The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
A city manager is an official appointed as the administrative manager of a city, in a council–manager form of city government. Local officials serving in this position are sometimes referred to as the chief executive officer or chief administrative officer in some municipalities. Dayton, Ohio suffered a great flood in 1913, responded with the innovation of a paid, non-political city manager, hired by the commissioners to run the bureaucracy. Other small or middle sized American cities in the West, adopted the idea. In Europe, smaller cities in the Netherlands were specially attracted by the plan. By 1940 there were small cities with city managers that grew enormously by the end of the century: Austin, Texas. In a technical sense, the term "city manager," as opposed to CAO, implies more discretion and independent authority, set forth in a charter or some other body of codified law, as opposed to duties being assigned on a varying basis by a single superior such as a mayor. Most sources trace the first city manager to Staunton, Virginia in 1908.
Some of the other cities that were among the first to employ a manager were Sumter, South Carolina and Dayton, Ohio. The first "City Manager's Association" meeting of eight city managers was in December 1914; the city manager, operating under the council-manager government form, was created in part to remove city government from the power of the political parties, place management of the city into the hands of an outside expert, a business manager or engineer, with the expectation that the city manager would remain neutral to city politics. By 1930 200 American cities used a city manager form of government; as the top appointed official in the city, the city manager is responsible for most if not all of the day-to-day administrative operations of the municipality, in addition to other expectations. Some of the basic roles and powers of a city manager include: Supervision of day-to-day operations of all city departments and staff through department heads. In addition, many states, such as the states of New Hampshire and Missouri, have codified in law the minimum functions a local "manager" must perform.
The City Manager position focuses on efficiency and providing a certain level of service for the lowest possible cost. The competence of a city manager can be assessed using composite indicators. Manager members of the ICMA are bound by a rather rigid and enforced code of ethics, established in 1924. Since that time the code had been up-dated/revised on seven occasions, the latest taking place in 1998; the updates have taken into account the evolving duties and expectations of the profession. In the early years of the profession, most managers came from the ranks of the engineering professions. Today the typical and preferred background and education for the beginning municipal manager is a master's degree in Public Administration and at least several years’ experience as a department head in local government or as an assistant city manager; as of 2005 more than 60% of those in the profession had a MPA, MBA, or other related higher-level degree. The average tenure of a manager is now 7–8 years and has risen over the years.
Tenures tend to be less in smaller communities and higher in larger ones, they tend to vary as well depending on the region of the country. Educational Level of Local Government Managers: Local government Local government in the United States council-manager government Clerk Kemp, Roger L. Managing America's Cities: A Handbook for Local Government Productivity, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK 1998. _______, Model Government Charters: A City, Regional and Federal Handbook, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2003 _______, Forms of Local Government: A Handbook on City and Regional Options, McFarland and Co. Jefferson, NC, USA, London, Eng. UK, 2007. Stillman, Richard Joseph; the rise of the city manager: A public professional in local government. Weinste
The Rio Grande is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico. The Rio Grande begins in south-central Colorado in the United States and flows to the Gulf of Mexico. Along the way, it forms part of the Mexico–United States border. According to the International Boundary and Water Commission, its total length was 1,896 miles in the late 1980s, though course shifts result in length changes. Depending on how it is measured, the Rio Grande is either the fourth- or fifth-longest river system in North America; the river serves as part of the natural border between the U. S. state of Texas and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas. A short stretch of the river serves as part of the boundary between the U. S. states of New Mexico. Since the mid–20th century, heavy water consumption by farms and cities along with many large diversion dams on the river has left only 20% of its natural discharge to flow to the Gulf. Near the river's mouth, the irrigated lower Rio Grande Valley is an important agricultural region.
The Rio Grande's watershed covers 182,200 square miles. Many endorheic basins are situated within, or adjacent to, the Rio Grande's basin, these are sometimes included in the river basin's total area, increasing its size to about 336,000 square miles; the Rio Grande rises in the western part of the Rio Grande National Forest in the U. S. state of Colorado. The river is formed by the joining of several streams at the base of Canby Mountain in the San Juan Mountains, just east of the Continental Divide. From there, it flows through the San Luis Valley south into the Middle Rio Grande Valley in New Mexico, passing through the Rio Grande Gorge near Taos toward Española, picking up additional water from the San Juan-Chama Diversion Project from the Rio Chama, it continues on a southerly route through the desert cities of Albuquerque and Las Cruces to El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua. In the Albuquerque area, the river flows past a number of historic Pueblo villages, including Sandia Pueblo and Isleta Pueblo.
