Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
A metronome, from ancient Greek μέτρον and νέμω, is a device that produces an audible click or other sound at a regular interval that can be set by the user in beats per minute. Musicians use the device to practice playing to a regular pulse. Metronomes include synchronized visual motion. A kind of metronome was among the inventions of Andalusian polymath Abbas ibn Firnas. In 1815, Johann Maelzel patented it as a tool for musicians, under the title "Instrument/Machine for the Improvement of all Musical Performance, called Metronome". Musicians practice with metronomes to improve their timing the ability to stick to a tempo. Metronome practice helps internalize a clear sense of tempo. Composers use a metronome as a standard tempo reference—and may play or sing their work to the metronome to derive beats per minute if they want to indicate that in a composition; when interpreting emotion and other qualities in music, performers play on every beat. Every beat of a musically expressive performance does not align with each click of a metronome.
This has led some musicians to criticize use of a metronome, because metronome time is different from musical time. Some go as far as to suggest that musicians should not use metronomes at all, have leveled criticism at metronome markings as well; the word metronome first appeared in English c. 1815 and is Greek in origin: metron "measure" and nomos "regulating, law". According to Lynn Townsend White, Jr. the Andalusian inventor, Abbas Ibn Firnas, made the earliest attempt at creating a metronome. Galileo Galilei first studied and discovered concepts involving the pendulum in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. In 1696, Etienne Loulié first used an adjustable pendulum to make the first mechanical metronome—however, his design produced no sound, did not have an escapement to keep the pendulum in motion. To get the correct pulse with this kind of visual device, the musician watches the pendulum as if watching a conductor's baton; the more familiar mechanical musical chronometer was invented by Dietrich Nikolaus Winkel in Amsterdam in 1814.
Through questionable practice, Johann Maelzel, incorporating Winkel's ideas, added a scale, called it a metronome and started manufacturing the metronome under his own name in 1816: "Maelzel's Metronome." The original text of Maelzel's patent in England can be downloaded. Ludwig van Beethoven was the first notable composer to indicate specific metronome markings in his music; this was done in 1817. Musicians practice playing to metronomes to develop and maintain a sense of timing and tempo. For example, a musician fighting a tendency to speed up might play a phrase while slowing the BPM setting each time. Pieces that do not require a constant tempo sometimes provide a BPM marking to indicate the general tempo. Tempo is always measured in beats per minute. A metronome's tempo is adjustable from 40 to 208 BPM. Another mark that denotes tempo is M. M. or Mälzel's Metronome. The notation M. M. is followed by a note value and a number that indicates the tempo, as in M. M. ♩ = 60. Specific uses include: Learning to play tempos and beats Practising technique Click tracks that recording musicians use to help audio-engineers synchronize audio tracks To maintain desired cadence in different physiological laboratory based tests Metronome makers mark the speed adjustment for these common tempos: 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 63 66 69 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 100 104 108 112 116 120 126 132 138 144 152 160 168 176 184 192 200 208 A mechanical metronome uses an adjustable weight on the end of an inverted pendulum rod to control tempo.
The weight slides up the pendulum rod to down to increase tempo. The pendulum swings back and forth in tempo, while a mechanism inside the metronome produces a clicking sound with each oscillation. Mechanical metronomes run from a spring-wound clockwork escapement. Most modern metronomes are electronic and use a quartz crystal to maintain accuracy, comparable to those used in wristwatches; the simplest electronic metronomes have buttons to control the tempo. Sophisticated metronomes can produce two or more distinct sounds. Tones can differ in pitch, and/or timbre to demarcate downbeats from other beats, as well as compound and complex time signatures. Many electronic musical keyboards have built-in metronome functions. Software metronomes run either as stand-alone applications on computers and smart phones, or in music sequencing and audio multitrack software packages. In recording studio applications, such as film scoring, a software metronome may provide a click track to synchronize musicians.
Users of iPods and other portable MP3 players can use prerecorded MP3 metronome click tracks, which can use different sounds and samples instead of just the regular metronome beep. Users of smartphones can install a wide range of metronome applications. Either method avoids the need to bring a physical metronome along to lessons or practice sessions; the most famous, most direct, use of the metronome as an instrument is György Ligeti's 1962 composition, Poème Symphonique for 100 metronomes. Two years earlier, Toshi Ichiyanagi wrote Music
Food and Drug Administration
The Food and Drug Administration is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments. The FDA is responsible for protecting and promoting public health through the control and supervision of food safety, tobacco products, dietary supplements and over-the-counter pharmaceutical drugs, biopharmaceuticals, blood transfusions, medical devices, electromagnetic radiation emitting devices, animal foods & feed and veterinary products; as of 2017, 3/4th of the FDA budget is paid by people who consume pharmaceutical products, due to the Prescription Drug User Fee Act. The FDA was empowered by the United States Congress to enforce the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, which serves as the primary focus for the Agency; these include regulating lasers, cellular phones and control of disease on products ranging from certain household pets to sperm donation for assisted reproduction. The FDA is led by the Commissioner of Food and Drugs, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate.
