E. W. Scripps Company

The E. W. Scripps Company is an American broadcasting company founded in 1878 as a chain of daily newspapers by Edward Willis "E. W." Scripps. It was formerly a media conglomerate; the company is headquartered inside the Scripps Center in Ohio. Its corporate motto is "Give light and the people will find their own way." The E. W. Scripps Company was incorporated on December 1, 1887, but it traces its history to November 2, 1878, when Edward Willis Scripps published the first issue of the Cleveland Penny Press. In 1894, E. W. Scripps and his half-brother, George H. Scripps, organized their various papers into the first modern newspaper chain. In July 1895, it was named the Scripps-McRae League with the addition of Cincinnati Post general manager Milton A. McRae as a partner. On June 2, 1902, Scripps founded the Newspaper Enterprise Association, based in Cleveland, Ohio, as a news report service for different Scripps-owned newspapers, it started selling content to non-Scripps owned newspapers in 1907, by 1909, it became a more general syndicate, offering comics and features as well.

It moved from Cleveland with an office in San Francisco. NEA grew and delivered content to 400 newspapers in 1920 and about 700 in 1930. Scripps created United Press in 1907 by the uniting of three smaller news syndicates; the Scripps Howard News Service was formed in 1917. United Feature Syndicate was formed in 1919. On November 3, 1922, the Scripps-McRae League was renamed Scripps-Howard Newspapers to recognize Roy W. Howard. On November 23, 1922, the E. W. Scripps Company was placed in trust for E. W. Scripps' children and grandchildren; the company's shares were divided into two types: Class A Common Shares, which were traded on the New York Stock Exchange, common voting shares, which were not publicly traded and elected a majority of the company's directors. A number of media companies, including the New York Times Company and the Washington Post Company, are governed by this system so that the descendants of the company's founders can keep control of the company. E. W. Scripps died in 1926.

United Feature Syndicate became a dominant player in the syndication market in the fall of 1931 thanks to Scripps' acquisition of the New York World, which controlled the Pulitzer company's syndication arms, Press Publishing Co. and World Feature Service. In 1958, Scripps merged United Press with Hearst's International News Service to form United Press International. In May 1978 Scripps merged NEA to form United Media Enterprises. In 1990, the company completed the Scripps Center. On October 16, 2007, the company announced that it would separate into two publicly traded companies: The E. W. Scripps Company and Scripps Networks Interactive; the transaction was completed on July 1, 2008. After a test launch at WFTS-TV in 2009, during 2010 Scripps stations launched YouTube channels; these are similar to YouTube channels operated by LIN Television. On February 24, 2011, United Media struck a distribution deal with Universal Uclick for syndication of the company's 150 comic strip and news features, which became effective on June 1 of that year.

At that point, United Media, by extension the Scripps Company, got out of the syndication business. On September 12, 2011, Scripps partnered with Cox Media Group and Raycom Media to launch Right This Minute, a viral video program. On the same day, Scripps launched a news magazine. Both were part of an approach for "homegrown" programming—programming created by Scripps. Raycom launched America Now on the same day; the creator of RTM and The List applied this "homegrown" programming approach to Tegna in 2015, with the launch of T. D. Jakes. Scripps launched Let's Ask America in 2013, partnering with Telepictures to do so, Pickler and Ben in 2017. On October 3, 2011, Scripps announced it was purchasing the television arm of McGraw-Hill for $212 million; this purchase nearly doubled the number of Scripps stations to 19 with a combined reach of 13% of U. S. households. Upon the 2012 death of E. W. Scripps' grandson, Robert Scripps, the Edward W. Scripps Trust was dissolved and its stock divided among the surviving trustees.

The Scripps Howard News Service shut down after 96 years in operation. In December 2013, Scripps purchased Newsy for $35 Million. On July 30, 2014, Scripps and Journal Communications announced that the two companies would merge and spin-off their newspaper assets; the deal created a broadcast group under the E. W. Scripps Company name and retaining the Cincinnati headquarters, a newspaper company based in Milwaukee, under the Journal Media Group name; the FCC approved the deal on December 12, 2014, it was approved by shareholders on March 11, 2015. The merger and spinoff were completed on April 1, 2015. In turn, Journal Media Group was acquired by Gannett Company on April 8, 2016. Gannett had shed their television and broadcast operations into a spin-off, months after the Scripps-Journal merger. In April 2016, Demand Media announced the sale of the humor/listicle website to E. W. Scripps. In June, it acquired podcast service Stitcher from Deezer. On August 1, 2017, Scripps announced the purchase of Katz Broadcasting and its three networks plus Bounce which Katz operates, for $292 million, acquiring the other 95% of the company.

