part in interstate matches; the matches have been held on a stand-alone basis. However, an Australian Football Carnival, a national championship series, held in either one or two cities, took place between 1908 and 1993 at three year intervals.
Teams which have taken part have included Victoria, South Australia, Western Australia, New South Wales, Northern Territory, Australian Capital Territory and an Australian Amateurs team. Between 1937 and 1988 the player judged the best at each of these carnivals was awarded the Tassie Medal. Between 1953 and 1988, the selection of All Australian Teams was based on players performance during Australian Football Carnivals, the team was named after each carnival concluded. Victoria the birthplace of Australian rules and, with contributing factors such as population and finances, dominated the first hundred years of intercolonial and interstate football; this was the case in the first interstate game, held on Tuesday, 1 July 1879, at East Melbourne Cricket Ground. The final score was Victoria 7.14 to South Australia 0.3. The match was attended by more than 10,000 people; the third and fourth teams to commence intercolonial competition were New South Wales and Queensland, playing each other in a two-game series in Brisbane in 1884.
Tasmania played its first game, against Victoria, in 1887. New Zealand entered the competition with a victory over NSW in Sydney, in 1889. Victoria's long-term dominance faltered in the 1890s, when other Colonies recorded their first wins over the Victoria: South Australia in Adelaide in 1890 and 1891 and Tasmania in Hobart in 1893. In 1897, the VFL split from the VFA and the two selected separate representative teams, further weakening Victoria in intercolonial competition, which became interstate competition following Federation of the six British colonies in Australia, in 1901. Western Australia played its first two interstate games in 1904, including a win over SA in Adelaide; the VFL's dominance, at least within Victoria, was established by the time an interstate carnival was held for the first time — in Melbourne in 1908 — to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of "Australasian football". The widening gap between the three major footballing States/leagues and the others was shown in the organisation of the competition: Victoria represented by the, SA and WA constituted "Section A", Tasmania, NSW, Queensland and NZ were relegated to "Section B".
The VFA did not take part and the carnival was New Zealand's last appearance in representative football. The Victorian team went through the competition undefeated; this impression was reiterated by the 1911 Carnival, in Adelaide, which set the pattern of a carnival every three years. South Australia went Victoria won three of their four matches. At the Sydney carnival of 1914, Victoria was once again undefeated. Following the onset of World War I interstate matches went into a five-year hiatus. During this period interstate matches were held every year, interstate carnivals were held every 3 years, with a few exceptions. In most carnivals, the stronger states competed separately from the minor states. At the peak of its popularity, the carnival was known symbolically as "the Ashes" of Australian rules football. Victoria continued its dominance in interstate football by winning 15 of the 17 carnivals held during this time, winning the individual matches held every year. Neil Kerley and Graham Cornes are of significance in the rivalry between Victoria and South Australia, who played for and coached the South Australia team during this period.
Neil Kerley when coaching the South Australian team would inject a hatred for Victoria, telling his players all Victorian umpires cheated, all Victorians would cheat if they got the chance. Graham Cornes, coached by Kerley for South Australia, has stated his hatred for Victoria came from Neil Kerley. Cornes would go on to coach South Australia, with great successes and was a promoter of the South Australian team. Cornes has stated that the success that South Australia had against Victoria during his coaching reign was all to do with the culture in South Australia of wanting to prove they're better than Victoria; the 1963 game between Victoria and South Australia at the MCG was of significance in the rivalry between the two states. Before the game Jack Dyer was asked what he would do if he was coaching Victoria, said, "I'd give them a Pep Talk and go to the races". Neil Kerley, playing, was in an interview before the game when this was mentioned. After it was said the interviewer said to Kerley "what do you think of that young Kerley"
A charitable organization or charity is a non-profit organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being. The legal definition of a charitable organization varies between countries and in some instances regions of the country; the regulation, the tax treatment, the way in which charity law affects charitable organizations vary. Charitable organizations may not use any of its funds to profit individual entities. Financial figures are indicators to assess the financial sustainability of a charity to charity evaluators; this information can impact a charity's reputation with donors and societies, thus the charity's financial gains. Charitable organizations depend on donations from businesses; such donations to charitable organizations represent a major form of corporate philanthropy. The Organizational Test: If the organization doesn't follow the exemption organizational test, it will be under mentoring, in order to meet the organizational test it has to be organized and operated.
