Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Per capita income
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area in a specified year. It is calculated by dividing the area's total income by its total population. Per capita income is national income divided by population size. Per capita income is used to measure an area's average income and compare the wealth of different populations. Per capita income is used to measure a country's standard of living, it is expressed in terms of a used international currency such as the euro or United States dollar, is useful because it is known, is calculable from available gross domestic product and population estimates, produces a useful statistic for comparison of wealth between sovereign territories. This helps to ascertain a country's development status, it is one of the three measures for calculating the Human Development Index of a country. In the United States, it is defined by the U. S. Census Bureau as the following: "Per capita income is the mean money income received in the past 12 months computed for every man and child in a geographic area."
Critics claim that per capita income has several weaknesses in measuring prosperity: Comparisons of per capita income over time need to consider inflation. Without adjusting for inflation, figures tend to overstate the effects of economic growth. International comparisons can be distorted by cost of living differences not reflected in exchange rates. Where the objective is to compare living standards between countries, adjusting for differences in purchasing power parity will more reflect what people are able to buy with their money, it does not reflect income distribution. If a country's income distribution is skewed, a small wealthy class can increase per capita income while the majority of the population has no change in income. In this respect, median income is more useful when measuring of prosperity than per capita income, as it is less influenced by outliers. Non-monetary activity, such as barter or services provided within the family, is not counted; the importance of these services varies among economies.
Per capita income does not consider whether income is invested in factors to improve the area's development, such as health, education, or infrastructure. List of countries by average wage List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP at market or government official exchange rates per inhabitant List of countries by GDP per capita—GDP calculated at purchasing power parity exchange per inhabitant List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by GNI per capita List of countries by income equality Total personal income
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
The Pony Express was a mail service delivering messages and mail using relays of horse mounted riders that operated from April 3, 1860 to October 1861 between Missouri and California in the United States of America. Operated by Central Overland California and Pike's Peak Express Company, the Pony Express was a great financial investment to the U. S. During its 18 months of operation, it reduced the time for messages to travel between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts to about 10 days, it became the West's most direct means of east–west communication before the transcontinental telegraph was established, was vital for tying the new U. S. state of California with the rest of the United States. The Pony Express demonstrated that a unified transcontinental system of communications could be established and operated year-round; when replaced by the telegraph, the Pony Express became romanticized and became part of the lore of the American West. Its reliance on the ability and endurance of individual young, hardy riders and fast horses was seen as evidence of rugged American individualism of the Frontier times.
The idea of a fast mail route to the Pacific coast was prompted by California's newfound prominence and its growing population. After gold was discovered there in 1848, thousands of prospectors and businessmen made their way to California, at that time a new territory of the U. S. By 1850, California entered the Union as a free state. By 1860, the population had grown to 380,000; the demand for a faster way to get mail and other communications to and from this westernmost state became greater as the American Civil War approached. In the late 1850s, William Russell, Alexander Majors, William Waddell were the three founders of the Pony Express, they were in the freighting and drayage business. At the peak of the operations, they employed 6,000 men, owned 75,000 oxen, thousands of wagons, warehouses plus a sawmill, a meatpacking plant, a bank and an insurance company. Russell was a prominent businessman, well respected among the community. Waddell was co-owner of the firm Waddell & Co.. After Morehead was bought out and retired, Waddell merged his company with Russell's, changing the name to Waddell & Russell.
In 1855 they took on a new partner, Alexander Majors, founded the company of Russell, Majors & Waddell. They held government contracts for delivering army supplies to the western frontier, Russell had a similar idea for contracts with the U. S. Government for fast mail delivery. By utilizing a short route and using mounted riders rather than traditional stagecoaches, they proposed to establish a fast mail service between St. Joseph and Sacramento, with letters delivered in 10 days, a duration many said was impossible; the initial price was set at $5 per 1⁄2 ounce $2.50, by July 1861 to $1. The founders of the Pony Express hoped to win an exclusive government mail contract, but that did not come about. Russell and Waddell organized and put together the Pony Express in two months in the winter of 1860; the undertaking assembled 120 riders, 184 stations, 400 horses, several hundred personnel during January and February 1861. Majors was a religious man and resolved "by the help of God" to overcome all difficulties.
