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ENIAC

ENIAC was the first electronic general-purpose digital computer. It was Turing-complete, able to solve "a large class of numerical problems" through reprogramming. Although ENIAC was designed and used to calculate artillery firing tables for the United States Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory, its first program was a study of the feasibility of the thermonuclear weapon. ENIAC was completed in 1945 and first put to work for practical purposes on December 10, 1945. ENIAC was formally dedicated at the University of Pennsylvania on February 15, 1946 and was heralded as a "Giant Brain" by the press, it had a speed on the order of one thousand times faster than that of electro-mechanical machines. The combination of speed and programmability allowed for thousands more calculations for problems, as ENIAC calculated a trajectory in 30 seconds that took a human 20 hours; the completed machine was announced to the public the evening of February 14, 1946 and formally dedicated the next day at the University of Pennsylvania, having cost $500,000.

It was formally accepted by the U. S. Army Ordnance Corps in July 1946. ENIAC was shut down on November 9, 1946 for a refurbishment and a memory upgrade, was transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland in 1947. There, on July 29, 1947, it was turned on and was in continuous operation until 11:45 p.m. on October 2, 1955. ENIAC's design and construction was financed by the United States Army, Ordnance Corps and Development Command, led by Major General Gladeon M. Barnes; the total cost was about $487,000, equivalent to $7,195,000 in 2019. The construction contract was signed on June 5, 1943. Herman H. Goldstine persuaded the Army to fund the project, which put him in charge to oversee it for them. ENIAC was designed by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert of the University of Pennsylvania, U. S; the team of design engineers assisting the development included Robert F. Shaw, Jeffrey Chuan Chu, Thomas Kite Sharpless, Frank Mural, Arthur Burks, Harry Huskey and Jack Davis. Significant development work was undertaken by the ENIAC women programmers.

In 1946, the researchers resigned from the University of Pennsylvania and formed the Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation. ENIAC was a modular computer, composed of individual panels to perform different functions. Twenty of these modules were accumulators that could not only add and subtract, but hold a ten-digit decimal number in memory. Numbers were passed between these units across several general-purpose buses. In order to achieve its high speed, the panels had to send and receive numbers, save the answer and trigger the next operation, all without any moving parts. Key to its versatility was the ability to branch. By the end of its operation in 1956, ENIAC contained 20,000 vacuum tubes, it weighed more than 30 short tons, was 2.4 m × 0.9 m × 30 m in size, occupied 167 m2 and consumed 150 kW of electricity. This power requirement led to the rumor that whenever the computer was switched on, lights in Philadelphia dimmed. Input was possible from an IBM card reader and an IBM card punch was used for output.

These cards could be used to produce printed output offline using an IBM accounting machine, such as the IBM 405. While ENIAC had no system to store memory in its inception, these punch cards could be used for external memory storage. In 1953, a 100-word magnetic-core memory built by the Burroughs Corporation was added to ENIAC. ENIAC used ten-position ring counters to store digits. Arithmetic was performed by "counting" pulses with the ring counters and generating carry pulses if the counter "wrapped around", the idea being to electronically emulate the operation of the digit wheels of a mechanical adding machine. ENIAC had 20 ten-digit signed accumulators, which used ten's complement representation and could perform 5,000 simple addition or subtraction operations between any of them and a source per second, it was possible to connect several accumulators to run so the peak speed of operation was much higher, due to parallel operation. It was possible to wire the carry of one accumulator into another accumulator to perform double precision arithmetic, but the accumulator carry circuit timing prevented the wiring of three or more for higher precision.

ENIAC used four of the accumulators to perform up to 385 multiplication operations per second. The other nine units in ENIAC were the initiating unit, the cycling unit, the master programmer (controlled loo

Baker Township, Lafayette County, Arkansas

Baker Township is a township in Lafayette County, United States. Its total population was 1,975 as of the 2010 United States Census, a decrease of 19.81 percent from 2,463 at the 2000 census. According to the 2010 Census, Baker Township is located at 33°23′26″N 93°30′24″W, it has a total area of 34.739 square miles. As per the USGS National Elevation Dataset, the elevation is 292 feet. Most of the city of Stamps is located within the township. "2010 Census Block Map: Baker Township, Arkansas". Arkansas 2010 Census Block Maps - County Subdivisions. U. S. Census Bureau. "2013 Boundary and Annexation Survey Map: Lafayette County, Arkansas". Boundary and Annexation Survey Shapefiles and Maps. U. S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2014-06-01. Retrieved 2014-05-31. "2010 Census County Subdivision Maps: Arkansas". County Subdivision Maps. U. S. Census Bureau

Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railway Passenger Depot

Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railway Passenger Depot is a historic train station located at Fayetteville, Cumberland County, North Carolina. It was built in 1890 by the Cape Fear and Yadkin Valley Railway, is a two-story brick passenger depot with a deep hip roof in the Romanesque Revival style; the seven bay by two bay building features a rounded brick arch arcade. It operated as a passenger station until about 1900, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1983. The building now houses the Fayetteville Area Transportation Museum, with displays about area transportation and local history, including a model train room and a recreated station agent's office; the adjacent annex building includes vintage cars, a recreated 1920s gas station, a steam pump engine, exhibits on local law enforcement and fire department, farms life, Fort Bragg and Pope Army Air Field. Fayetteville Area Transportation Museum - Fayetteville-Cumberland County Parks & Recreation