EMI Group Limited was a British transnational conglomerate founded in March 1931 in London. At the time of its break-up in 2012, it was the fourth largest business group and record label conglomerate in the music industry, was one of the "Big Four" record companies, its labels included EMI Records, Virgin Records, Capitol Records, which are now owned by other companies. The company was once a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, but faced financial troubles and US$4 billion in debt, leading to its acquisition by Citigroup in February 2011. Citigroup's ownership was temporary, as EMI announced in November 2011 that it would sell its music arm to Vivendi's Universal Music Group for $1.9 billion and its publishing business to a Sony/ATV consortium for around $2.2 billion. Other members of the Sony consortium include the estate of Michael Jackson, The Blackstone Group, the Abu Dhabi–owned Mubadala Development Company. EMI's locations in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada were all disassembled to repay debt, but the primary head office located outside those countries is still functional.
It is owned by Sony/ATV Music Publishing, the music publishing division of Sony Music which bought another 70% stake in EMI Music Publishing. Electric and Musical Industries Ltd was formed in March 1931 by the merger of the Columbia Graphophone Company and the Gramophone Company, with its "His Master's Voice" record label, firms that have a history extending back to the origins of recorded sound; the new vertically integrated company produced sound recordings as well as recording and playback equipment. The company's gramophone manufacturing led to forty years of success with larger-scale electronics and electrical engineering. In 1934, the company developed the electronic Marconi-EMI system for television broadcasting, which replaced Baird's electro-mechanical system following its introduction in 1936. After the war, the company resumed its involvement in making broadcasting equipment, notably providing the BBC's second television transmitter at Sutton Coldfield, it manufactured broadcast television cameras for British television production companies as well as for the BBC.
The commercial television ITV companies used them alongside cameras made by Pye and Marconi. Their best-remembered piece of broadcast television equipment was the EMI 2001 colour television camera, which became the mainstay of much of the British television industry from the end of the 1960s until the early 1990s. Exports of this piece of equipment were low, EMI left this area of product manufacture. Alan Blumlein, an engineer employed by EMI, conducted a great deal of pioneering research into stereo sound recording many years prior to the practical implementation of the technique in the early 1950s, he was killed in 1942 whilst conducting flight trials on an experimental H2S radar set. During and after World War II, the EMI Laboratories in Hayes, Hillingdon developed radar equipment, microwave devices such as the reflex klystron oscillator, electro-optic devices such as infra-red image converters, guided missiles employing analogue computers; the company was for many years an internationally respected manufacturer of photomultipliers.
This part of the business was transferred to Thorn as part of Thorn-EMI later became the independent concern Electron Tubes Ltd. The EMI Electronic Business Machine, a valve and magnetic drum memory computer, was built in the 1950s to process the British Motor Corporation payroll. In 1958 the EMIDEC 1100, the UK's first commercially available all-transistor computer, was developed at Hayes under the leadership of Godfrey Hounsfield, an electrical engineer at EMI. In the early 1970s, with financial support by the UK Department of Health and Social Security as well as EMI research investment, Hounsfield developed the first CT scanner, a device which revolutionised medical imaging. In 1973 EMI was awarded a prestigious Queen's Award for Technological Innovation for what was called the EMI scanner, in 1979 Hounsfield won the Nobel Prize for his accomplishment. After brief, but brilliant, success in the medical imaging field, EMI's manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies, notably Thorn.
Subsequently and manufacturing activities were sold off to other companies and work moved to other towns such as Crawley and Wells. Emihus Electronics, based in Glenrothes, was owned 51% by Hughes Aircraft, of California, US, 49% by EMI, it manufactured integrated circuits electrolytic capacitors and, for a short period in the mid-1970s, hand-held calculators under the Gemini name. Early in its life, the Gramophone Company established subsidiary operations in a number of other countries in the British Commonwealth, including India and New Zealand. Gramophone's Australian and New Zealand subsidiaries dominated the popular music industries in those countries from the 1920s until the 1960s, when other locally owned labels began to challenge the near monopoly of EMI. Over 150,000 78-rpm recordings from around the world are held in EMI's temperature-controlled archive in Hayes, some of which have been released on CD since 2008 by Honest Jon's Records. In 1931, the year the company was formed, it opened the legendary recording studios at Abbey Road, London.
During the 1930s and 1940s, its roster of artists included Art
Jordsand was a small Danish hallig located in the Wadden Sea southeast of the Danish island Rømø and east of the German island Sylt. The island was first known by the name Hiortsand and was connected to both the mainland and the island of Sylt; the old name refers to the presence of deer on the island. Records from 1231 describe the island as having a size equivalent of 20 km², it contained numerous terps. The island was destroyed in a series of storm tides, its size was described in 1873 as 40.7 and 18.4 hectares respectively. In 1895, a storm became a bird sanctuary. Attempts to protect it from the recurring floods were made in the 1970s but with limited success since the island remained unprotected by a dyke; the island's size shrunk to 2.3 hectares and the uninhabited island was destroyed in a flood during the winter of 1998/99. By 1999 all vegetation on the former island had disappeared, the Danish Nature Agency removed its observational hut from the flooded area. In 1999, the island was registered as disappeared.
The area is now a sandbank, Jordsand Flak similar to Koresand near Fanø. Højsande denotes a sandbank, only flooded during exceptionally high waters, its name lives on in the name of one of Germany's oldest environmental organizations, Verein Jordsand established in 1907. Palle Uhd Jepsen: Wattenmeerbilder. Vardemuseum 2000
Reticular connective tissue is a type of connective tissue with a network of reticular fibers, made of type III collagen. Reticular fibers are not unique to reticular connective tissue, but only in this type are they dominant. Reticular fibers are synthesized by special fibroblasts called reticular cells; the fibers are thin branching structures. Reticular connective tissue is found around the kidney, the spleen, lymph nodes, Peyer's patches as well as in bone marrow; the fibers form a soft skeleton to support the lymphoid organs. Adipose tissue is held together by reticular fibers, they can be identified in histology by staining with a heavy metal like silver or the PAS stain that stains carbohydrates. Gordon and Gold can be used. Reticular connective tissue resembles areolar connective tissue, but the only fibers in its matrix are reticular fibers, which form a delicate network along which fibroblasts called reticular cells lie scattered. Although reticular fibers are distributed in the body, reticular tissue is limited to certain sites.
It forms a labyrinth-like stroma, or internal framework, that can support many free blood cells in lymph nodes, the spleen, red bone marrow. There are more than 20 types of reticular fibers. In Reticular Connective Tissue type III collagen/reticular fiber is the major fiber component, it forms the architectural framework of liver, adipose tissue, bone marrow and basement membrane, to name a few. Deiters cells Reticular membrane of the inner ear Notes Anatomy photo: TermsCells&Tissues/connective/reticular/reticular1 - Comparative Organology at University of California, Davis - "Connective tissue, reticular" Histology at uwa.edu.au