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Edith of England spelt Eadgyth or Ædgyth, a member of the House of Wessex, was German queen from 936, by her marriage with King Otto I. Edith was born to the reigning English king Edward the Elder by his second wife, Ælfflæd, hence was a granddaughter of King Alfred the Great, she had Eadgifu. At the request of the East Frankish king Henry the Fowler, who wished to stake a claim to equality and to seal the alliance between the two Saxon kingdoms, her half-brother King Æthelstan sent his sisters Edith and Edgiva to Germany. Henry's eldest son and heir to the throne Otto was instructed to choose whichever one pleased him best. Otto chose Edith, according to Hrotsvitha a woman "of pure noble countenance, graceful character and royal appearance", married her in 930. In 936 Henry the Fowler died and his eldest son Otto, Edith's husband, was crowned king at Aachen Cathedral. A surviving report of the ceremony by the medieval chronicler Widukind of Corvey makes no mention of his wife having been crowned at this point, but according to Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg's chronicle, Eadgyth was anointed as queen, albeit in a separate ceremony.

As queen consort, Edith undertook the usual state duties of a "First Lady": when she turns up in the records it is in connection with gifts to the state's favoured monasteries or memorials to holy women and saints. In this respect she seems to have been more diligent than her now widowed and subsequently sainted mother-in-law, Queen Matilda, whose own charitable activities only achieve a single recorded mention from the period of Eadgyth's time as queen. There was rivalry between the Benedictine Monastery of St Maurice founded at Magdeburg by Otto and Eadgyth in 937, a year after coming to the throne, Matilda's foundation Quedlinburg Abbey, intended by her as a memorial to her husband, the late King Henry. Edith accompanied her husband on his travels. While Otto fought against the rebellious dukes Eberhard of Franconia and Gilbert of Lorraine in 939, she spent the hostilities at Lorsch Abbey. Like her brother, Æthelstan, Edith was devoted to the cult of their ancestor Saint Oswald of Northumbria and was instrumental in introducing this cult into Germany after her marriage to the emperor.

Her lasting influence may have caused certain monasteries and churches in the Duchy of Saxony to be dedicated to this saint. Eadgyth's death in 946 at a young age, in her thirties, was unexpected. Otto mourned the loss of a beloved spouse, he married Adelaide of Italy in 951. Edith and Otto's children were: Liudolf, Duke of Swabia Liutgarde, married the Lotharingian duke Conrad the Red in 947both buried in St. Alban's Abbey, Mainz. Buried in the St Maurice monastery, Edith's tomb since the 16th century has been located in Magdeburg Cathedral. Long regarded as a cenotaph, a lead coffin inside a stone sarcophagus with her name on it was found and opened in 2008 by archaeologists during work on the building. An inscription recorded that it was the body of Eadgyth, reburied in 1510; the fragmented and incomplete bones were examined in 2009 brought to Bristol, for tests in 2010. The investigations at Bristol, applying isotope tests on tooth enamel, checked whether she was born and brought up in Wessex and Mercia, as written history indicated.

Testing on the bones revealed that they are the remains of Eadgyth, from study made of the enamel of the teeth in her upper jaw. Testing of the enamel revealed that the individual entombed at Magdeburg had spent time as a youth in the chalky uplands of Wessex; the bones are the oldest found of a member of English royalty. Following the tests the bones were re-interred in a new titanium coffin in her tomb at Magdeburg Cathedral on 22 October 2010. Freytag von Loringhoven, Baron. Stammtafeln zur Geschichte der Europäischen Staaten, 1965. Klaniczay, Gábor. Holy Rulers and Blessed Princesses, 2002; the life of an Anglo-Saxon princess, Michael Wood, The Guardian, 17 June 2010 How the study of teeth is revealing our history, Mike Pitts, The Guardian, 17 June 2010

São José do Rio Preto

São José do Rio Preto is a municipality in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. The city is located at the north/northwest portion of the state, 440 km from the city of São Paulo and 700 km from Brasília. With 456,245 inhabitants, is the 10th biggest city of the state and the 36th biggest in Brazil. Founded in 1852, its history is linked with trade, the provision of services and agriculture. In 1912, the railroad Araraquarense arrived and stopped in the city for 20 years, transforming São José do Rio Preto into the commercial center of the region. Known as Rio Preto, is the center of a Mesoregion with 1,569,220 inhabitants in 29,387 km²; the Microregion of São José do. Before the 19th century, the region was inhabited by the Kaingang, an indigenous people, reduced or assimilitated, due to migration, the bandeiras and miscegenation. In the 19th century, farmers from Minas Gerais settled in the region; the city was founded on March 19, 1852, by João Bernardino de Seixas Ribeiro, after Luis Antônio da Silveira donated part of his lands to the Catholic Church, in tribute to Saint Joseph, aiming the creation of a city.