Serving the public interest: In order to receive and pass the exemption test, charitable organization must follow the public interest and all exempt income should be for the public interest. Until the mid-18th century, charity was distributed through religious structures and bequests from the rich. Both Christianity and Islam incorporated significant charitable elements from their beginnings and dāna has a long tradition in Hinduism, Jainism and Sikhism. Charities provided education, health and prisons. Almshouses were established throughout Europe in the Early Middle Ages to provide a place of residence for poor and distressed people. In the Enlightenment era charitable and philanthropic activity among voluntary associations and rich benefactors became a widespread cultural practice. Societies, gentleman's clubs, mutual associations began to flourish in England, the upper-classes adopted a philanthropic attitude toward the disadvantaged. In England this new social activism was channeled into the establishment of charitable organizations.
This emerging upper-class fashion for benevolence resulted in the incorporation of the first charitable organizations. Captain Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, set up the Foundling Hospital in 1741 to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This, the first such charity in the world, served as the precedent for incorporated associational charities in general. Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the Enlightenment era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763 the Society had recruited over 10,000 men. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard - some charities received state recognition in the form of the royal charter.
Charities began to adopt campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded at the turn of the 19th century in ending the slave trade throughout the British Empire and within its considerable sphere of influence; the Enlightenment saw growing philosophical debate between those who championed state intervention and those who believed that private charities should provide welfare. The Reverend Thomas Malthus, the political economist, criticized poor relief for paupers on economic and moral grounds and proposed leaving charity to the private sector, his views became influential and informed the Victorian laissez-faire attitude toward state intervention for the poor. During the 19th century a profusion of charitable organizations emerged to alleviate the awful conditions of the working class in the slums; the Labourer's Friend Society, chaired by Lord Shaftesbury in the United Kingdom in 1830, aimed to improve working-class conditions.
It promoted, for example, the allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement. In 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company - one of a group of organizations that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment; this was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavour that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust and the Guinness Trust; the principle of philanthropic intention with capitalist return was given the label "five per cent philanthropy". There was strong growth in municipal charities; the Brougham Commission led on to the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which reorganized
Geelong is a port city located on Corio Bay and the Barwon River, in the state of Victoria, Australia. Geelong is 75 kilometres south-west of Melbourne, it is the second largest Victorian city, with an estimated urban population of 192,393 as of June 2016. Geelong runs from the plains of Lara in the north to the rolling hills of Waurn Ponds to the south, with Corio Bay to the east and hills to the west. Geelong is the administrative centre for the City of Greater Geelong municipality, which covers urban and coastal areas surrounding the city, including the Bellarine Peninsula. Geelong City is known as the'Gateway City' due to its central location to surrounding Victorian regional centres like Ballarat in the north west, Great Ocean Road and Warrnambool in the southwest, Hamilton and Winchelsea to the west, the state capital of Melbourne in the north east. Geelong was named in 1827, with the name derived from the local Wathaurong Aboriginal name for the region, thought to mean "land" or "cliffs" or "tongue of land or peninsula".
The area was first surveyed in three weeks after Melbourne. The post office was open by June 1840; the first woolstore was erected in this period and it became the port for the wool industry of the Western District. During the gold rush, Geelong experienced a brief boom as the main port to the rich goldfields of the Ballarat district; the city diversified into manufacturing, during the 1860s, it became one of the largest manufacturing centres in Australia with its wool mills and paper mills. It was proclaimed a city in 1910, with industrial growth from this time until the 1960s establishing the city as a manufacturing centre for the state, the population grew to over 100,000 by the mid-1960s. During the city's early years, an inhabitant of Geelong was known as a Geelongite, or a Pivotonian, derived from the city's nickname of "The Pivot", referencing the city's role as a shipping and rail hub for the area. Population increases over the last decade were due to growth in service industries, as the manufacturing sector has declined.