Below El Paso, it serves as part of the border between the United States and Mexico. The official river border measurement ranges from 889 miles to 1,248 miles, depending on how the river is measured. A major tributary, the Rio Conchos, enters at Ojinaga, below El Paso, supplies most of the water in the border segment. Other tributaries include the Pecos and the smaller Devils, which join the Rio Grande on the site of Amistad Dam. Despite its name and length, the Rio Grande is not navigable by ocean-going ships, nor do smaller passenger boats or cargo barges use it as a route, it is navigable at all, except by small boats in a few places. The Rio Grande rises in high flows for much of its length at high elevation. In New Mexico, the river flows through the Rio Grande rift from one sediment-filled basin to another, cutting canyons between the basins and supporting a fragile bosque ecosystem on its flood plain. From El Paso eastward, the river flows through desert. Although irrigated agriculture exists throughout most of its stretch, it is extensive in the subtropical Lower Rio Grande Valley.
The river ends in a sandy delta at the Gulf of Mexico. During portions of 2001 and 2002, the mouth of the Rio Grande was blocked by a sandbar. In the fall of 2003, the sandbar was cleared by high river flows around 7,063 cubic feet per second. Navigation was active during much of the 19th century, with over 200 different steamboats operating between the river's mouth close to Brownsville and Rio Grande City, Texas. Many steamboats from the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers were requisitioned by the U. S. government and moved to the Rio Grande during the Mexican–American War in 1846. They provided transport for the U. S. Army, under General Zachary Taylor, to invade Monterrey, Nuevo León, via Camargo Municipality, Tamaulipas. Army engineers recommended that with small improvements, the river could be made navigable as far north as El Paso; those recommendations were never acted upon. The Brownsville & Matamoros International Bridge, a large swing bridge, dates back to 1910 and is still in use today by automobiles connecting Brownsville with Matamoros, Tamaulipas.
The swing mechanism has not been used since the early 1900s, when the last of the big steamboats disappeared. At one point, the bridge had rail traffic. Railroad trains no longer use this bridge. A new rail bridge connecting the U. S. and Mexico was built about 15 miles west of the Matamoros International Bridge. It was inaugurated in August 2015, it moved all rail operations out of downtown Matamoros. The West Rail International Crossing is the first new international rail crossing between the U. S. and Mexico in 105 years. The Brownsville & Matamoros International Bridge is now operated by the Brownsville and Matamoros Bridge Company, a joint venture between the Mexican government and the Union Pacific Railroad. At the mouth of the Rio Grande, on the Mexican side, was the large commercial port of Bagdad, Tamaulipas. During the American Civil War, this was the only legitimate port of the Confederacy. European warships anchored offshore to maintain the port's neutrality, managed to do so throughout that conflict, despite occasional stare-downs with blockading ships from the US Navy.
It was a shal
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S
Joseph O. Shelby
Joseph Orville "Jo" Shelby was a Confederate cavalry general noted for his actions in the Trans-Mississippi Theater of the American Civil War. Shelby was born in Lexington, Kentucky, to one of the state's wealthiest and most influential families, he lost his father at age five and was raised by a stepfather, Benjamin Gratz, a member of wealthy Lexington elite. Shelby attended Transylvania University and was a rope manufacturer until 1852, he moved to Waverly, where he engaged in steamboating on the Missouri River. He ran a hemp plantation, a ropeworks, a sawmill; these business ventures made Shelby one of the wealthiest men in the state of Missouri. During the Bleeding Kansas struggle of the mid-1850s, Shelby organized the pro-slavery "Blue Lodge" group in Waverly and led a company of Border Ruffians. Shelby's first direct involvement in Kansas was at Lawrence during the March 30, 1855 election of the Kansas territorial legislature. Many Missourians without residence in the territory voted illegally in the election.