The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of Human Services. Scott Gottlieb, M. D. is the current commissioner, who took over in May 2017. The FDA has its headquarters in Maryland; the agency has 223 field offices and 13 laboratories located throughout the 50 states, the United States Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico. In 2008, the FDA began to post employees to foreign countries, including China, Costa Rica, Chile and the United Kingdom. In recent years, the agency began undertaking a large-scale effort to consolidate its 25 operations in the Washington metropolitan area, moving from its main headquarters in Rockville and several fragmented office buildings to the former site of the Naval Ordnance Laboratory in the White Oak area of Silver Spring, Maryland; the site was renamed from the White Oak Naval Surface Warfare Center to the Federal Research Center at White Oak. The first building, the Life Sciences Laboratory, was dedicated and opened with 104 employees on the campus in December 2003. Only one original building from the naval facility was kept.
All other buildings are new construction. The project is slated to be completed by 2021, assuming future Congressional funding While most of the Centers are located in the Washington, D. C. area as part of the Headquarters divisions, two offices – the Office of Regulatory Affairs and the Office of Criminal Investigations – are field offices with a workforce spread across the country. The Office of Regulatory Affairs is considered the "eyes and ears" of the agency, conducting the vast majority of the FDA's work in the field. Consumer Safety Officers, more called Investigators, are the individuals who inspect production and warehousing facilities, investigate complaints, illnesses, or outbreaks, review documentation in the case of medical devices, biological products, other items where it may be difficult to conduct a physical examination or take a physical sample of the product; the Office of Regulatory Affairs is divided into five regions, which are further divided into 20 districts. Districts are based on the geographic divisions of the federal court system.
Each district comprises a main district office and a number of Resident Posts, which are FDA remote offices that serve a particular geographic area. ORA includes the Agency's network of regulatory laboratories, which analyze any physical samples taken. Though samples are food-related, some laboratories are equipped to analyze drugs and radiation-emitting devices; the Office of Criminal Investigations was established in 1991 to investigate criminal cases. Unlike ORA Investigators, OCI Special Agents are armed, don't focus on technical aspects of the regulated industries. OCI agents pursue and develop cases where individuals and companies have committed criminal actions, such as fraudulent claims, or knowingly and willfully shipping known adulterated goods in interstate commerce. In many cases, OCI pursues cases involving Title 18 violations, in addition to prohibited acts as defined in Chapter III of the FD&C Act. OCI Special Agents come from other criminal investigations backgrounds, work with the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Assistant Attorney General, Interpol.
OCI receives cases from a variety of sources—including ORA, local agencies, the FBI—and works with ORA Investigators to help develop the technical and science-based aspects of a case. OCI is a smaller branch; the FDA works with other federal agencies, including the Department of Agriculture, Drug Enforcement Administration and Border Protection, Consumer Product Safety Commission. Local and state government agencies work with the FDA to provide regulatory inspections and enforcement action; the FDA regulates more than US$2.4 trillion worth of consumer goods, about 25% of consumer expenditures in the United States. This includes $466 billion in food sales, $275 billion in drugs, $60 billion in cosmetics and $18 billion in vitamin supplements. Much of these expenditures are for goods imported into the United States; the FDA's federal budget request for fiscal year 2012 totaled $4.36 billion, while the proposed 2014 budget is $4.7 billion. About $2 billion of this budget is generated by user fees.
Pharmaceutical firms pay th
Popular Electronics is an American magazine published by John August Media, LLC, hosted at TechnicaCuriosa.com. The magazine was started by Ziff-Davis Publishing Company in October 1954 for electronics hobbyists and experimenters, it soon became the "World's Largest-Selling Electronics Magazine". In April 1957 Ziff-Davis reported. Popular Electronics was published until October 1982 when, in November 1982, Ziff-Davis launched a successor magazine, Computers & Electronics. During its last year of publication by Ziff-Davis, Popular Electronics reported an average monthly circulation of 409,344 copies; the title was sold to Gernsback Publications, their Hands-On Electronics magazine was renamed to Popular Electronics in February 1989, published until December 1999. The Popular Electronics trademark was acquired by John August Media, who revived the magazine, the digital edition of, hosted at TechnicaCuriosa.com, along with sister titles, Mechanix Illustrated and Popular Astronomy. A cover story on Popular Electronics could launch a new company.