The purchase was completed on October 2, 2017. On May 22, 2018, Scripps announced to change its common stock listing from the New York Stock Exchange to Nasdaq, whic

Joseph Charlier

Joseph Charlier was a Belgian self-described jurist, writer and merchant. He was one of the earliest proponents of a citizen's income or guaranteed minimum income, preceding the "state bonus" scheme published by British Dennis Milner in 1920. Charlier was influenced by Charles Fourier. According to John Stuart Mill, Fourierism required that "in the distribution, a certain minimum is first assigned for the subsistence of every member of the community, whether capable or not of labour." Fourier and his foremost disciple Victor Prosper Considérant criticized civilization for failing to provide a minimum to the poor, but feared widespread idleness and a collapsing civilization if workers depending on "repugnant" labor for income had a choice. Considérant, in some of his writings, suggested that society guarantee a right to work in order to compensate them for denying equal access to natural resources. Charlier agreed with Fourierism that the central problem was the improvement of the condition of the disinherited classes.

He rejected "the right to assistance", a solution addressing effects rather than the cause, the "right to work/organization of labor" which he expected to result in an extension of state control. Instead, Charlier proposed a scheme with a basic income paid unconditionally to every member of society, regardless of need or ability to work. In 1896 at age 80, Charlier died at Brussels. Solution du problème social ou constitution humanitaire, basée sur la loi naturelle, et précédée de l’exposé de motifs Catéchisme populaire, politique et social La question sociale résolue précédée du testament philosophique d’un penseur L’anarchie désarmée par l’équité: Corollaire à la question sociale résolue Cunliffe, John. "The Enigmatic Legacy of Charles Fourier: Joseph Charlier and Basic Income". History of Political Economy. Duke University Press. 33: 459–484. Doi:10.1215/00182702-33-3-459

The Agronomist

The Agronomist is a 2003 American documentary directed by Jonathan Demme about Jean Dominique. The documentary follows the life of Dominique, who ran Haiti's first independent radio station, Radio Haiti-Inter, during multiple repressive regimes; the documentary starts with an interview where Jean Dominique recounts a day when he was able to broadcast gunfire outside Radio Haiti-Inter. The titular Agronomist is Jean Leopold Dominique, owner of Radio Haiti-Inter, Haiti's first independent radio station. Jonathan Demme assembles this documentary with historical footage and personal interviews he conducted years earlier with Jean Dominique; the result is the portrait of a ethical individual who refuses to submit to power unto death. The result is a emotional documentary of a unique individual who refused to submit to injustice. Radio Haiti was founded in 1960. Jean Dominique's broadcasts focused on injustice from the perspective of pro-democracy for the masses, he was able to approach and present problems from the perspective of the poor Haitians, but the rural agriculturalists with whom he identified closely.

The most remarkable fact of Jean Dominique's radio career is that it lasted as long as it did in the face of powerful opposition from elites. While the powerful attempted to silence all critics, the radio host had captured the support covert but sometime daringly overt, of the Haitian people within broadcast range; as a result of outright courage and solidarity among the righteous, Radio Haiti-Inter wasn't silenced for decades. After the assassination of Jean Dominique, his wife and fellow journalist, Michèle Montas, courageously broadcast from the station for another three years. Radio Haiti-Inter ceased operations in 2003. Although The Agronomist himself would call this documentary the story of a "human being," by the film's end, most viewers will have been forced by the sheer rhetorical power of its subject, the director, to elevate Jean Dominique to the status of hero; the Agronomist was shown on May 3, 2004 at the UN Headquarters in NYC while observing World Press Freedom Day. There were no seats vacant for the showing at noon.

The film received favorable reviews by critics. It received a 96% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes Praise focused on the use of historical footage combined with interviews. Box office receipts totaled $226,189 in 21 theaters in the U. S; the movie was released on DVD on June 7, 2005 with English and French spoken language tracks, subtitles in English and French. Reporters Without Borders Radio Caraibes FM 94.5 live from Port au Prince Haiti, Haitian Radio stations Find all Haitian radio Stations. The Agronomist on IMDb