This was achieved through intimidation of election judges, who were prevented from administering residency oaths. Additionally and other Missourians harassed several abolitionists attempting to vote, although they were not prevented from doing so. Shelby's leadership in the Missouri–Kansas border war damaged his business ventures and partnership with his stepbrother, Henry Howard Gratz. In December 1855, their new sawmill burned, evidence suggested the use of an incendiary; the mill was uninsured and losses exceeded $9,000. Gratz returned to Lexington and Shelby auctioned off the business in February 1860. On July 22, 1857, Shelby married Elizabeth Nancy Shelby, in a grand steamboat wedding and honeymoon trip to St. Louis. Known as Betty, she was much younger than him. Following the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter in April 1861, Missouri Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson refused Lincoln's call for volunteers and maneuvered to take the state out of the Union; the resulting friction between State and Federal militias vying for control of the St. Louis Arsenal led to the Camp Jackson affair and the creation of the pro-secession Missouri State Guard.
Shelby formed the Lafayette County Mounted Rifles for Missouri State Guard service and was elected the company's captain, leading it into battle at Carthage, Wilson's Creek, Pea Ridge. In 1862, he was promoted to colonel and authorized to recruit a Confederate cavalry regiment, returning to Lafayette County to do so. After bringing the regiment safely back to Arkansas, he was given command of a brigade of newly recruited regiments. In the fall of 1863, Shelby led his "Iron Brigade" of Missouri volunteers on what was at the time the longest cavalry raid of the war, Shelby's Raid. Between September 22 and November 3, 1863, Shelby's brigade traveled 1,500 miles through Missouri, inflicting over 1,000 casualties on Union forces and capturing or destroying an estimated $2 million worth of federal supplies and property, he was promoted to brigadier general on December 15, 1863, following the successful conclusion of his raid. In 1864, Union General Frederick Steele's failure in the Camden Expedition of March 23 – May 2, 1864 was due to Shelby's brilliant and determined harassment, in concert with other Confederate forces.
Steele's men were forced to retreat to Little Rock by the destruction or capture of their supply trains at the Battle of Marks' Mills. Reassigned to Clarendon, Shelby succeeded in capturing a Union tinclad gunboat, the USS Queen City; the gunboat was burned to prevent her recapture. Shelby commanded a division during Sterling Price's 1864 Missouri raid, he distinguished himself at the battles of Little Blue River and Westport, captured many towns from their Union garrisons, including Potosi, Waverly, Stockton and California, Missouri. After Robert E. Lee's army surrendered in Virginia in April 1865, General Edmund Kirby Smith appointed Shelby a major general on May 10; the promotion was never formalized, due to the collapse of the Confederate government. Shelby's adjutant at the time was John Newman Edwards, who years was responsible for creating the anti-hero legend of Jesse James and his fellow Confederate guerrillas. In June 1865, rather than surrender, Shelby and 1,000 of his remaining troops rode south into Mexico.
Shelby sank his battle flag in the Rio Grande near present-day Eagle Pass, Texas on the way to Mexico rather than risk the flag falling into the hands of the Federals. The event is depicted in a painting displayed at the Eagle Pass City Hall. For their determination not to surrender, Shelby's men were immortalized as "the undefeated". A verse appended to the post-war Confederate anthem "The Unreconstructed Rebel" commemorates the defiance of Shelby and his men: The plan was to offer their services to Emperor Maximilian as a "foreign legion". Maximilian declined to accept the ex-Confederates into his armed forces, but he did grant them land for the New Virginia Colony, an American settlement in Mexico near Veracruz; the grant was revoked two years following the collapse of the empire and Maximilan's execution. The memory of Shelby and his men as "The Undefeated" is used as a basis for the 1969 John Wayne–Rock Hudson film by the same name. Shelby resumed farming. In 1883, Shelby was a critical witness for fellow ex-Confederate Frank James at James' trial.