The most famous issue, January 1975, had the Altair 8800 computer on the cover and ignited the home computer revolution. Paul Allen showed that issue to Bill Gates, they started Microsoft. Radio & Television News was a magazine for professionals and the editors wanted to create a magazine for hobbyists. Ziff-Davis had started Popular Aviation in 1927 and Popular Photography in 1934 but found that Gernsback Publications had the trademark on Popular Electronics, it was used in Radio-Craft from 1943 until 1948. Ziff-Davis started Popular Electronics with the October 1954 issue. Many of the editors and authors worked for both Ziff-Davis magazines. Oliver Read was the editor of both Radio & Television News and Popular Electronics. Read was promoted to Publisher in June 1956. Oliver Perry Ferrell took over as editor of Popular Electronics and William A. Stocklin became editor of Radio & Television News. In Radio & TV News John T. Frye wrote a column on a fictional repair shop where the proprietor, would interact with other technicians and customers.
The reader would learn repair techniques for servicing TVs. In Popular Electronics his column was about two high school boys and Jerry; each month the boys would have an adventure. By 1954 building audio and radio kits was a growing pastime. Heathkit and many others offered kits; the premier cover shows the assembly of a Heathkit A-7B audio amplifier. Popular Electronics would offer projects; the early issues showed these as father and son projects. Most of the early projects used vacuum tubes, as transistors were expensive: the small-signal Raytheon CK722 transistor was US$3.50 in the December 1954 issue, while a typical small-signal vacuum tube was $0.61. Lou Garner wrote the feature story for the first issue, a battery-powered tube radio that could be used on a bicycle, he was given a column called Transistor Topics. Transistors soon cost less than a dollar and transistor projects became common in every issue of Popular Electronics; the column was renamed to Solid State in 1965 and ran under his byline until December 1978.
The July 1962 issue had 112 pages, the editor was Oliver P. Ferrell and the monthly circulation was 400,000; the magazine had a full page of electronics news, called "POP'tronics News Scope." In January 2000 a successor magazine was renamed Poptronics. In the 1960s, Fawcett Publications had Electronics Illustrated; the cover showed a 15-inch black and white TV kit by Conar that cost $135. The feature construction story was a "Radiation Fallout Monitor" for "keeping track of the radiation level in your neighborhood." Other construction projects included an underwater temperature probe. There were regular columns for amateur radio and shortwave listening; these would show a reader with his radio equipment each month. Lou Garner's Transistor Topics covers the new transistorized FM stereo receivers and several readers' circuits. John T. Frye's fictional characters and Jerry, use a PH meter to locate the source of pollution in a river; as Editor, Olivier Ferrell built a stable of authors who contributed interesting construction projects.
These projects established the style of Popular Electronics for years to come. Two of the most prolific authors were Don Lancaster. Daniel Meyer graduated from Southwest Texas State and became an engineer at Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas, he soon started writing hobbyist articles. The first was in Electronics World and latter he had a 2 part cover feature for Radio-Electronics; the March 1963 issue of Popular Electronics featured his ultrasonic listening device on the cover. Don Lancaster graduated from Arizona State University. A 1960s fad was to have colored lights synchronized with music; this psychedelic lighting was made economical by the development of the silicon-controlled rectifier. Don's first published article was "Solid-State 3-Channel Color Organ" in the April 1963 issue of Electronics World, he was paid $150 for the story. The projects in Popular Electronic
A distribution center for a set of products is a warehouse or other specialized building with refrigeration or air conditioning, stocked with products to be redistributed to retailers, to wholesalers, or directly to consumers. A distribution center is a principal part, the order processing element, of the entire order fulfillment process. Distribution centers are thought of as being demand driven. A distribution center can be called a warehouse, a DC, a fulfillment center, a cross-dock facility, a bulk break center, a package handling center; the name by which the distribution center is known is based on the purpose of the operation. For example, a "retail distribution center" distributes goods to retail stores, an "order fulfillment center" distributes goods directly to consumers, a cross-dock facility stores little or no product but distributes goods to other destinations. Distribution centers are the foundation of a supply network, as they allow a single location to stock a vast number of products.