Redevelopment of the inner city has occurred since the 1990s, as well as gentrification of inner suburbs, has a population growth rate higher than the national average. It is home to the Geelong Football Club, the second oldest club in the Australian Football League. Today, Geelong stands as an emerging health and advanced manufacturing hub; the city's economy is shifting and despite experiencing the drawbacks of losing much of its heavy manufacturing, it is seeing much growth in other sectors, positioning itself as one of the leading non-capital Australian cities. The area of Geelong and the Bellarine Peninsula was occupied by the Wathaurong Indigenous Australian tribe; the first nonindigenous person recorded as visiting the region was Lieutenant John Murray, who commanded the brig HMS Lady Nelson. After anchoring outside Port Phillip Heads, on 1 February 1802, he sent a small boat with six men to explore. Led by John Bowen, they explored the immediate area. On reporting favourable findings, Lady Nelson entered Port Phillip on 14 February, did not leave until 12 March.
During this time, Murray explored the Geelong area and, whilst on the far side of the bay, claimed the entire area for Britain. He named the bay Port King, after Philip Gidley King Governor of New South Wales. Governor King renamed the bay Port Phillip after the first governor of New South Wales, Arthur Phillip. Arriving not long after Murray was Matthew Flinders, who entered Port Phillip on 27 April 1802, he charted the entire bay, including the Geelong area, believing he was the first to sight the huge expanse of water, but in a rush to reach Sydney before winter set in, he left Port Phillip on 3 May. In January 1803, Surveyor-General Charles Grimes arrived at Port Phillip in the sloop Cumberland and mapped the area, including the future site of Geelong, but reported the area was unfavourable for settlement and returned to Sydney on 27 February. In October of the same year, HMS Calcutta led by Lieutenant Colonel David Collins arrived in the bay to establish the Sullivan Bay penal colony. Collins was dissatisfied with the area chosen, sent a small party led by First Lieutenant J.
H. Tuckey to investigate alternate sites; the party spent 22 October to 27 October on the north shore of Corio Bay, where the first Aboriginal death at the hands of a European in Victoria occurred. The next European visit to the area was by the explorers Hamilton William Hovell, they reached the northern edge of Corio Bay – the area of Port Phillip that Geelong now fronts – on 16 December 1824, it was at this time they reported that the Aboriginals called the area Corayo, the bay being called Djillong. Hume and Hovell had been contracted to travel overland from Sydney to Port Phillip, having achieved this, they stayed the night and began their return journey two days on 18 December; the convict William Buckley escaped from the Sullivan Bay settlement in 1803, lived among the Wathaurong people for 32 years on the Bellarine Peninsula. In 1835, John Batman used Indented Head as his base camp, leaving behind several employees whilst he returned to Tasmania for more supplies and his family. In this same year, Buckley surrendered to the party led by John Helder Wedge and was pardoned by Lieutenant-Governor Sir George Arthur, subsequently given the position of interpreter to the natives.
In March 1836, three squatters, David Fisher, James Strachan, George Russell arrived on Caledonia and set
Whitten Oval is a stadium in the inner-western suburbs of Melbourne, Australia, located at 417 Barkly Street, Footscray. It is the training and administrative headquarters of the Western Bulldogs Football Club, which competes in the Australian Football League, the home ground of its women's and reserves teams which compete in AFL Women's and the Victorian Football League respectively. Known as the Western Oval, it was renamed in honour of Ted Whitten, a former player and coach for the club. A statue of Whitten was erected at the entrance of the oval; the Whitten Oval is the centrepiece of a reserve that, from 1860, was a stone quarry used by the railways. In 1866, the quarry was turned into a reserve. Other former quarries within the City of Footscray that were turned into public gardens in this era include the Yarraville Reserve, the site of the current Yarraville Oval, off Williamstown Road. In 1879, after moving from ground to ground, the local council granted the local football club permission to use the Western Reserve as their home ground.