Shelby was appointed the U. S. Marshal for the Western District of Missouri in 1893, retained this position until his death, he appointed an African American to office, which led to "bitter fe
Texas Department of Public Safety
The Texas Department of Public Safety is a department of the government of the state of Texas. DPS is responsible for statewide law vehicle regulation; the Public Safety Commission oversees DPS. However, under state law, the Governor of Texas may assume personal command of the department during a public disaster, insurrection, or formation of a dangerous resistance to enforcement of law, or to perform his constitutional duty to enforce law; the commission's five members are appointed by the governor and confirmed by the Texas Senate, to serve without pay for staggered, six-year terms. The commission formulates plans and policies for enforcing criminal and safety laws, for preventing and detecting crime, for apprehending law violators and for educating citizens about laws and public safety; the agency is headquartered at 5805 North Lamar Boulevard in Austin. Due to increased traffic and the incremental damages caused by large trucks on the narrow state roads, the License and Weight Division was formed in March of 1927.
These new inspectors, the State Police, working from motorcycles would enforce motor vehicle laws and regulations. The Texas Rangers would continue to conduct the State's law enforcement investigations; as a result of higher crime rates, the Texas Legislature in 1931 enrolled Griffenhagen and Associates to conduct a study on the effectiveness of their law enforcement program. The firm concluded the great expanse of Texas was too much for the Rangers or the License and Weight Division to handle appropriately; the fact that the State Highway Patrol did not enforce felony charges gave too much responsibility to the Rangers, who were overworked. The report was negative toward Texas utilizing the National Guard for law enforcement along the border. Recommendations were made to accumulate the necessary finances to create a state law enforcement agency. Four bureaus, State Police and Fire Prevention were suggested to be created with the implementation of the new force. Not satisfied with the report, the Texas Senate created a committee to conduct its own survey of the State’s law enforcement.
As a result of the committee findings, on January 24, 1935 Senate Bill 146 was introduced. The bill created a Department of Public Safety housing the Rangers and the State Highway Patrol under one umbrella organization; the bill received final approval on February 18, 1935 and was sent to the House before ending up in a joint committee for final revisions. On May 3, 1935 the final bill was passed, but without two-thirds approval. On August 10, 1935 the formation of the Department of Public Safety along with 103 other bills were created by the Texas Legislature; the newly formed department was the new home for the Texas Rangers, The Highway Patrol, crime laboratory. While Governor James V. Allred signed Senate Bill 146 which created the DPS, it was the Legislature's responsibility of selecting three civilians as the Public Safety Commission. Selected were George W. Cottingham, Ernest R. Goens, Albert Sidney Johnson, they in turn appointed Captain L. G. Phares as acting director and Homer Garrison Jr. as assistant director of the new agency.
Phares was replaced by Colonel Horace H. Carmichael, who served until his death on September 24, 1938. Homer Garrison Jr. became the third director on September 27, 1938 and continued on as director for nearly 30 years until his death on May 7, 1968. Garrison made numerous improvements to the department during his storied career along with enhancing the training curriculum, recognized by J. Edgar Hoover, director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. DPS is divided into thirteen divisions: Administration Criminal Investigations Driver License Education, Training & Research Emergency Management Finance General Counsel Texas Highway Patrol Information Technology Intelligence and Counterterrorism Law Enforcement Support Regulatory Licensing Texas Ranger Division The Administrative Services Division serves as the indirect staff to the director and provides information technology, law enforcement support, finance and regulatory licensing for the entire department; the Administration Section maintains DPS property, provides training to other divisions, operates the Crime Records Service.
The Crime Records Service maintains criminal justice information and issues concealed handgun licenses. In 2009, the Department of Public Safety created the Criminal Investigations Division as part of a major restructuring of the department; the CID consists of 700 members, including 573 commissioned officers and 129 civilian support personnel. The CID Assistant Director's Office consists of the assistant director, deputy assistant director, an administrative major, four civilian support personnel; the CID is divided into four different sections, which are specialized by function: Gang Section Drug Section Special Investigative Section Investigative Support SectionThe CID sections work together to prevent and solve crime in cooperation with city, county and federal law enforcement agencies. Multi-jurisdictional violations investigated by CID include terrorism, gang-related organized crime, illegal drug trafficking, motor vehicle theft, public corruption, fraud and counterfeit documents; the Driver License Division is responsible for the issuing and revocation of Texas driver licenses and identification cards.