Some organizations operate both retail distribution and direct-to-consumer out of a single facility, sharing space, labor resources, inventory as applicable. A typical retail distribution network operates with centers set up throughout a commercial market, with each center serving a number of stores. Large distribution centers for companies such as Wal-Mart serve 50–125 stores. Suppliers ship truckloads of products to the distribution center, which stores the product until needed by the retail location and ships the proper quantity. Since a large retailer might sell tens of thousands of products from thousands of vendors, it would be impossibly inefficient to ship each product directly from each vendor to each store. Many retailers own and run their own distribution networks, while smaller retailers may outsource this function to dedicated logistics firms that coordinate the distribution of products for a number of companies. A distribution center can be co-located at a logistics center. A large distribution center might receive and ship more than ten thousand truckloads each year, with an individual store receiving from only a couple trucks per week up to 20, 30, or more per week.
Distribution centers range in size from less than 50,000 square feet to the largest approaching 3 million square feet. Goods arrive and are stored in a distribution center in varying types of storage locations and containers suited to the product characteristics and the amount of product to be transported or stored; these types of locations and containers have specific industry-accepted names. Specialized pieces of equipment are used to handle the various types of containers; the following is a list of some of the names and characteristics of common storage containers: Intermodal containers are used for the efficient transportation of goods. Standards specify the volume and dimensions of containers to facilitate efficient handling. Pallets are one of the most used means to store and move product in a distribution center. There are many specialized devices used to handle pallets - see forklift truck, pallet jack, pallet inverter, unit load..... Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems. Pallets are stored on the floor, may be stacked, may be stored in pallet racking.
Gaylords are large single boxes connected or attached to a pallet. Cases and Cartons are boxes containing many items. In distribution centers there is a accepted distinction made between the terms "carton" and "case", although both are boxes. Goods are stored in cartons, while goods are shipped in cases. A stored carton is called a case once it has been pulled for shipment. Totes are reusable containers used to transport goods. Another way to look at a distribution center is to see it as a production or manufacturing operation. Goods arrive in bulk, they are stored until needed and assembled into shipments; the efficient processing of a distribution center can impact the final price of the product delivered to the end user. Efficient processing not only directly impacts the cost of goods through reduced labor, but it indirectly impacts the cost of goods through reduced inventory. Inventory represents an investment with its associated investment interest or inventory carrying cost. Reducing the processing time of order processing can directly reduce the amount of inventory necessary to be stocked in the operation.
The most efficient method of distribution would be to ship a full truckload or railcar directly from the manufacturer to the retailer. The next most efficient method would be to ship a full truckload to a distribution center, unload full pallets of products, load the pallets onto trucks destined for individual stores. Both of these methods can only be used on high-volume items. Most products cannot be delivered in this manner, pallets or individual boxes must be broken down and divided. Once a full pallet must be broken apart, the costs of handling the product can increase quickly. Many distribution centers use large sortation systems with miles of conveyor to move products through the facility and into a truck, they may have automated equipment for de-palletizing and re-palletizing product. Some of the most sophisticated systems can convey product directly into storage racks and convey out of the racks to trucks, all automatically. With a wide variety of product sizes and weights, these systems are designed to handle a specific range of products.
Large, heavy, or light products require varying degrees of manual handling. As the process of ha
A medical device is any device intended to be used for medical purposes. Thus what differentiates. Medical devices benefit patients by helping health care providers diagnose and treat patients and helping patients overcome sickness or disease, improving their quality of life. Significant potential for hazards are inherent when using a device for medical purposes and thus medical devices must be proved safe and effective with reasonable assurance before regulating governments allow marketing of the device in their country; as a general rule, as the associated risk of the device increases the amount of testing required to establish safety and efficacy increases. Further, as associated risk increases the potential benefit to the patient must increase. Discovery of what would be considered a medical device by modern standards dates as far back as c. 7000 BC in Baluchistan where Neolithic dentists used flint-tipped drills and bowstrings. Study of archeology and Roman medical literature indicate that many types of medical devices were in widespread use during the time of ancient Rome.
In the United States it wasn't until the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act in 1938 that medical devices were regulated. In 1976, the Medical Device Amendments to the FD&C Act established medical device regulation and oversight as we know it today in the United States. Medical device regulation in Europe as we know it today came into effect in the 1993 by what is collectively known as the Medical Device Directive. On May 26th, 2017 the Medical Device Regulation replaced the MDD. Medical devices vary in both indications for use. Examples range from simple, low-risk devices such as tongue depressors, medical thermometers, disposable gloves, bedpans to complex, high-risk devices that are implanted and sustain life. One example of high-risk devices are those with Embedded software such as pacemakers, which assist in the conduct of medical testing and prostheses. Items as intricate as housings for cochlear implants are manufactured through the deep drawn and shallow drawn manufacturing processes; the design of medical devices constitutes a major segment of the field of biomedical engineering.