In 1883, the Footscray Football Club was formed. A year the club began hosting games in the botanical gardens. While the gardens became known as the David Spurling Reserve, the oval within the gardens became the Western Oval. Footscray used Western Oval as its home ground continuously until 1997, it was absent from the ground only in 1942, when it was commandeered by military personnel during World War II. In 1943, the club returned to Western Oval. In 1955, the ground record attendance was set for the oval when 42,354 turned out on 9 July to see then-defending premiers Footscray defeat Collingwood by six points in Round 12, 1955. In 1965, Footscray considered leaving Western Oval, made an application to the City of Sunshine for a lease at the new football ground it was developing at Skinner Reserve 3 km west in Braybrook. In 1983, struggling VFA Division 2 club Yarraville played its home games at Western Oval on Sundays; this was the only season of the arrangement. In 1994, the struggling Fitzroy Football Club began playing its home matches at the Western Oval, sharing the venue with Footscray, as it sought a better financial arrangement than it had received at its previous home Princes Park.
In 1995, the oval was renamed the Whitten Oval, after the death of the football club's favourite son, Ted Whitten. The driveway leading from Barkly Street to the car park behind the oval was named Whitten Avenue. In 1996, the Footscray Football Club attempted to get an injunction against the Fitzroy Football Club merging with any other club in the AFL, claiming such a move would break Fitzroy's 20 year lease to play their home games at Whitten Oval; the court dismissed the claim, saying damages rather than an injunction should have been sought. Following Fitzroy's merger with Brisbane after the 1996 AFL season, the Western Bulldogs moved their primary home ground for matches from Whitten Oval to Optus Oval in Carlton, with the club still scheduled to play two home matches at Whitten Oval. However, prior to their Round 1 encounter with Fremantle, the ground was condemned and the Fremantle match was moved to Optus Oval; the Western Bulldogs announced their intention to no longer play AFL matches at Whitten Oval, instead playing home games at Optus Oval until moving to Docklands stadium from the 2000 season.
A farewell premiership match was staged at the venue in Round 21, 1997 before a crowd of 26,704. After moving home matches away from the venue, the Bulldogs retain a training and administrative base at the venue; the ground ceased to be a used as a regular cricket venue at the end of 1996. Until December 1996, it was the home of the Footscray Cricket Club, which played in the Victorian district/premier cricket competition. After the appointment of Campbell Rose as Chief Executive of the football club in 2002, discussions commenced on a redevelopment of Whitten Oval. In September 2004, the club secured a deal for a $19.5m redevelopment, with contributions from the Federal Government, Western Bulldogs Forever Foundation, State Government, AFL and the City of Maribyrnong. Construction commenced in 2005, was completed in 2009; the renovated ground includes a 120 place childcare centre, a conference and convention centre and a state-of-the-art sports and health care centre for the Bulldogs to use as a training base.
In 2014, the ground started hosting home matches for the Western Bulldogs' reserves team, known as Footscray, which competes in the Victorian Football League. The ground has hosted matches for the club's AFL Women's team since 2017. Fifteen Canary Island date palm trees line the footpath north of the oval. Three Canary Island pine trees are behind these palms. To the west of the oval, between the car park and Hocking Street, there are two more palms. Of the 15 palms that line the reserve's northern border, 10 are south of the entrance to Whitten Avenue and five are north of the entrance. Behind the palms, to the north of the entrance, is the Lions Club of F
The Western Bulldogs is a professional Australian rules football club that competes in the Australian Football League, the sport's premier competition. Founded in 1877 in Footscray, an inner-western suburb of Melbourne, the club won nine premierships in the Victorian Football Association before gaining entry to the Victorian Football League in 1925; the club has won two VFL/AFL premierships, in 1954 and 2016, was runner up in 1961. The Western Bulldogs' home guernsey features two thick horizontal hoops—one red and one white—on a royal blue background; the club's headquarters and training facilities are located in Footscray at Whitten Oval, nicknamed "The Kennel", its original home ground. The club draws much of its supporter base from Melbourne's traditionally working class western region, plays its home matches at Docklands Stadium in the Docklands area in the city's inner-west. In 1996, the club changed its name from the "Footscray Football Club" to its nickname, the "Western Bulldogs". Newspapers record Australian rules football being played in the Melbourne suburb of Footscray in the mid-1870s, during which time a local junior football club was formed.