He presented each rider with a special edition Bible and required this oath, which they were required to sign. I... do hereby swear, before the Great and Living God, that during my engagement, while I am an employee of Russell and Waddell, I will, under no circumstances, use profane language, that I will drink no intoxicating liquors, that I will not quarrel or fight with any other employee of the firm, that in every respect I will conduct myself be faithful to my duties, so direct all my acts as to win the confidence of my employers, so help me God." In 1860, there were about 186 Pony Express stations that were about 10 miles apart along the Pony Express route. At each station stop the express rider would change to a fresh horse, taking only the mail pouch called a mochila with him; the employers stressed the importance of the pouch. They said that, if it came to be, the horse and rider should perish before the mochila did; the mochila was held in place by the weight of the rider sitting on it.
Each corner had pocket. Bundles of mail were placed in these cantinas; the mochila could hold 20 pounds of mail along with the 20 pounds of material carried on the horse. Everything except one revolver and a water sack was removed, allowing for a total of 165 pounds on the horse's back. Riders, who could not weigh over 125 pounds, changed about every 75–100 miles, rode day and night. In emergencies, a given rider might ride two stages back to back, over 20 hours on a moving horse, it is unknown if riders tried crossing the Sierra Nevada in winter, but they crossed central Nevada. By 1860 there was a telegraph station in Nevada Territory; the riders received $100 a month as pay. A comparable wage for unskilled labor at the time was about $0.43–$1 per day. Alexander Majors, one of the founders of the Pony Express, had acquired more than 400 horses for the project, he selected horses from around the west, paying an average of $200. These averaged 900 pounds each; the 1,900-mile-long route followed the Oregon and California Trails to Fort Bridger in Wyoming, the Mormon Trail (known as the
A pump track is a circuit of rollers, banked turns and features designed to be ridden by riders "pumping" - meaning to create momentum by up and down body movements, instead of pedaling or pushing. It was designed for the mountain bike and BMX scene, now, due to concrete constructions used by skateboard and scooter riders, accessible to wheelchairs. Pump tracks are simple to use and cheap to construct, cater to a wide variety of rider skill levels. Skateparks experienced a huge boom in the late early 2000s. However, most of them were designed to be used by experienced or professional riders, thus resulted in many injuries; as alternatives to mainstream sports such as football, many communities looked for a better solution, accessible to the wide masses. The first new era pump track in the United States was built in 2004 at The Fix Bike Shop in Boulder, Colorado, by professional downhill bicyclist Steve Wentz. Since pump tracks were created all around the world; the exact number is not known, however the biggest pump track creator worldwide, has built over 180 tracks since 2012.
Most pump tracks link a series of rollers to steeply bermed corners that bring the riders back around. They used to be built out of dirt companies started to use concrete or asphalt. Paved pump tracks have the advantage that they can be ridden by skateboarders, in-line skaters, foot-powered scooters; the size can vary from 50m2 to over 8000m2. Since momentum, or speed, is gained by the rider pumping, such as on the down-slope of each roller, the best bikes to use have no suspension, which would absorb useful energy. Bikes have a rigid frame, such as BMX-style bikes, which most efficiently convert the rider's motions into forward thrust; some bikes have been designed which are custom built for a pump track, with features such as an offset crank, which stabilizes the pedals, lowers the rider's center of gravity. In 2018, Velosolutions teamed up with Red Bull and organized the first pump track world championship; the world's best 67 riders from MTB raced at the world final in Arkansas. David Graf and Christa von Niederhäusern, both from Switzerland, were crowned the first Red Bull Pump Track World Champions.
The series continued with over 25 stops all around the world. BMX bike riding Dirt jumping Glossary of cycling
Provo–Orem metropolitan area
The Provo-Orem, UT Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the United States Office of Management and Budget, is an area consisting of two counties in Utah, anchored by the cities of Provo and Orem. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 526,810. By 2015, the Census Bureau estimated the population reached 585,799. Juab Utah As of the census of 2010, there were 526,810 people, 143,695 households, 116,844 families residing within the MSA; the racial makeup of the MSA was 89.5% White, 0.5% African American, 0.6% Native American, 1.3% Asian, 0.7% Pacific Islander, 4.6% from other races, 2.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.7% of the population. As of the census of 2000, median income for a household in the MSA was $41,986, the median income for a family was $46,426. Males had a median income of $35,750 versus $22,025 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $14,174. A survey of about 190 metropolitan areas found 77% of Provo-Orem residents are classified as "very religious," the largest percentage in the United States.
Utah census statistical areas Wasatch Front