These lands from the farm gave birth to the city. In 1894, São José do Rio Preto was established as a municipality, with the emancipation from Jaboticabal; the newly created city had around 26,000 km². With the arrival of the railroad, the Estrada de Ferro Araraquarense, in 1912, the city became the commercial center of the region and radiating the goods from the region and the state capital; the literal translation is "Saint Joseph of the Black River". The city's name origin comes from the fact that Saint Joseph is the patron saint of the city, the Rio Preto cuts the city lands. A wooden sculpture of Saint Joseph wearing boots belongs to the city cathedral and no one knows for sure where it came from, but it has been in the city since it was a village in the 19th century, part of the city of Araraquara. People believe that migrants from the state of Minas Gerais brought the sculpture with them in the 19th century, and, the origin of part of the name; the river was believed black because there was a dense forest in the area, though the water was clear, the darkness made the river look black.

March 19, Rio Preto's birthday, is a holiday in the city. Between 1906 and 1944, the name was shortened to "Rio Preto" and in 1944 there was a proposal for changing the city's name to "Iboruna", but the name returned to the current form; the city is located on the region between the rivers Grande, Paraná and Tietê. The Vegetation is a mixture of Cerrado with traces of the Mata Atlântica; the topography is formed by a undulated relief, with a medium elevation of 489 m. According to the IBGE, the clime is tropical, characterized by a mild and dry winter and hot, rainy summer. At the Köppen climate classification, the city is on a tropical savanna climate area, although the annual average temperature is of 23 °C; the annual average precipitation varies between 1,500 mm. In 2008, there were 1,593 mm of rain. North: Ipiguá and Onda Verde South: Cedral and Bady Bassitt East: Guapiaçu West: Mirassol São José do Rio Preto is the biggest city of a region with strong agrarian tradition; the city concentrates the specialized Service sector of the region.

The Tertiary sector is the economic basis of the city. There are about 75 bank branches in the city. Hospitals, schools, shopping centers and the commerce in general, attracts people from throughout the region and other parts of Brazil. Agriculture and livestock are relevant in the region. Sugarcane, natural rubber and corn are the most cultivated; the Industry is formed by 3 major industrial districts, with the "Distrito Dr. Waldemar de Oliveira Verdi" being the biggest, 13 smaller districts. There's a prevalence of small and medium businesses, with diversified production; the GDP observed in 2009 was R$7,879,048,000.84.53% of the GDP is generated by the Tertiary sector and 15.19% by the Industry. The HDI of the city, measured by the UNDP, was 0.834 in 2000, being 0.814 in Income, 0.916 in Education and 0.772 in Life expectancy. The HDI for Brazil was 0.766 in the year 2000. In 2008 there were 38 homicides in the city, making an homicide rate of 9.2/100 thousand inhabitants. The city has 2 districts: Engenheiro Schmitt, with 17,680 inhabitants, Talhado, with 4,502 inhabitants.

São José do. In 2010, the IBGE accounted 137,233 permanent households. Population: 408,258 Area: 431.31 km² Urban area: 117.43 km² Population density: 946.53/km² Urbanization: 93.9% Sex ratio: 92.58 Birth rate: 12.63/1,000 inhabitants Infant mortality: 7.11/1,000 births Homicide rate: 9.2/100 thousand ppl Literacy rate: 96.8 HDI: 0.734 All indicators are from SEADE and IBGE Registered vehicles: 324,011 Bank agencies: 82 Mobile phones: 111.61% Rio Preto is an ultra-conservative, sleepy town culturally speaking. Country music is the major musical genre in a city surrounded by cattle farming and sugar cane plantations. Rodeos, farm festivals, caipira culture, cattle exhibitions are major events in this city. Studies show. Evangelical churches provide cultural frameworks to the population, suc

Château de Murol

The Château de Murol is a castle overlooking the town of Murol in the département of Puy-de-Dôme in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes région, France. The first castle was built on a basalt outcrop in the 12th century to provide surveillance over several roads, it was reinforced in the 14th century by Guillaume de Sam, who built the keep, a second chapel and the eastern buildings. The castle became the property of the d'Estaing family when the sole heir, Jehanne de Murol, married Gaspard d'Estaing in the 15th century; the castle was richly decorated and, under François I d'Estaing, in the 16th century it was surrounded by a huge curtain wall with towers. Emerging unscathed from the sieges during the Catholic League, the castle was transformed when Jean d'Estaing built a more comfortable Renaissance pavilion at the foot of the inner castle; the castle was abandoned. Although he ordered the destruction of numerous castles and fortresses, Richelieu spared Murol thanks to the prestige of the d'Estaing family and their influence in the French court.