In 1880, the club changed its name to the Prince Imperials in honour of Napoléon, Prince Imperial, the heir to French throne, who had died in battle. The club reverted to Footscray a few years later. In 1886, Footscray gained admission to the Victorian Football Association after amalgamating with the Footscray Cricket Club to form a senior football club; the club tended occupying the lower rungs of the VFA ladder. The club began to improve after the VFL breakaway of 1896, finishing on top of the VFA ladder in 1898, 1899 and 1900; as no finals were played, Footscray were declared premiers. The club played in and won its first finals match in 1903, against Richmond, the minor premiers, but lost the follow-up finals match to North Melbourne. After losing to West Melbourne in the 1906 VFA Grand Final, the club won its first premiership by defeating Brunswick in 1908. Another premiership followed in 1913; the club entered two years of recess during World War I and returned in 1918. Still rebuilding, the club won the wooden spoon.
From bottom to top in one year, 1919 saw the club win the premiership, again in 1920. The club went back-to-back in 1923 and 1924; the 1924 premiership would be Footscray's last in the VFA. After the 1924 season, the club challenged the premiers of the VFL, Essendon, to a charity match, otherwise known as the Championship of Victoria, for the benefit of opera singer Dame Nellie Melba's Limbless Soldiers' Appeal. Footscray recorded an upset victory; the win was a significant factor in Footscray gaining admission to the VFL. In 1919, there were nine clubs competing in the VFL, due to the return of all the foundation teams plus Richmond after World War I, as well as University Football Club deciding not to rejoin the VFL; this caused one team to be idle every Saturday and the VFL was keen to do away with this bye each week. On the night of 9 January 1925, a committee meeting of the VFL, chaired by Reg Hunt of Carlton, decided to expand the league from nine clubs to twelve, it was decided in the meeting to admit Footscray, along with two other VFA clubs and North Melbourne.
Footscray played their first VFL match against Fitzroy on Saturday 2 May at the Brunswick Street Oval in front of 28,000 spectators. Former Richmond star George Bayliss had the honour of kicking Footscray's first VFL goal, although they ended up losing by nine points against an experienced league side, they earned great respect. Future Brownlow medallist Allan Hopkins was regarded as Footscray's best player that day; the following week, playing their first VFL home game at the Western Oval against a strong South Melbourne team, the Tricolours recorded their first VFL victory by 10 points in front of 25,000 spectators with a strong team effort. Footscray adapted quickly to the standard of VFL football despite losing some of their VFA stars, by 1928 were a contender for the finals, missing only on percentage in 1931. Though they slipped to eleventh place in 1930, 1935 and 1937, in 1938 they became the first of the new clubs to reach the finals, they fell back drastically in 1939, but played better during the war-torn 1940s, winning their first nine games in 1946.
Between 1938 and 1951, Footscray failed to win any finals matches, losing all six of its semi-final appearances. In 1953, the club set a record by conceding only 959 points in the home-and-away season due to a powerful defence featuring Whitten, Dave Bryden, Wally Donald, Herb Henderson and Jim Gallagher. Footscray won its first semi-final, against Essendon, but lost the preliminary final to Geelong, a key factor being the absence of star full-forward Jack Collins, suspended for four matches at the end of the home-and-away season; the Bulldogs went into the 1954 VFL season as premiership contenders. However, the season did not start well with losses St Kilda and Richmond, both of which finished in the bottom four the previous season. In the following two matches, against South Melbourne and Carlton, the club returned to form with Jack Collins booting eight and nine goals to help propel the Bulldogs to victory. In Round 7 against Hawthorn at Glenferrie Oval, led by Don Ross after Whitten injured his shoulder, came from 23 points down at the last break to kick seven goals and win by nine points.