The Emergency Management Division is responsible for coordinating statewide emergency planning and response. Typical emergencies are weather-related; the DEM is responsible for administering Texas' AMBER Alert network. The Texas Highway Patrol Division is the unit of the department most seen by citizens. Unifor
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, its principal federal law enforcement agency. Operating under the jurisdiction of the United States Department of Justice, the FBI is a member of the U. S. Intelligence Community and reports to both the Attorney General and the Director of National Intelligence. A leading U. S. counter-terrorism, counterintelligence, criminal investigative organization, the FBI has jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crimes. Although many of the FBI's functions are unique, its activities in support of national security are comparable to those of the British MI5 and the Russian FSB. Unlike the Central Intelligence Agency, which has no law enforcement authority and is focused on intelligence collection abroad, the FBI is a domestic agency, maintaining 56 field offices in major cities throughout the United States, more than 400 resident agencies in smaller cities and areas across the nation.
At an FBI field office, a senior-level FBI officer concurrently serves as the representative of the Director of National Intelligence. Despite its domestic focus, the FBI maintains a significant international footprint, operating 60 Legal Attache offices and 15 sub-offices in U. S. consulates across the globe. These foreign offices exist for the purpose of coordination with foreign security services and do not conduct unilateral operations in the host countries; the FBI can and does at times carry out secret activities overseas, just as the CIA has a limited domestic function. The FBI was established in 1908 as the Bureau of the BOI or BI for short, its name was changed to the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1935. The FBI headquarters is the J. Edgar Hoover Building, located in Washington, D. C. In the fiscal year 2016, the Bureau's total budget was $8.7 billion. The FBI's main goal is to protect and defend the United States, to uphold and enforce the criminal laws of the United States, to provide leadership and criminal justice services to federal, state and international agencies and partners.
The FBI's top priorities are: Protect the United States from terrorist attacks Protect the United States against foreign intelligence operations and espionage Protect the United States against cyber-based attacks and high-technology crimes Combat public corruption at all levels Protect civil rights, Combat transnational/national criminal organizations and enterprises Combat major white-collar crime Combat significant violent crime Support federal, state and international partners Upgrade technology to enable, further, the successful performances of its missions as stated above In 1896, the National Bureau of Criminal Identification was founded, which provided agencies across the country with information to identify known criminals. The 1901 assassination of President William McKinley created a perception that America was under threat from anarchists; the Departments of Justice and Labor had been keeping records on anarchists for years, but President Theodore Roosevelt wanted more power to monitor them.
The Justice Department had been tasked with the regulation of interstate commerce since 1887, though it lacked the staff to do so. It had made little effort to relieve its staff shortage until the Oregon land fraud scandal at the turn of the 20th Century. President Roosevelt instructed Attorney General Charles Bonaparte to organize an autonomous investigative service that would report only to the Attorney General. Bonaparte reached out to other agencies, including the U. S. Secret Service, for personnel, investigators in particular. On May 27, 1908, the Congress forbade this use of Treasury employees by the Justice Department, citing fears that the new agency would serve as a secret police department. Again at Roosevelt's urging, Bonaparte moved to organize a formal Bureau of Investigation, which would have its own staff of special agents; the Bureau of Investigation was created on July 26, 1908, after the Congress had adjourned for the summer. Attorney General Bonaparte, using Department of Justice expense funds, hired thirty-four people, including some veterans of the Secret Service, to work for a new investigative agency.
Its first "Chief" was Stanley Finch. Bonaparte notified the Congress of these actions in December 1908; the bureau's first official task was visiting and making surveys of the houses of prostitution in preparation for enforcing the "White Slave Traffic Act," or Mann Act, passed on June 25, 1910. In 1932, the bureau was renamed the United States Bureau of Investigation; the following year it was linked to the Bureau of Prohibition and rechristened the Division of Investigation before becoming an independent service within the Department of Justice in 1935. In the same year, its name was changed from the Division of Investigation to the present-day Federal Bureau of Investigation, or FBI. J. Edgar Hoover served as FBI Director from 1924 to 1972, a combined 48 years with the BOI, DOI, FBI, he was chiefly responsible for creating the Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory, or the FBI Laboratory, which opened in 1932, as part of his work to professionalize investigations by the government. Hoover was involved in most major cases and projects that the FBI handled during his tenure.
But as detailed below, his proved to be a controversial tenure as Bureau Director in its years. After Hoover's death, the Congress passed legislation that limited the tenure of future FBI Directors to ten years. Early homicide investigations of the new age