After being used as a prison for many years, it became a bandits' hideout during the Revolution. During the 19th century, it fell to ruin and local inhabitants pillaged the site for stone; the castle has been developed as an important tourist site in recent years. The Compagnons de Gabriel organise guided tours and son et lumière shows designed to give a genuine view of life in a medieval castle. Displays of medieval martial arts are given in the lower courtyard. Entrance through the outer curtain wall is by a fortified gatehouse in the south; the Renaissance Pavilion is in the outer courtyard. Though dilipated, the facade still shows ancient pilasters; the inner castle, to the north, boasts 10 m high walls, built on a basalt base. Next to the keep, connected to a smaller tower by a curtain wall, are the two chapels, the older from the 13th century and the other 15th century. A ramp leads to a door, decorated with the arms of the Murol and d'Estaing families, that gives access to the inner courtyard.

Still visible are the remains of a gallery, the kitchen, a bakery and several outbuildings. The curtain walls can be reached up a spiral staircase and it possible to walk all round the ramparts. From the top of the keep the view extends over the town of Murol, the Couze Valley, Lake Chambon, Monts Dore and the Tartaret volcano; the ruins of the Château de Murol were described by Guy de Maupassant in his short story "Humble drame" from Contes du jour at de la nuit: The castle was described by George Sand in her novel Jean de la Roche. List of castles in France Official site Photos of Château de Murol Ministry of Culture photos

Iphigénie en Tauride

Iphigénie en Tauride is a 1779 opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck in four acts. It was his fifth opera for the French stage; the libretto was written by Nicolas-François Guillard. With Iphigénie, Gluck took his operatic reform to its logical conclusion; the recitatives are shorter and they are récitatif accompagné. The normal dance movements that one finds in the French tragédie en musique are entirely absent; the drama is based on the play Iphigenia in Tauris by the ancient Greek dramatist Euripides which deals with stories concerning the family of Agamemnon in the aftermath of the Trojan War. Iphigénie en Tauride was first performed on 18 May 1779 by the Paris Opéra at the second Salle du Palais-Royal and was a great success; some think that the head of the Paris Opéra, had attempted to stoke up the rivalry between Gluck and Niccolò Piccinni, an Italian composer resident in the French capital, by asking them both to set an opera on the subject of Iphigenia in Tauris. In the event, Piccinni's Iphigénie en Tauride was not premiered until January 1781 and did not enjoy the popularity that Gluck's work did.

In 1781 Gluck produced a German version of the opera, Iphigenia in Tauris, for the visit of the Russian Grand Duke Paul to Vienna, with the libretto translated and adapted by Johann Baptist von Alxinger in collaboration with the composer. Among the major changes was the transposition of the role of Oreste from baritone to tenor and the replacement of the final chorus of Act 2 with an instrumental movement; the revised version was the only opera Gluck wrote in German, his last work for the stage. Styled "a tragic Singspiel", it was staged on 23 October 1781 at the Nationalhoftheater, as the emperor Joseph II had had the Burgtheater renamed after dismissing the Italian singers and their orchestra in 1776 and installing German actors in the theatre; when the meagre results achieved by the new Singspiel programmes led the emperor to back down, getting an Italian opera buffa company recruited again and engaging Lorenzo Da Ponte as his theatre poet, the latter was charged to prepare an Italian translation of Gluck's opera, staged in the restored Burgtheater, on 14 December 1783.

According to Irish tenor Michael Kelly's "reminiscences" this production, was supervised by Gluck. The German edition was revived in Berlin at the former Königliches Nationaltheater in the Gendarmenmarkt on 24 February 1795, while Da Ponte's translation was chosen for the London first performance at the King's Theatre on 7 April 1796; the original French version proved to be one of Gluck's most popular composition in Paris: "it was billed on 35 dates in 1779, it went on to enjoy more than four hundred representations in 1781–93, 1797–1808, 1812–18, 1821–23, 1826–28, 1829. It was mounted at the Châtelet, the Renaissance, the Opéra-Comique, it was brought to the stage of the present opera house in Paris on 27 June 1931 with the aid of the Wagner Society of Amsterdam and with Pierre Monteux conducting the orchestra". In 1889 Richard Strauss made a new arrangement of the work for the publisher Adolph Fürstner, staged in Weimar at the Hoftheater on 9 June 1900, under the Goethe-inspired title of Iphigenie auf Tauris.