With Richmond upsetting Collingwood at Victoria Park that same day, the Bulldogs went to the top of the ladder, where they would stay until Round 11, when they lost to Collingwood by ten points in a top-of-the-ladder c
Adelaide Oval is a sports ground in Adelaide, South Australia, located in the parklands between the city centre and North Adelaide. The venue is predominantly used for cricket and Australian rules football, but has played host to rugby league, rugby union, tennis among other sports as well as being used to hold concerts. Austadiums.com described Adelaide Oval as being "one of the most picturesque Test cricket grounds in Australia, if not the world". After the completion of the grounds most recent redevelopment in 2014, sports journalist Gerard Whateley described the venue as being "the most perfect piece of modern architecture because it's a contemporary stadium with all the character that it's had in the past". Adelaide Oval has been headquarters to the South Australian Cricket Association since 1871 and South Australian National Football League since 2014; the stadium is managed by the Adelaide Oval Stadium Management Authority. Its record crowd for cricket was 55,317 for the Second Ashes Test on 2 December 2017 and its record crowd for an Australian rules football match was 62,543 at the 1965 SANFL Grand Final between the Port Adelaide and Sturt.
In 1871 the ground was established after the formation of South Australian Cricket Association. During 1888 a switchback rollercoaster was constructed and was adjacent to Adelaide Oval where the present Riverbank Stand resides. In 1900 a picket fence was put in place around Oval's playing surface. In 1911 the current Adelaide Oval scoreboard, designed by architect Kenneth Milne, began service. In 1990 the Sir Donald Bradman Stand was built to replace the John Creswell stand and provided up to date facilities for spectators. In 1997 lights were constructed at the ground allowing sport to be held at night; this was the subject of a lengthy dispute with the Adelaide City Council relating to the parklands area. The first towers erected. In 2003 two grandstands, named the Chappell Stands, after the South Australian cricketing brothers Ian Chappell, Greg Chappell and Trevor Chappell were completed. Temporary stands were constructed for the 2006 Ashes Series to cope with demand. In August 2008 the South Australian Cricket Association announced that it had approved plans to redevelop the ground, involving expanding its capacity to 40,000.
Development plans showed a reconfiguration of a remodelled western stand. The redevelopment would make the ground a viable option for hosting Australian Football League games as well as international soccer and rugby; the state and federal Governments each pledged $25m to the project, leaving the SACA to raise at least $45m. The SACA planned for the new stand to be ready in time for the 2010–11 Ashes series; the South Australian government announced it would commit funding to redevelop Adelaide Oval into a multi-purpose sports facility that would bring AFL football to central Adelaide. Announcing an agreement negotiated with SACA, SANFL and the AFL, the Rann Labor government committed $450 million to the project; the three original western stands were demolished were torn down in June 2009 and a single Western stand was developed in its place ahead of the 2010–11 Ashes series. The Adelaide Oval Stadium Management Authority, a joint venture of SACA and the South Australian National Football League, was registered as a company on 23 December 2009 following the re-announcement of the plan.
The AOSMA has eight directors, four associated with SACA and four with SANFL. In 2010 the new Western stand was completed incorporating 14,000 individual seats and features improved shading conditions and amenities for SACA members. In the lead up to the 2010 state election, the opposition SA Liberals announced that, if elected, it would build with a new stadium with a roof, located at Riverside West at the site of the state government's new hospital location; the incumbent SA Labor government subsequently announced it would fund a $450 million upgrade and redevelopment of the whole of Adelaide Oval, rather than just the Western Grand Stand. Labor narrowly won re-election in 2010, resulting in its Adelaide Oval upgrade policy going ahead though for a steeper $535 million, of which this deal included the State Government clearing the SACA's $85 million debt. However, in early-mid-2010, prior to the election, it became clear. Following the 2010 state election, the Rann Labor government capped the State Government's commitment, stating: "It's $450 million – and not a penny more", set a deadline for the parties to agree.
In May, Treasurer Kevin Foley announced that "the Government's final offer to the SANFL and SACA for the redevelopment" was $535 million, the deadline was extended to August 2010. The SACA and the SANFL were in the process of negotiating an agreement that would enable Australian Rules Football to use Adelaide Oval during the AFL season as their home ground. In August 2010, SANFL and SACA representatives signed letters of intent committing to the project, including the capped $535 million offer from the state government; the redevelopment included a $40 million pedestrian bridge across the River Torrens to link the Adelaide railway station precinct with the Adelaide Oval precinct, completed for the Ashes cricket series in December 2013 and completed ahead of the 2014 AFL season. In early 2011, the AFL, SANFL, SACA, the SA Government and the Australian Government reache