The global medical device market reached $209 billion USD in 2006 and was estimated to be between $220 and $250 billion USD in 2013. The United States controls ~40% of the global market followed by Europe and the rest of the world. Although collectively Europe has a larger share, Japan has the second largest country market share; the largest market shares in Europe belong to Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom. The rest of the world comprises regions like Australia, China and Iran; this article discusses what constitutes a medical device in these different regions and throughout the article these regions will be discussed in order of their global market share. A global definition for medical device is difficult to establish because there are numerous regulatory bodies worldwide overseeing the marketing of medical devices. Although these bodies collaborate and discuss the definition in general, there are subtle differences in wording that prevent a global harmonization of the definition of a medical device, thus the appropriate definition of a medical device depends on the region.
A portion of the definition of a medical device is intended to differentiate between medical devices and drugs, as the regulatory requirements of the two are different. Definitions often recognize In vitro diagnostics as a subclass of medical devices and establish accessories as medical devices. Section 201 of the Federal Food Drug & Cosmetic Act defines a device as an "instrument, implement, contrivance, implant, in vitro reagent, or other similar or related article, including a component part, or accessory which is: recognized in the official National Formulary, or the United States Pharmacopoeia, or any supplement to them Intended for use in the diagnosis of disease or other conditions, or in the cure, treatment, or prevention of disease, in man or other animals, or Intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals, andwhich does not achieve its primary intended purposes through chemical action within or on the body of man or other animals and, not dependent upon being metabolized for the achievement of its primary intended purposes.
The term'device' does not include software functions excluded pursuant to section 520." According to Article 1 of Council Directive 93/42/EEC, ‘medical device’ means any "instrument, appliance, material or other article, whether used alone or in combination, including the software intended by its manufacturer to be used for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes and necessary for its proper application, intended by the manufacturer to be used for human beings for the purpose of: diagnosis, monitoring, treatment or alleviation of disease, monitoring, alleviation of or compensation for an injury or handicap, replacement or modification of the anatomy or of a physiological process, control of conception,and which does not achieve its principal intended action in or on the human body by pharmacological, immunological or metabolic means, but which may be assisted in its function by such means. The New Approach, defined in a European Council Resolution of May 1985, represents an innovative way of technical harmonisation.
It aims to remo
Kona District, Hawaii
Kona is a moku or district on the Big Island of Hawaiʻi in the State of Hawaii. In the current system of administration of Hawaiʻi County, the moku of Kona is divided into North Kona District and South Kona District; the term "Kona" is sometimes used inaccurately to refer to Kailua-Kona. Other towns in Kona include Kealakekua, Holualoa, Hōnaunau and Honalo. In the Hawaiian language, kona means leeward or dry side of the island, as opposed to ko‘olau which means windward or the wet side of the island. In the times of Ancient Hawaiʻi, Kona was the name of the leeward district on each major island. In Hawai‘i, the Pacific anticyclone provides moist prevailing northeasterly winds to the Hawaiian islands, resulting in rain when the winds contact the windward landmass of the islands – the winds subsequently lose their moisture and travel on to the leeward side of the island; when this pattern reverses, it can produce a Kona storm from the west. Kona has cognates with the same meaning in other Polynesian languages.
In Tongan, the equivalent cognate would be tonga. Kona is the home of the world-famous Ironman World Championship Triathlon, held each year in October in Kailua-Kona; the Kealakekua Bay State Historical Park marks the place where Captain James Cook was killed in 1779. Puʻuhonua o Hōnaunau National Historical Park and Honokohau Settlement and Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park are in Kona; the volcanic slopes of Hualālai and Mauna Loa in the Kona district provide an ideal microclimate for growing coffee. Kona coffee is considered one of the premium specialty coffees of the world. In pop culture, the region served as the basis of the Beach Boys' song "Kona Coast" from their 1978 album M. I. U. Album. Kona is the home of one of the main bases of the international Christian mission organization YWAM, the University of the Nations, first founded here. Juvik, Sonia P. 1998, Atlas of Hawaii, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2125-8 Kona Historical Society, 1997, A Guide to Old Kona, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 978-0-8248-2010-7 Kona Historical Society web site Kona Kohala Chamber of Commerce web site North Kona shoreline access map at Hawaiʻi County web site South Kona shoreline access map at Hawaiʻi County web site