Strauss's version was quite performed at the beginning of the twentieth century and was used for the work's première at the Metropolitan Opera in 1916, but is by now heard. It was recorded in 1961 with Montserrat Caballé in the title role, conducted by Antonio de Almeida, in performance at the Teatro Nacional de São Carlos, Lisbon, it was revived at the 2009 Festival della Valle d'Itria at Martina Franca. As for the Da Ponte Italian version, there was a "memorable" staging at the Teatro alla Scala in 1957, with Nino Sanzogno conducting the orchestra, Luchino Visconti as the director and Maria Callas in the title role. Scene: The entrance hall of the temple of Diana in Tauris. There is no overture. Iphigenia, sister of Orestes, is the high priestess of Diana in the temple of Tauris, having been transported there magically by the goddess when her father Agamemnon attempted to offer her as a sacrifice. Iphigenia and her priestesses beg the gods to protect them from the storm. Although the storm dies down, Iphigenia remains troubled by a dream she has had, in which she envisioned her mother Clytaemnestra murdering her father her brother Orestes killing her mother, her own hand stabbing her brother.

She prays to Diana to reunite her with Orestes. Thoas, King of Tauris, enters, he too is obsessed with dark thoughts: the oracles, he tells her, predict doom for him if a single stranger escapes with his life.. A chorus of Scythians comes bringing news of two young Greeks who have just been found shipwrecked, demanding their blood. After Iphigenia and the priestesses depart, Thoas brings in the Greeks, who turn out to be Orestes and his friend Pylades. After asking them for what purpose they came, Thoas has them taken away. Scene: An inner chamber of the temple Orestes and Pylades languish in chains. Orestes berates himself for causing the death of his dear friend, but Pylades assures him that he does not feel dispirited beca

Geoff Blethyn

Geoff Blethyn is a former leading Australian rules footballer who played with Essendon in the Victorian Football League, Claremont in the Western Australian Football League and Port Adelaide in the South Australian Football League. A full-forward, Blethyn had famously wore glasses on the field, he kicked four goals in Essendon's 1968 Grand Final loss to Carlton and had his most prolific game up forward when he kicked 11 goals against Footscray during the 1972 VFL season. 1972 was a record breaking-year for Blethyn—he finished it with 107 goals and became the first Essendon player since John Coleman in 1950 to kick over 100 in a season. However, he missed out on the Coleman Medal to Collingwood's Peter McKenna, who kicked 130 goals for the season. From 1973 to 1975 Blethyn played for WAFL club Claremont. Blethyn returned to Essendon in 1976, it was the third time Blethyn had finished a season as Essendon's top goalkicker, having done so in 1970 and 1972. Blethyn left Essendon for good in 1977. In that season, he played in the only premiership side of his career.

Blethyn lives in Adelaide and works as a property advisor. Geoff Blethyn's playing statistics from AFL Tables Geoff Blethyn at

Vince Chhabria

Vince Girdhari Chhabria is a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California and a Deputy City Attorney at the San Francisco City Attorney's Office. Chhabria was born in 1969 in San Francisco, California to an Indian father from Mumbai and a Canadian mother, born in Quebec, he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1991 from the University of Santa Cruz. He received a Juris Doctor in 1998 from the University of California, Berkeley School of Law, graduating Order of the Coif, he served as a law clerk to Judge Charles R. Breyer of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, from 1998 to 1999, he clerked for Judge James R. Browning of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, from 1999 to 2000. In 2001, he worked as an associate at the law firm of Keker & Van Nest, LLP. From 2001 to 2002, he clerked for Justice Stephen G. Breyer of the United States Supreme Court. From 2002 to 2004, he worked as an associate at the law firm of Covington & Burling, LLP.

From 2005 to 2013, he served in the San Francisco City Attorney's Office as Deputy City Attorney for Government Litigation and as the Co-Chief of Appellate Litigation. On July 25, 2013, President Obama nominated Chhabria to serve as a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Northern District of California, to the seat vacated by Judge Susan Illston, who took senior status on July 1, 2013, he was reported out of the United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary on January 16, 2014. On March 5, 2014, the motion to invoke cloture on his nomination was agreed to by a vote of 57–43, his nomination was confirmed that day by a vote of 58–41. He received his judicial commission on March 7, 2014. One notable ruling by Chhabria was in the case of, Inc. v. Becerra, in which the website IMDb sued parties including California Attorney General Xavier Becerra and the Screen Actors Guild, seeking to counter a California law that barred IMDb from posting the birth dates of actors.

Chhabria ruled that the California law was unconstitutional under the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. On October 3, 2016, the U. S. Judicial Panel on Multidistrict Litigation appointed Chhabria to preside over the coordinated and consolidated pretrial proceedings for all product liability lawsuits filed against Monsanto in the federal court system, over failure to warn consumers and regulators that the glyphosate-based herbicide can cause non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Vince Chhabria at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. Vince Girdhari Chhabria at Ballotpedia